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Патент USA US3093515

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June 11, 1963
,1/
.Filed
COATING
K. ‘A.March
CONWAY
MATERIALS
21, 1960
3,093,505
UM w
VE_RMICULITE
L IM
WATER PROOFI NG ?
; 1 In
{- f“
(if,
"Q/JWU
\
PM“ CEMENT
_I
DRY MIXER
‘I
STORAGE
__WATER
WET MIXER
.
'
INVENTOR.’
KELLS
A. CONWAY
BY .'
ATTORNEY
A jib‘,
United States Patent 0
1
iCe
3,093,505
Patented June 11, 1963
1
2
3,093,505
?ake, peel or sluff off even when subjected to moisture,
rain, dryness and variation in temperature.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to
COATING MATERIALS
Kells A. Conway, 3238 Wood Valley Road NW.,
Atlanta, Ga.
Filed Mar. 21, 1960, Ser. No. 16,269
5 Claims. (Cl. 117-104)
provide a coating material which is inexpensive to manu
facture and is quickly and easily applied to vertical sur
faces and is durable when dry or cured.
Another object of the present invention is to provide
This invention relates to coating materials and is more
a coating material which is capable of being applied to
particularly concerned with a coating material for wall
the usual exterior of buildings and the like without the
surfaces and a process of applying the same.
10 usual preconditioning of the walls to receive the material,
In the past, many and varied methods have been em
the coating material being well suited for application to
ployed in an effort to provide the exterior of concrete and
concrete, steel, wood and other usual building materials.
the like with a hard smooth surface relatively impervious
Another object of the present invention is to provide
to moisture. Such methods have included rubbing the
a method of applying the novel coating material of the
concrete surface until relatively smooth and then apply
present invention to a surface of concrete, which method
ing to the rubbed surface a coating of paint containing
results in the quick and easy distribution of a relatively
waterproo?ng resins. Various forms of plaster containing
large amount of the coating material over a relatively
?nely divided silica and other aggregates have been sug
large area without the necessity of employing brushes,
gested. In substantially all instances, for such materials to
trowels or the like.
be applied successfully, the surface receiving the coat 20 Another object of the present invention is to provide
ing must be treated so as to provide a relatively smooth
a method of applying the coating material of the present
exterior. Also, the coatings heretofore employed have
usually been applied by the use of brushes, rollers, trowels
and the like, the consistency of the material preventing its
6.
GA.
application by means of atomizing or spraying devices.
Recently, the combination of vermiculite with Port
invention in a less expensive and more effective manner
25
land cement and a waterproo?ng agent has been sug
than has heretofore been employed, the coating thus re
quiring less labor and time to apply.
Another object of the present invent-ion is to provide
a coating material which is well suited for both interior
and exterior application, the coating being capable of
gested, such as in US. Patent No. 2,377,491, for produc
being applied by an unskilled or semi-skilled laborer and
ing heat-insulating material. Such materials as have here 30 providing a relatively permanent impervious surface.
tofore been developed using cement and vermiculite have
Other and further objects, features and advantages of
been employed previously for interior insulating mate
the present invention will become apparent from the fol
lowing description when taken in conjunction with the
rial and as lightweight concrete blocks. When the prior
art cement-vermiculite material has lbeen employed as an
accompanying drawing which is a schematic ?ow chart of
interior coating, the material was applied with a trowel 35 the process of the present invention.
in much the same manner as the application of plaster.
Referring now in detail to the embodiments chosen
Of course this was a time consuming operation and pre
for the purpose of illustrating the present invention, I
have devised two basic formulations of coating mate
sented few advantages over the use of conventional plaster.
rial for use according to the present invention, one formu
Even if additional water were to be added to the mix
ture suggested by the prior art so as to provide a con 40 lation being suitable for exterior coatings to form the ex
terior surface of concrete and/or metal structures and the
sistency suitable for spraying, the material so modi?ed
other to be used to form interior coatings as a substitute
would not adhere to a vertical surface and hence would
for the plaster normally employed to produce the sur
_ be essentially unsuitable for rapid application to a wall,
face of walls and ceilings within rooms within a building. '
for either an exterior or interior coating.
45
‘Contrary to prior art beliefs and practices, I have de
. vised a coating which is well adapted to being applied to
either rough or smooth surfaces, such as raw concrete
surfaces and metal, without pretreatment to condition the
surfaces for receipt thereof. Also, my coating may be 50
applied quickly, evenly and smoothly by means of spray
guns, atomizers or the like. When applied and after dry
' ing, my coating will withstand years of exposure to the
The exterior coating is produced by an admixture at
ordinary atmospheric temperatures of the ingredients
listed by weight in Table I hereof.
Table I
Percent
White Portland cement
Lime
Vermiculite
. 335
11.9
elements without appreciable deterioration.
6.7
Briefly, the present invention includes the formation 55 Waterproo?ng
.1
of a slurry which includes water, lime, expanded ver
Water ____________________________________ __ 47.7
miculite, waterproo?ng and cement. This slurry is then
fed to a spraying machine and thence onto the surface
Such pigments as may be desired may be employed in
to be coated. The material so applied is sufficiently ?uid
the
above mixture so as to impart a desired color to the
to cover all pits, cracks, crevices and honeycombs in a 60 coating; however, the resulting mixture has such a pleas
concrete surface to provide a uniform texture and yet su?i
ing white color that, in most instances, I have found
ciently adhesive that is does not readily splatter or run
such pigments to be unnecessary.
down the wall. When dry, my material does not readily
When the coating is to be employed on the interior
3,093,505
3
4
Preferably I employ a lime knon in the trade as Ivory
walls and ceiling of a room, Keene's cement is substituted
for white Portland cement. Keene’s cement is a special
form of gypsum containing calcium sulfate and alum.
Fine lime having the following analysis:
Percent
When preparing the ingredients, the ingredients may
CaO
44.0
be mixed in a dry state and stored until ready ‘for use. 5 MgO
29.2
Then the water is mixed therewith. The dry mix preferably contains the ingredients and amounts listed in Table
SiOz
R303
II hereof.
0.2
0.3
S03
Table H
.
Percent
33:? Portland cement
vermiculite
roo?ng
spray gun employing compressed air. Preferably a gun
12.8.2
_,m\___
iuchi
as at; lag-Tex
spray préoducedhby E-Z-ltznWl
a on o
icago is $1.11 a e or sue use.
15 understood that other spray guns of the type wherein the
While it will be understood that I have described above
?gtiglyalnilgzggfgg 51162113313112 fed m a Stream to a let of
{the gia’feged fembodlmems 0; the Prgserithmvterglon’ :Lhe
ggr len ’ ° com-?g’ may 6 Ya” ,Wl 0“
0.5
25.5
When my material is applied, it is sprayed from a.
'"
Q‘ Wate
' om the scopef’f
--
10 Ignition loss
Thus it is seen that in applying my coating the slurry
epartmg
when mixed together is fed in small substantially con
‘3 Pres“? mvennon- _ If‘ Table I_H 20 tinuous increments to a continuous blast of air or other
1131'“? I hiiwe {med the maxlmum and {nmufmm Yana'
inert gas. The air or other inert gas entrains the stream
trons in weight in the amounts of the various ingredients.
of slum-y, de?ecting this slurry at about a right angle so
as to direct the material at relatively high velocity onto
Table 111
the concrete or metal wall.
25
32213;!!!’ llgélrlglllltmi
In the drawing I have illustrated that the vermiculite,
cement, lime and waterproo?ng is mixed in a dry mixer
such as a ball mill or concrete mixer and then stored for
future use, such as in ibags. When the material is to be
was WmtePomand Cement ______________ __
M
ltfg?gtlgggh-gtziz:
1°_3
Water
4.
Lime
19.3
27 0
used, it is mixed with water and fed to a spray sun 10
1015 30 driven by compressed air from the air compressor 11,
5-3
42.3
the (air blegng fed to the spray gun 10 through a tube or
6011 mt
.
The workman 14 holding the gun 10 stands a short
distance from the concrete wall -_15 which is to be sprayed
The vermiculite employed in the above formulas is 35 911% dllgects the Stream 16 of a“ and slurry against the
expanded vermiculite in ?nely divided form.
,
Preferably a vermiculite having a speci?c gravity of
about eight pounds per cubic foot and a particle distribution as follows should be employed:
wa
-
_
_
,
_
_
,
The vermlcullte b‘lmg 'relatwely hghmielght’ .aggregateis
‘f’hlch are gamed Wlth .the slurry and an‘ at hlgh “19°F
tles .tend to penetrate fWlth the slurry, the cracks, crevices
40 and other openings in the concrete wall 15. The smooth
surface of the vermiculite permits a sliding action be
tween particles to take place whereby the slurry sprayed
Percentage Retained
Sieve size
from the gun tends to ?ow evenly without separating over
°11 88°11 “he?
45 thev‘elrlltire?siurface
of 1s_wall
1l§.d
en‘ e surry
appie
Maximum Minimum
g8}
:
1g --------- "6
No.16 (ll90mlcrons)
_
75
m1
-
40
over
the s‘urface 0f
wa u
15 to provide the desired coating, the coating is per
mitted to dry and cure in the ambient air until ?rm and
hard, say for about eight hours.
In order to test the present invention, the exterior
50 columns and beams of a large patio and the interior wall
No. 100 (149 microns) ________________________ __
100
so
of a large room which in the winter was heated on cer
tain days and left unheated during other days and nights
was coated with a mixture produced according to the
. Thus it is seen/that in the preferred embodiment of 55 fggsigltlo?ivlfgtggedigé,“1mm coating material had
the present invention the vermiculite should have a par
ticle size such that the maximum size along its longest
' diameter should be less than 4760 microns.
_
The waterproo
may be selected from many com-
mercially avai a le waterproo?ng agents, such as
num stearate or the like.
,
t
5.66“ 8 came“
Wig: mo?n
umi- 60 vemlrilzulite g
Such waterproo?ng agents,
water
Pounds
141
(omicrom)
""""""""""" ""
'
£2
28
220
known in the trade as “Hydrocide,” “Omicrom,” “Tri
ml'X" 01' “siliwne RE 230” are Suitable,_
The exterior coating was produced by substituting Port
The purpose of using the cement in the formulation 65 land cement for Keene’s cement.
heretofore set forth is to provide color and to provide a
After applying, the coatings were inspected periodically
base or. binder for the remaining ingredients. Thelimeis
for deterioration. At the end of a twenty-four month
I employed to provide elisticifty?ecessary‘for
period, no appreciable deterioration was detected.
{to wriomgsiqgacegwhenspray'edjandalso ‘
To further test the coatings of the present invention,
frrhToo much lime will cause ?aking of the material when 70 a number of concrete slabs were coated with variations
and too little lime would permit the cement tolump
fand. the cement?éuldgnot adhere
in the ingredients listed in Table I and then permitted to
cling to thg‘lsugace
dry and cure for one hundred-?fty hours. The coatings
1. {when sprayed. The mixture with 'too' little'lime would
\' splash and be de?ected from the hard concrete or metal
were then examined by random selection for color, tex
ture, bond strength and hardness. The results of this
surface.
‘
_
75 physical examination are given in Table IV hereof.
‘&
‘
P
I
".1
\
3,093,505
Table IV
Formula No.
1
2
3 .
4
Ingredients Percentage by
Weight:
White Cement, percent-.Lime, percent. . .
Zonolite, percent.
Ornicrom, percen
Water, percent- .
Color ............ ..
Exposure test.
Initial Exam. _
Application ................... _.
Formula No.
(1
Excel._.. Excel....
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Ingredients Percentage by Weight:
White Cement, percent ...... ._
Lime, percent ........ ..
Application ...................... .: Good.... Poor-... EXceL... Good..__
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that many 25 .3% a waterproo?ng agent and the remainder water to
variations may be made in the embodiments chosen
produce a slurry, and spraying said slurry onto said sur
for the purpose of illustrating the present invention with
face to provide a continuous layer.
out departing from the scope thereof as de?ned by the
3. The process de?ned in claim 2 wherein said surface
appended claims.
I claim:
. is a concrete surface.
_
1. Process of coating an exterior surface of a struc
ture comprising the steps of mixing together by weight
30
4. The process de?ned in claim 2 wherein said surface
is a metal surface.
5. The process de?ned in claim 2 wherein the spraying
of said slurry onto said surface includes the steps of di
10.5% to 19.3% lime, from 5.9% to 10.2% expanded
recting said slurry in a stream, entraining said stream
vermiculite, and from 42.3% to 49.1% water to produce 35 in a stream of air, and directing said gas and said slurry
a slurry, feeding the slurry in a stream, directing air onto
onto said surface.
said stream to de?ect the stream of slurry and entrain
the slurry in said air and directing the air and slurry onto
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
said exterior surface.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2. Process of coating a surface comprising the steps 40
of mixing together by weight from 27.0% to 41.0% a
2,377,491
Goodrich et al._/'=
_ June 5, 1945
binder selected from the group consisting of white Port
2,504,805
c1ipson1iii_~_-t1_§_ ____ __ Apr. 18, 1950
land cement and Keene’s cement, from 10.5% to 19.3%
2,602,759
Mollo -..i.l;’l::_L.tI"=.".i;.___ July 8, 1952
lime, from 5.9% to 10.2% expanded vermiculite, up to
2,728,681 Clipson -Jmlmzljlj.-- Dec. 27, 1955
from 27.0% to 41.0% white Portland cement, from
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