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Патент USA US3093592

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June 11, 1963
H. J. COMPTON
3,093,582
GUARD FOR PIPE OUTLET
Filed Aug. 10, 1959
,
INVENTOR.
HENRY J. COMPTON
BY
ATTOR NEH’S
United States Patent
ICC?
3,093,582
GUARD FOR PIPE OUTLET
Henry J. Compton, Casco Township, Allegan County,
Mich. (Rte. 2, South Haven, Mich.)
Filed Aug. 10, 1959, Ser. No. 832,785
2 Claims. (Cl. 210-463)
This invention relates in ‘general to a guard for an open
ing in a pipe and, more particularly, to a type of pipe
Patented June 11, 1963
2
1
.
3,093,582
tremely easy to install in ‘a corrugated, metal outlet pipe
of any conventional type, including the type of pipe hav
ing spiral corrugations.
A further object of this invention has been the provi
sion of a guard, as aforesaid, having ‘a structure which can
be easily adapted to various types and sizes of outlet
pipes and which requires no permanent connections to
the pipe with which it is used.
Other objects and purposes of this invention will be
guard adapted for removable reception into the exposed 10 come apparent to persons familiar with this type of equip
ment upon reading the following speci?cation and examin
ing the accompanying drawings, in which:
It is essential in many rural areas to provide some ?elds,
FIGURE 1 is an end elevational view of a corrugated
upon which crops are raised, with underground drainage
pipe containing a guard embodying the invention.
system for removing excessive amounts of Water. In
end of the outlet pipe for a system of drainage tiles.
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view taken along the line
II-II in FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is a perspective view of the guard shown in
FIGURE v1.
such drainage systems include a plurality of ‘loosely con
FIGURE 4 is a top view of said ‘guard.
nected tiles "arranged in rows spaced approximately four
FIGURE 5 is a perspective view of an alternate guard
rods apart and disposed from 2 to 3 feet below the sur 20
construction embodying the invention.
face of the ground. The end of each row of tiles is usual—
FIGURE 6 is a top view of the alternate guard shown
ly connected to an outlet pipe which opens into a drainage
fact, it is so important in many regions that ?nancial
assistance is granted by governmental agencies for the
purpose of installing such drainage systems. Usually,
in FIGURE 5, as appearing in another type of corrugated
ditch. Obviously, it is essential that the outlet pipe be
pipe.
maintained free of obstructions in order to permit the
FIGURE 7 is a top view of a modi?ed guard structure
free flow of the water into the drainage ditch.
25
shown with, and adapted for, a further type of corrugated
It has been found that small animals, such as musk
pipe.
rats, will crawl into unguarded outlet pipes and till them
For convenience in description, the terms “upper,”
with foreign materials which obstruct the flow of water
“lower,” “front,” “rear” and derivatives thereof will have
from the drainage system. Moreover, a high water level
in the drainage ditch may cause such materials to back
reference to the guard as appearing in FIGURE 1.
up into the drainage system having an unguarded outlet
terms “inner,” “outer,” and derivatives thereof will have
reference to the geometric center of the guard structure
and the pipe associated therewith.
pipe.
In order to overcome this problem, various types of
The
guards have been provided, but such guards have not
General Description
been entirely satisfactory for a variety of reasons. For 35
The
objects
and
purposes of the invention, including
example, many of the existing guards are permanently
those ‘set forth above, have been met by providing an im
secured to the drain pipe and, therefore, require a large
proved guard structu-re for the outlet pipe of a drainage
inventory of different pipe sizes to ?t differing needs.
system. The guard is comprised of a grill and integral
Also, permanent guard structures are dif?cult to clean,
positioning elements secured to said grill and extending
if they become plugged with debris, and they are di?icult
in substantially the same direction away from the plane
to replace or repair Without removing the entire outlet
de?ned by the grill for holding the grill within a drain
pipe, which is usually a major operation.
pipe in a position where said plane is substantially per
Existing types of removable pipe guards are often diffi
pendicular to the lengthwise extent of the pipe. In one
cult to hold in position or are expensive to provide and
costly to maintain and, in many instances, are incapable 45 preferred embodiment of the invention, the guard structure
is produced from a single piece of rod which is appropri
of properly guarding the outlet end of the drain pipe.
a-tely bent to form the grill and the support arms. The
That is, they do not always prevent the entry of the ani
support arms are arranged and shaped so that their free
malls and/ or the foreign materials.
ends will engage the corrugations in a conventional type of
Generally speaking, most of the presently used types of
outlet pipes for drainage systems are corrugated in order 50 corrugated pipe with which said guard is normally used,
thereby preventing accidental displacement or‘ the guard
to provide the necessary rigidity and resistance to radial
lengthwise of the pipe.
collapse. Sometimes these corrugations are in the form
of uniformly spaced constrictions in the pipe and in some
Detailed Construction
instances the corrugations may be in the form of spirals.
The
guard
10
(FIGURES
2 and 3), which has been se
While considering existing guards for this purpose, it 55
lected to illustrate one preferred embodiment of the in
became apparent that ‘an improved type of guard was
vention, is comprised of a grill 11 and a pair of position
clearly needed. It also became evident that such a guard
ing arms '12 and 13 which are preferably integral with
should be sturdy but light in weight, inexpensive to fab
said grill. The guard 10 in intended to be used in asso
ricate, durable under severe weather conditions, inex
ciation with a substantially cylindrical, corrugated pipe
pensive to produce, easy to install, consisting of a struc
‘16 (FIGURE 2), which may be of a conventional type,
ture adaptable to various types of pipe sizes and capable
such as the pipe used at the outlet end of a drainage
ofinsta-llation in both corrugated and smooth bore types
system. More speci?cally, the outlet pipe '15 may be
of pipes.
fabricated from sheet metal and is corrugated for the pur
Accordingly, a primary object of this invention has been
pose of resisting radially inwardly applied forces. The
the provision of a guard for the outlet pipe of a drainage 65 corrugations 17 in the pipe 16 are in the form of double
system, which guard insures the free ?ow of water through
spirals having inwardly extending ridges 18 which sepa~
the outlet pipe without interference from accumulations
rate adjacent convolutions of the spirals. It will be seen,
of foreign materials in the outlet pipe resulting from the
and discussed hereinafter, how the guard structure 10 ,
usual causes.
can be used in a pipe '15 having circular corrugations 20
A further object of this invention has been the provision
and separating ridges 19.
of a guard, as aforesaid, which is inexpensive to manu
The corrugation-s 17 and 20 are reasonably shallow so
facture, which is sturdy in construction, and which is ex
that they do not materially obstruct ‘the free ?ow of water
3,093,582
3
through the drain pipe. As seen in FIGURES 2 and 6,
the scallops 22 and 23 between adjacent ridges '18 and 19,
respectively, are diametrically aligned. That is, the oppo
site ends of any diameter in the pipes '15 and 16 will
engage corresponding parts of the scallops 22 and 23.
The signi?cance of this arrangement of the ridges and
scallops in the cross-sectional contour of the pipes will
4
Usually the arms are equal in length to the combined
axial length of two of the scallops 27.
Operation
The guard 10 is installed in a pipe 16 (FIGURE 2),
which has double spiral corrugations 17, by inserting the
end portions 38 and 39 of the arms 12 and 13, respec
become apparent hereinafter.
tively, into the end of the pipe. As shown in FIGURE 1,
The grill 11 (FIGURES 1 and 4), is comprised in this
the starts of the two spiral corrugations are diametrically
particular embodiment, of three elongated, parallel grill 10 opposite each other just as the end portions 38 and 39 are
elements 30, 31 and 32. The lower ends of elements 30
with respect to the circle 37. Under some circumstances,
‘and 31 and the upper ends of elements 31 and 32 are
the positioning arms 12 and 13 may be sprung outwardly
interconnected by curved connection elements 33 and 34.
away from each other slightly so that the distance be
The grill elements 30, 3.1 and 32 and the connection ele
tween the remote surfaces on the end portions 38 and 39
rnents 33 and 34 ‘are all preferably part of, and formed
is slightly greater than the maximum internal diameter
from, a single rod having a substantially uniform cross 15 of the pipe ‘16. Accordingly, the outer ends‘ of the arms
section throughout its length. However, it will be ap
parent that the connection elements may be separate pieces
12 and 13 are sprung toward each other as they are in
serted into the pipe 16. Such distortion of the arms 12
which are welded or otherwise secured to the ‘grill ele
and 13 may be utilized to increase the gripping effect of
ments. The grill elements and connection elements are
the arms within the pipe. When the end portions 38 and
20
preferably circular in cross section, but may have other
39 have been positioned within the spiral corrugations 17,
cross-sectional shapes if desired. The central axes of the
the guard 10 is fully inserted into the pipe by rotating it
grill elements and connection elements preferably, but
in the direction of the spiral corrugations. This can be
not necessarily, lie substantially within a single plane.
The positioning arms 12 and 13, in this particular em—
bodiment, are preferably integral with the ends 35 and
36 of the grill elements 30 and 32, respectively, which ends
are remote from the connection elements 33 and 34-.
Moreover, said arms 12 and 13 are preferably resiliently
accomplished by manually grasping the center grill ele
ment 31 and twisting it around the axis of the circle 37,
which causes the end portions 38 and 39 to engage the
spiral ridges 18 and thereby draw the guard 10 into the
pipe.
When the grill 11 reaches a point adjacent to the end
?exible and extend substantially perpendicularly from the
of the pipe 16, the ends 35 and 36 of elements 30‘ and
plane de?ned by the grill 11. The grill 11 and arms 12 30 32 will be in such a position or relationship with respect
and 13 may be fabricated from any suitable material in
cluding metal or a plastic material. The ends 35 and 36
of the grill elements 39 and 32 and portion of the outer
surfaces of the connection elements 33 and 34 are prefer- .
ably substantially tangent to a circle indicated by the
broken line 37 in FIGURE 3. Thus, the arms 12 and
13 extend from said grill at points on diametrically op
posite sides of the circle 37.
The outer end portions 38 and 39 of the arms 12 and
13 are bent away from each other, in directions radially
outwardly of said circle 37, a distance approximately
equal to the depth of the scallops in the pipe’15 or 16. As
shown in FIGURE 2, the arms 12 and 13 may be o?'set in
wardly at 42 and v43 ‘adjacent to the grill 11 so that the
adjoining portions, the arms 12 and 13 and grill elements
30 and 32 can be received into the scallops in pipes 15
and 16.
Where the guard 10 is intended for use with a pipe 16
to the corrugations 17 that they will in turn be received
into the starting ends thereof. Thus, by continuing the
rotation of the guard 10, it will be advanced along the
spiral ridges 18 into the pipe 16. Where the connection
elements extend beyond the minimum internal diameter
of the spiral ridges 18, it is necessary for them to be offset
with respect to the ends 35 and 36 of elements 30 and 32
along the axis of the circle 37 so that they will be re
ceived into the corrugations ‘17.
Accordingly, it will be seen that accidental dislodgment
of the guard 10 from within the pipe 16 is positively pre
vented not only by the end portions 38 and 39 on the
positioning arms 12 and '13 but also, under some circum
stances, by the ends 35 and 36 of elements 36 and 32
and by the connection elements 33 and 34.
When it becomes desirable to remove the guard 10
from the pipe 16, such can be effected by rotating the
guard 10 in the direction which is opposite to its rotational
having diametrically aligned scallops 22 the positioning 50 direction during the insertion of the guard. Because of
the fact that the grill 11 can be located any place within
arms 12 ‘and 13 preferably both extend from said grill
11 a distance about equal to the axial length of an even
number, here two, of scallops 22. Thus, as shown in
FIGURE 2, the end portions 38 and 39 on the arms 12
and 13 are received into one scallop or pair of seal
lops and the offset ends 42 and 43 are also re
ceived into a scallop or scallops which, in this em—
bodiment, are not adjoining the ?rst-mentioned scallops.
The distance between the end portions 38 and 39 is pref
erably about equal to the maximum inside diameter of
the pipe 16. The diameter of the circle 37 de?ned by
the outer edges of the grill 411, as stated above, is prefer
ably slightly larger than the minimum inside diameter
of the pipe 16 and somewhat smaller than the maximum
inside diameter of the pipe 16.
Where the guard 10 is designed for a pipe 15, said cir
cle 37 is preferably about equal to the minimum inside
the pipe 16 from one end thereof to the other, it can be
adapted to any length of pipe. By springing the position
ing arms 12 and 13 outwardly or inwardly, the guard 10
can be adapted to pipes which are slightly smaller or
slightly larger than the size for which they have been con
structed, providing only that the maximum inside diameter
of the grill is not less than the diameter of the circle 37.
Additional arms may be secured to the grill 11, if needed,
between the arms 12 and 13.
Alternate Structures
Where is becomes desirable to use the guard structure
of the invention in a pipe which is substantially larger in
diameter than the pipe 16, such may be accomplished by
adding additional grill elements and positioning arms, as
shown in FIGURES 5 and 6. More speci?cally, the alter
nate guard 46 has four grill elements 47 which preferably
diameter of the pipe 15 and the distance between the end
portions 38 and 39 is larger than the minimum internal 70 lie within a single plane and are connected at alternate
‘adjacent ends by the connection elements 48, to form a
diameter of the pipe 15.
grill 49 in substantially the same manner as set forth
Where the guard is designed for use with a pipe 15, the
above with respect to the grill 11. The alternate guard
length of the positioning arms does not have to correspond
to any particular distance along the pipe, but said arms
must be long enough to give proper support of the guard.
46 includes a pair of positioning arms 52 and 53 which
are integral with, and extend substantially perpendicularly
from the plane de?ned by, the grill elements 47. A third
3,093,582
6
:"5
any desired quantity, depending upon the use to which
positioning arm 54 is secured, as by Welding, to the grill
49 at a point intermediate the positioning arms 52 and 53,
the guard will be put. Moreover, the number of position
ing arms used in connection with any guard is not limited
so that it extends in a direction substantially parallel with
the positioning arms ‘52 and 53. In this particular embodi
ment, the positioning arm 54 is secured to one of the con
nection elements 48.
except that at least two arms are required.
Although a particular preferred embodiment of the
invention has been disclosed in detail for illustrative pur
poses, it will be understood that variations or modi?ca~
The outer ends of the positioning arms 52, 53 and 54
tions of such disclosure, which lie within the scope of the
have end portions 56 which curve radially outwardly with
appended claims, are fully contemplated.
respect to the circle 57 (FIGURE 5) de?ned by the outer
What is claimed is:
edges of the grill 49. Where the guard 49' is used in con 10
1. A guard structure for the lengthwise opening in a
junction with a pipe 15 having circular corrugations 20',
circle 57 has a diameter which is not greater than the
corrugated pipe of substantially circular cross-section,
‘minimum internal diameter of the pipe 15, as de?ned by
the circular ridges 19. However, the distance between the
remote surfaces of the end portions 56 of the positioning
arms is preferably equal to or slightly larger than the
maximum inside diameter of the pipe ‘15. Moreover, the
positioning arms 52, 53 and 54, which may be resiliently
comprising:
wall means de?ning the opening in the pipe, said wall
means having a plurality of adjacent, similar and sub
stantially annular recesses communicating with said
opening;
a grill formed from substantially rigid rod means, said
?exible, preferably extend substantially equidistantly from
the grill 49.
The alternate guard 46 is installed by inserting the posi
20
grill having at least three, elongated, spaced and
substantially parallel rod elements substantially dis
posed within the same plane, and at least two arcuate
tioning arms 52, 53 and 54 into the end of the pipe 15
elements disposed substantially within said plane,
and then by pressing ?rmly against the outer surface of the
grill 49, so that the guard 46 is forced into the pipe 15.
each pair of adjacent rod elements being rigidly se
cured at adjacent, corresponding ends thereof to the
opposite ends of one of said arcuate elements, and
said two arcuate elements being located at the op
posite ends of said rod elements, the outer edges of
Due to the resilience of the positioning arms 52, 53 and 54, 25
they will be ?exed inwardly as their end portions 56 pass
over the circular ridges 19.
The engagement between the
end portions 56 and the adjacent circular ridges 19‘ will
prevent accidental dislodgment of the guard 46 from its
desired position within the pipe 15. As in the case of
the guard 18, the alternate guard 46 can be disposed any
place lengthwise of the pipe 15 in which it is used.
If it becomes desirable to use the alternate guard 46
with a pipe, such as the pipe 24, having single spiral cor
rugations 26, then it may become necessary to alter the
length of the positioning arms 52a, 53a and 54a whereby
a modi?ed guard 46a is produced. More speci?cally, by
said two arcuate elements and one end of both of
the two outermost rod elements being substantially
tangent to the periphery of a circle disposed substan
tially within said plane and having substantially the
same diameter as said annular recesses;
\a pair of gripping arms rigidly secured to and extending
away from the two outermost rod elements near the
said one ends thereof in a direction substantially
perpendicular to said plane, said arms being on the
same side of said plane and having end portions ex
tending into said recesses.
shortening some of the positioning arms 52a, 53a, and 54a,
2. The structure of claim 1 wherein said corrugated pipe
the end portions 56a thereof will be located with respect
to the grill 49a so that said end portions will be properly 40 has a spiral corrugation of which said annular recesses are
adjacent revolutions of the spiral; and
disposed between spiral ridges 26 when the grill 49a is
wherein said end portions of said gripping arms are
substantially perpendicular to the lengthwise axis of the
located at different distances from said plane.
pipe 24. The modi?ed guard 46a is installed in a pipe
24 by rotating the guard 46a in substantially the same
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
manner set forth above with respect to the guard 10.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Where performance which meets some but not necessari
ly all ‘of the objects and purposes of this invention will
364,823
Ingold ______________ __ June 14, 1887
be acceptable, any one of the guards 1t}, 46 and 46a may
380,873
Drendul _____________ __ Apr. 10, 1888
be used in conjunction with a smooth bore pipe having
767,471
Barnett ______________ __ Aug. 16, 1904
an inside diameter substantially equal to the diameter of 50 2,136,755
Prince _______________ __ Nov. 15, 1938
the circle 37 or the circle 57. In such case, positioning
2,286,231
Schmitt _____________ __ June 16, 1942
of the guards within the smooth bore pipe is effected by
2,647,636
Rafferty _____________ __ Aug. 4, 1953
springing the positioning arms on the respective guards
2,690,064
Rupe ________________ __ Sept. 28, 1954
so that they press ?rmly against the inner wall surfaces
2,766,889
Rey __________________ __ Oct. 16, 1956
55
of the pipe.
FOREIGN PATENTS
It will also be apparent from the above description that
804,445
France _______________ __ Aug. 3, 1936
grills may be provided with additional grill elements in
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