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Патент USA US3093810

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June 11, 1963
‘
w. J. BONIA
3,093,800
CURRENT REGULATOR WITH REINFORCED FEEDBACK
'
Filed May 26, 1960
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United States Patent 9 " Fee
2
1
lConnected in parallel, with
3,093,800.
signments, to the United States of America as repre
sented by the Secretary of the Navy
further joins a source of low potential‘20, this potential
supplying the power to operate triode 16. Additionally,
, located between the control grid of regulator tube 13
and the plate of triode 16 is a ?rst small reference battery
21, while, located between the junction .of resistors 14 and
'
Filed May 26, 1960, Ser. No. 32,052.
(Cl. 328-267) '
tube 13 I and resistors 14‘
and His a triode 16 having a plate load resistor 17 which
CURRENT REGULATOR WITH REINFORCED
FEEDBACK
Walter J. Bonia, Lincoln, Mass., assignor, by,mesne ase
1 Claim.
3,093,800
Patented June 11, 1963
15 and the control grid of triode .16 is a second small
reference battery22. Also a connection is made between
V
the cathode of .triode 16, the sourceof low potential 20.
The present invention relates to a current regulator and 10.. and the lower terminal of resistor 15 .
more particularly to a current regulator having a rein
In the operation of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1,
tube 13 isv aseries. current regulator tubehaving currentv
forced
feedback.
In the present dayppractice of research and develop
sensing resistor 15 in its cathode. The error voltage
ment, often employing mammoth and complex electronic
systems, there frequently arises-the need for accurate and e
reliable regulation of the current ?owing through all, or
parts, of the system. Many of these prior regulators
consisted of primarily a ballast tube, seriestconnected in
15..
the circuit, or else a voltage divider network made up'of
close tolerance resistors. "As a consequence, these cur;
rent regulators were only moderately accurate and were
relatively slow in responding to ?uctuations of current.
Contrasted with these prior devices, the regulator form
ing the present invention offers a substantial improve
ment in the art. The current regulation furnished by the 25
invention is not only very accurate and reliable, but the
response time to current variations is unusually short.
These features, added to the novel reinforced feedback
aspect of the invention, results in an improved current
acrossresistor15 is ampli?ed by triode 16 and impressed
on the grid of regulator tube 13 to counteract the change
of current in tube 13. Reference batteries 21 and 22 set
the levels of tube .13 and .tube 16 grids, respectively.
Turningnow to the preferred embodiment of the in
vention, illustrated in FIG. 2, there is shown the high
voltage source 11, load 12, regulator tube 13 and cathode
resistor 14, all connected into a series circuit as before.
Forming a series ampli?er are two triodes 16 and 23,
the plate of tube 23 being joined to the cathode of tube
16. Supplying the potential for the ampli?er is a low
voltage source 20 having connected between it and the
cathode of triode 23 an adjustable resistor 24, the grid of
triode 23 being tied to the arm 25 of resistor 24.
Between
the cathode of regulator tube 13 and the control grid of
30 triode 16 there is placed a ?rst reference battery 26,
regulator which is inexpensive to construct and reliable
while a second reference battery 27 is used to join the
cathode of triode 23 and the control grid of regulator
in operation.
An object of the invention is the provision of a current , tube 13. To complete the circuit connections are made
regulator having a novel reinforced feedback.
between the lower end of cathode resistor 14 and the
Another object is the provision of a current regulator 35 junction of triodcs 16 and 23, as well as the plate of triode
which is connected in series with the load.
16 and low voltage source 20.
Still another object is the provision of a current regu
In operation, the preferred embodiment of FIG. 2 func
lator wherein regulation is accomplished by controlling
tions as follows: ?rst let it be noted that the potential of
the conduction of a tube carrying the full load current.
batteries 26 and 27 has been chosen to set the operation
Yet another object is the provision of a current regula 40 of tubes 13 and 16, at a desired level, the positive polarity
tor wherein variations in current apply potentials not only
of battery 27 being used to hold regulator tube 13 near
to a series connected regulator tube, but also to a series
zero bias, while battery 26 places a normally negative
ampli?er controlling operation of the regulator tube.
potential on the grid of tube 16. Should the current
A further object is the provision of ‘a current regula
drawn by load 12 increase then the current through regu
tor which is responsive to the voltage drop across the 45 lator tube 13 and cathode resistor 14 also increases. Due
ca ‘ ode resistor of the regulator tube.
to the voltage drop across resistor 14 the control grid of
Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of
triode 16 becomes more positive, offsetting the negative
this invention will be readily appreciated as the same be
bias of battery 26, resulting in additional current being
comes better understood by reference to the following de
drawn by tube 16 and correspondingly passed by triode
tailed description when considered in connection with the 50 23. As this current through tubes 16 and 23 increases
accompanying drawings wherein:
the plate resistance of the tube 16 decreases, thereby caus
FIG. 1 shows one embodiment of the invention.
ing a larger portion of the low voltage ‘supply 20 to ap
FIG. 2 shows another embodiment of the invention.
pear across triode 23. Under this in?uence the cathode
Referring now to the drawings wherein like reference
of triode 23 becomes more negative with respect to its
numerals designate like or corresponding parts through 55 plate, thereby causing the control grid to regulator tube
out the several views, there is shown in FIG. 1 a high
voltage source 11 which has connected in series with it a
load 12 (in this illustration a magnetron) and a multiple
element current regulator electron tube 13. Forming a
part of the cathode circuit of regulator tube 13» are series 60
connected resistors 14 and 15, the lower extremity of
resistor 15 being connected back to the high voltage source
11. It will be clearly observed from the circuit of FIG. 1
that all of the current drawn by load device 12 is also
carried by regulator tube 13 and resistors 14 and 15 since 65
these elements are all series connected.
13 to become more negative reducing the current passed
by the tube 13. It is obvious that this operation counter
acts the tendency of the current passed by the load to
increase.
As has been alleged previously in the application, the
present current regulator has a reinforced feedback as
pect, and the adjustable resistor 24 accomplishes this func
tion. Resistor 24 is used to set the initial potential on
the grid of tube 13, but it has a more signi?cant function:
the increase of current through triode 16 makes the vgrid
3,093,800
of triode 23 (through its connection to the adjustable ‘
arm 25 of resistance 24) more negative causing a greater
change of voltage across mode 23 than that due to the
action of tube 16 alone. This part of the circuit then be
haves as a constant current device, giving a wider and
more linear variation of voltage across triode 23.
Triodes 16 and 23 form a series ampli?er with tube
23 acting as the plate load of tube 16. The load resist
ance for tube 16 is given by
the scope of the appended claim the invention may be
practiced otherwise than as speci?cally described.
What is claimed is:
A current regulator comprising a load device, a regu
lator tube connected to the load, a cathode resistor con
nected to the regulator tube so as to carry all of the cur~
rent ?owing through the regulator tube and load, a source
of high potential joining the load and the cathode resistor,
?rst and second triodes connected in series, a ?rst refer
ence battery, means connecting said ?rst reference bat
tery between one end of the cathode resistor and the con
where rp and n are associated with tube 23. > Since the
voltage gain of tube 16 is
trol grid of the ?rst triode, means connecting the other
“TD
end of the cathode resistor and the juncture of the ?rst
and second triodes, a source of low potential connected
(2)
15' to the plate of the ?rst triode, an adjustable resistance
connected to the source of low potential and the cathode
of the second triode, means connecting the grid of the
second triode and the sliding arm of the ‘adjustable resist
causes the gain of tube 16 to approach its maximum
ance, a second reference battery, and means connecting
value, ,u. It is clearly apparent, therefore, that with this
high gain of tube 16 relatively minor variations in cur 20 - the second reference battery between the grid of the regu
rent drawn by the load are immediately re?ected in a
lator‘tube and the cathode of the second triode, where
1 + RL
the high value of RI, afforded by the negative feedback
by variations in the current ?owing through the cathode
large counteracting operation by tube 16 to correct for
the variation. The extremely high gain and the simple
direct coupled con?guration of the present device o?ers
resistor causes an opposing potential to be applied to both
the regulator tube and second triode thereby regulating
a novel and effective current regulator with reinforced 25 - the current drawn by the load.
feedback.
'
Obviously many modi?cations and variations of the
present invention are possible in the light of the above
teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
30
1,858,271
2,807,773
Harness et a1 _________ __ May 17, 1932
Lampe ______________ __ Sept. 24, 1957
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