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Патент USA US3093861

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June 18, 1963
H. KUMMERMAN
3,093,851
DEVICE! FOR LOADING AND UNLOADING
SHIPS, AND SIMILAR APPLICATIONS
Filed May 25, 1960
s Sheets-Sheet 1
H61
/9
June 18, 1963
Filed May 25, 1960
He
2
H. KUMMERMAN
DEVICE FOR LOADING AND UNLOADING
SHIPS, AND SIMILAR APPLICATIONS
3,093,851
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
June 18, 1963
Filed May 25, 1960
H. KUMMERMAN
DEVICE FOR LOADING AND UNLOADING
SHIPS, AND SIMILAR APPLICATIONS
3,093,351
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
United States Patent O?ice
3,993,851
Patented June 18, 1963
2
1
objects or machines can be loaded on or unloaded from
the ship. Thus, for example, the ship may be loaded by
causing dockers carrying sacks ?lled with goods to walk
up the ramp, and also by having hand-trucks or power
3,093,851
DEVICE FOR LOADING AND UNLOADING SHIPS,
AND SIMILAR APPLICATIONS
Henri Kummerman, Paris, France, assignor to Interna
tional MacGregor Organization (I.M.G.O.), a body
trucks to move up the ramp.
A ship having an upper deck 5 and two lower decks
6, 7 is shown by way of example. The reference numeral
8 shows very diagrammatically a lift platform for lower
corporate of the Principaute of Monaco
Filed May 23, 1960, Ser. No. 30,939
Claims priority, application France May 25, 1959
7 Claims. (CI. 14-71)
ing the goods placed thereon into the hold, that is, either
10 in the tween-deck 9 or in the hold 10* proper.
The device according to this invention comprises essen
tially a ramp or platform 4 provided adjacent its inner
end with rollers 11 and adjacent substantially its inter
mediate portion with other rollers 12. The free or outer
The present invention relates to improved means or
devices for loading and unloading ships and like applica
tions, of the type comprising a platform used as an access
ramp.
The problems arising notably in connection with the 15 end of the ramp-forming platform may also be provided
with underlying rollers 13 or any other adequate means,
transport of automobiles and coaches on board ships are
such as skids or shoes, permitting its displacement on
well known. As a rule, the automobile vehicles are
the surface of the quay 2. Guideways 14 and 15 are
hoisted from the quay by the derrick masts of the ship
provided for the rollers 11 and 12 respectively. The
which lower them into the holds. Outside the consider
able loss of time by which these operations are attended 20 guideway 14 comprises a ?rst rectilinear portion ab fol~
lowed by or merging into a downward-sloping portion
and the efforts to be made therefor, there is a serious risk
be, and guideway 15 engaged by the rollers 12 comprises
of damaging the vehicles, so that the operators exert a
similarly a ?rst rectilinear portion a’b’ followed by or
constant attention.
merging into a downward sloping portion b'c’. The ends
The present invention relates .to a device adapted to
25 c and c’ of these two guideways are adjacent to the ship’s
avoid these inconveniences.
hull. It will be readily understood that at this place the
The device of this invention is remarkable notably in
hull may be formed with a door or shutter of any suitable
that the aforesaid platform is of the type retractable or
type to permit the lowering of the ramp therethrough and
collapsible inside the ship or the like, and is arranged
the ingress of vehicles or other goods up the ramp for
with a view to project from the hull thereof and to
assume the proper inclination to the horizontal in order 30 loading the ship.
To the ends 0 and c’ correspond on the one hand an
to create ramp of access from the quay or like area on
abutment codacting with the guideway 14 and on the
other hand a safety device co-acting with the guideway
15. This safety device is shown more in details in FIGS.
aforesaid platform is provided with means such as rollers
or the like, displaceable in or on guideways provided to 35 3 and 4. It consists of a limit-switch 17 projecting in
side the guideway 14 and adapted to be actuated by the
this end within the ship ‘or the like.
which the vehicles to be loaded are gathered.
According to another feature of this invention, the
' roller or rollers 12.
According to another feature of this invention, safety
This limit-switch controls the ener
giZing circuit of an electro-motor 18 arranged laterally
means are provided for limiting the movement of the
ramp outside the ship when, at a given moment, the outer 40 of the lift platform 8 ‘and adapted to operate the com
plete assembly through means to be set forth hereafter.
end of this ramp does not rest on the quay or like area.
The motor 18 drives for example an endless chain 19
From the foregoing it is clear that, with the device of
passing over a sprocket or pulley 20 driving in turn an
this invention, the vehicles are driven or otherwise .
other endless chain 21 controlling the movements of the
brought ?rstly on the quay and then directly on board
ramp to ‘and from its extended or operative position.
or inside the ship by means of inclined ramps of the type
This other chain 21 is guided by counter pulleys 22 and
broadly set forth hereinabove. The vehicles may thus
23 and may be provided with known devices for tension
reach a certain story or platform disposed within the
ing the chain 21.
ship hold, whereafter they can be lowered to a lower level
This chain 21 has one link attached to the ramp at 25.
by means of mechanical appliances such as lifts or hoists
Of course, a reducing gear 24 may be associated with
of any type well known in ship construction.
Other features of the invention will appear as the fol
the motor 18.
As shown more in details in FIG. 5, the ramp 4 may
lowing description proceeds with reference to the at
tached drawings forming part of this speci?cation and
illustrating diagrammatically by way of example a typical
be formed with side ?anges 26 carrying the aforesaid
rollers 11 and 12. The transmission chain 19 drives
form ‘of embodiment of the invention. In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic, fragmentary cross
section showing a ship equipped with the device of this
invention and moored alongside a quay;
wheels 27 keyed on a shaft 28, the chains 21 being driven
from these wheels.
For the sake of symmetry and balance, the rollers 11
and 12 are disposed on either side of the ramp.
The ‘above-described assembly may be completed by
to this invention in several positions of operation;
60 the provision of a safety brake 29. Although the above
description refers only to a single ramp device arranged
FIGURE 3 is another detail view;
on one side of the ship, it will be readily understood that
FIGURE 4 shows the operation of the safety device
FIGURE 2 is a detail view showing a ramp according
a similar device may be arranged on the port-side and/ or
.
the starboard side, ‘and also fore and/or aft of the ship.
FIGURE 5 is a section taken upon the line V--V of
On the other hand, it may be noted that although the
65
FIG. 1.
foregoing relates to the application of the device of the
In the form of embodiment of the invention which is
invention to ships only, the same device is also applicable
shown by way of example in the attached drawings a
to any other case Where vehicles or trucks, or simply
ship 1 is moored alongside a quay 2 on which a plurality
goods, are to be transported from one level to another in
of automobiles or coaches 3 to be transported are placed.
buildings,
silos, garages, etc.
70
These vehicles are introduced into the ship by means of
The above-described device operates as follows: Firstly,
and
ramps 4.
_
7
It will be readily understood that any other apparatus,
the ‘operator opens the door or shutter (not shown) giv
3,093,851
4
ing access to the hold and starts the motor 18. Thus,
the motor 18 will drive through the transmission devices
19 and 2t] and the endless chain 21 so that the rollers 11
and 12 are moved along their guideways 14 and 15. The
ramp 4 is ?rst moved to position 4'. At this time, the
roller 12 reaches the point [7' of its travel, and the roller
upper guideway made of a single bearing ?ange the hori
zontal portion of which is substantially longer towards
said opening than that of said lower guideways and the
slope of the inclined portion of said upper guideways be
ing greater than that of said lower guideways, and at
11 is at an intermediate point 11’ between a and b. The
outer end of ramp 4 projects from the hull. As this
movement is continued, the ramp 4 is tilted in the direc
tion of the arrow F1, the roller or rollers 12 moving 10
down the guideway b’c', whereas the rollers 11 roll along
their guideways 14 to and beyond the point b. Then the
least two pairs of roller means provided laterally on said
platform means one pair at the rear end portion of said
platform means for constrainedly rolling in said lower
guideways and the other pair secured intermediate the
rear and front ends of said platform means and substan
tially o?set towards the top face thereof with respect
to the ?rst-named pair for temporary unilateral engage
ment with said upper guideways during part of the motion
ramp 4 is in' position 4” wherein the rollers 11" are at
point b, and rollers ‘12" at point c’. If the outer end
of said plat-form means.
of ramp 4 engages the quay 2 as illustrated in FIG. 2, 15
2. A device according to claim lwherein a part of each
it will be readily understood that the intermediate rollers
12 will exert a zero or substantially zero pressure on the
of said horizontal portions of said upperguideways is
formed by the top face of the upper bearing ?ange of the
guideway 15 so that the limit-switch will not be operated.
horizontal portion of the underlying lower guideway.
However, if this outward movement continues it causes
3. A device according to claim 1 wherein abutment
the ramp to move to the position shown at 4"’ in FIG. 20 means are provided substantially near the lower ends of
2. The aforesaid abutment will thus stop the rollers 11.
The loading or unloading operation may be commenced
immediately.
the outward extension of said platform means while al
lowing a vertical pivoting thereof about the abutment
‘ If for any reason the ramp 4, at the end of its outward
means to accommodate variations of the di?erence of
tracted to a certain extent insu?icient however to permit
the loading. The operator will be advised of these con
roller means provided on the front end of said platform
means for rolling engagement with said lower level.
ditions by the stoppage of the motor 18, and may take
the necessary step to cope with this situation, for exam
5. A device according to claim 1 wherein said control
means comprise a motor positioned within said space and
the inclined portions of said lower guideways for limiting
movement, did not engage the quay (for example if the 25 level.
quay were too low with respect to the ‘ship, see FIG. 3)
4. A device according to claim 1 comprising safety
the ramp will be overhanging ‘and supported by the rollers
means at the lowerend of :the inclined portion of one of
said upper guideways for stopping the movement to pre
11 and 12, and it is evident that the rollers 12 will exert
vent undue tilting of said platform means when the front
a pressure upon the limit-switch 16 and thus stop the
motor 18. Under these conditions, the ramp will be ex 30 end thereof cannot reach said lower level, and further
ple by disposing a few pieces of timber on the quay. The 35 laterally of said platform means, endless ?exible means
driven by said motor and connecting means between said
ramp may be retracted by reversing the motor 18 in or
?exible means and said platform means.
.
der to restore the assembly in the conditions shown in
FIG. 2 at 4.
'
'
6. A device ‘for loading and unloading an enclosed space
and operating between an upper level of said space and a
Although the present invention has been described in
conjunction with a preferred embodiment, it is to be 40 lower level outside thereof, comprising an opening pro
vided at said upper level in a side wall of said space, a
understood that the modi?cations and variations may be
movable platform means movable between operative and
resorted to without departing from the spirit and scope
inoperative positions and constituting an inclinable ramp
of the invention, as those skilled in the art will readily
understand. Such modi?cations ‘and variations are con 45 to interconnect both of said levels in its operative position,
control means including a prime mover for selectively re
sidered to be within the purview and scope of the inven
tracting said platform means to its inoperative position
tion and appended claims.
through said opening inside said space and extending it
What I claim is:
outside
thereof in its operative position, two trackways lo
1. In an enclosed space including a bottom ?oor and an
cated in registering relationship as mirror images inside
opening provided in a side wall limiting said space, a de
said space to support and guide said platform means
vice for loading and unloading said ?oor and operating
laterally along both of its opposite sides and constituted
‘between vsubstantially the level of said ?oor and a lower
each by a substantially straight horizontal portion lo
level outside thereof, comprising a sliding platform means
cated near the top of said space to support said platform
movable between operative and inoperative positions and
forming an inclinable ramp to interconect both of said 55 means in its retracted position inside said space and by a
downward inclined portion following said horizontal por
levels in its operative position, control means within said
tion toward said opening and ending in the vicinity of
space and arranged laterally of said platform means for
said opening and of said upper level to guidingly sup
selectively retracting said platform means to its inopera
port said platform means during its tilting and outward
tive position through said opening inside said space and
projecting motion, each of said trackways being made
extending it outside thereof in its operative position, a
throughout of a lower guideway consisting of two super
pair of opposed trackways located in registering relation
posed spaced bearing ?anges running parallel to each
ship as mirrorr images inside said space to support and
other to form a channel-like track therebetween and‘ of an
guide said platform means laterally along both of its
upper guideway made of a single bearing ?ange formed
operative sides and constituted. each by a substantially
straight horizontal portion located overhead near the top 65 on a part of its horizontal portion by the top face of the
upper bearing ?ange of said lower guideway, said straight
level of said opening to support said platform means in
its retracted position inside said space and by a downward
horizontal portions of said upper glideways being sub~ '
stantially longer than that of said lower guideways, so
inclined portion adjacent and following endwise said hori
that the slope of inclined portions of said upper guideways
zontal portion and sloping towards said opening to end
in the vicinity of said opening and of said ?oor to guid 70 is greater than that of said lower guideways, at least two
pairs of roller means provided laterally on said platform
ingly support said platform means during its tilting and
means, one pair at the rear end portion of said platform
outward projecting "motion, each of said trackways being
means for constrainedly rolling in said lower guideways
made throughout of a lower guideway consisting of two
and the other pair secured intermediate the rear and front
superposed spaced bearing ?anges running parallel to each
other to form a channel-like track therebetween and of an 75 ends of said platform means substantially offset towards
the top face thereof withrespect to-the ?rst-namedpair‘for
3,093,851
temporary unilateral engagement with said upper guide
ways during part of the motion of said platform means,
and safety means including a concave recess at the lower
end of said inclined portion of each of said upper guide
ways to receive that said pair of roller means which are
located intermediate said platform means when the front
end thereof does not rest on said lower level, and switch
means located about at least one of said recesses and
adapted to cooperate with said last-named pair of roller
means to switch off the prime mover of said control
sisting of an electric motor, of an endless sprocket chain
transmission actuated by said motor and of connecting
means between said transmission and said platform means,
said switch means being located in at least ‘one of said
recesses and protruding upward therefrom to be acted
upon by said last-named pair of roller means for switching
off said motor, and an electric circuit for energizing said
motor and controlled by said switch means.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNlTED STATES PATENTS
means
7. A device according to claim 6 comprising abutment
means provided substantially near the lower end of the
inclined portion of said lower g'uideways for limiting the
outward extension of said platform means while allow
ing a certain vertical pivoting thereof to accommodate
variations of the diilerence of level, ‘further roller means
provided on the front end of said platform means for roll
ing and resting on a lower level, power driving means con
2,904,802
Hartman ____________ __ Sept. 22, 1959
FOREIGN PATENTS
185,821
43,576
808,782
‘465,004
Great Britain _________ __. Sept. 8,
France _____________ __ Apr. 23,
France _____________ __ Nov, 24,
Great Britain ________ __ Apr. 29,
1922
v1934
1936
1937
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