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Патент USA US3093872

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June 18, 1963
Filed May 24, 1961
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
United States Patent .0 i ice
George Gerard, Yonkers, and Jacob Brayrnan, Staten
Island, N.Y., assignors to Barogenics, Inc., a corpora
Patented June 18, 1963
anvils carry current to the workpiece and others conduct
it away from the workpiece.
In addition, each of the primary anvil members may
be made in two portions, an inner portion contacting the
corresponding secondary anvil member or the workpiece
and an outer portion exposed to the hydrostatic ?uid sur
rounding the cage and anvil assembly and the mating sur
faces of the two portions may be termed so that they
normally engage only at a central area, but under pressure
This invention relates to high pressure hydrostatic de
the entire areas of the mating surfaces come into contact
vices and, more particularly, to a new and improved ap
as the outer portion of the anvil is de?ected. This ar
paratus for applying extreme pressures which is char
rangement permits relative rotative motion between the
acterized by its compactness and ef?ciency of operation.
anvil portion and the anvil cage without disturbing
This application is a continuation-in-part of our co~
the relation between the inner anvil portion and the sec
pending application for “Super-High Pressure Apparatus,”
anvil or the workpiece.
Serial No. 785,690, ?led January 8, 1959 and now Patent 15 ondary
Further objects and advantages of the invention will
tion of New York
Filed May 24, 1961, Ser. No. 112,265
19 Claims. (Cl. 18-165)
be apparent from a reading of the following description
in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a plan view, partly in section, taken along
the line 1--1 of FIG. 2 illustrating a representative hy
drostatic apparatus according to the invention;
In our above-mentioned copending application an ap
paratus for applying extreme pressures to an object or
workpiece is described which comprises an assembly of
wedge~shaped pressure-multiplying anvil members form
ing a central cavity in which the workpiece is placed. The
FIG. 2 is a view of the apparatus in longitudinal section
anvil assembly is positioned within a housing and sur~
taken along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1 and looking in the
rounded by a resilient pressure-transmitting medium and
direction of the arrows;
the apparatus includes an arrangement for applying con—
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an inner cage arranged
ventional high pressures to the exterior of the pressure
according to the invention which has been broken apart
transmitting medium. This apparatus occupies consider
for convenience of explanation;
able volutme and has substantial weight in relation to the
volume of the workpiece and the pressure applied there
to. In addition, loading and unloading of the workpiece
FIG. 4 is a view in longitudinal section of another form
of hydrostatic apparatus arranged according to the inven
tion taken along the line 4-——4- of FIG. 5 and looking in
from the apparatus requires complete disassembly of 30
the direction of the arrows; and
the apparatus.
‘ FIG. 5 is a view in transverse section of the apparatus
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention
to provide a hydrostatic pressure apparatus which over
comes the aboveancntioned disadvantages of the former
shown in FIG. 4 taken along the line 5-—5 thereof and
looking in the direction of the arrows.
In the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGS. 1
and 2 the hydrostatic apparatus comprises a pressure
Another object of the present invention is to provide a
new and improved hydrostatic pressure apparatus which
is compact and relatively simple to load and unload.
These and other objects of the present invention are
accomplished by providing an anvil support cage arranged
to receive and individually support, in operative relation,
a plurality of anvil members and permit relative motion
tight housing 10 consisting of a tubular shell 11, an
upper head 12, and a lower head 13, the upper and lower
thereof from a retracted position to a pressure-trans
tween. In addition, after the upper head 12 is in posi
heads being removably mounted in the shell 11 by
bayonet-type connections indicated at 14 and 15 respec
tively. When each head is mounted in the shell, a lock
ing pin 16 is inserted in aligned openings in the head
and shell to prevent relative rotative motion therebe
mitting position. To this end, the cage is provided with 45 tion, a top plate 17 is placed across the top of the shell
openings having tapered seats to receive tapered sections
11 and the head 12 is pulled up tight against the mating
of the anvil members and sealing means is provided at
portion of the shell by tightening two bolts 18 and 19
these openings so that the exterior of the cage and anvil
which are a?ixed to the head and extend through the top
assembly is effectively sealed from the interior thereof,
the cage and anvil assembly being disposed inside a pres 50 plate.
Each of the heads 12 and 13 is provided with a gasket
sure-tight vessel. If desired, yieldable retracting means
ring 20 which is held in place by a retaining ring 21
may be provided between each anvil member and the
so as to form a pressure-tight seal between the corre
support cage to retain the anvil members in a normally
sponding head and the shell 11. Also two high pressure
retracted position but which will permit motion of the
?uid conduits 22, 23 and 24, 25 pass through each of
anvil members to a pressure-transmitting position when 55 the heads 12 and. 13, respectively, to admit hydraulic
pressure is applied to the exterior of the cage and anvil
?uid under pressure to the interior of the pressure hous
ing 10.
In one embodiment of the invention, an inner cage
It will be understood that any alternate form of pres
assembly including a second plurality of secondary anvil
sure-tight housing may be used with the invention, such
members surrounding and transmitting pressure to the 60 as the housing described in our copending application
workpiece is located within the anvil cage and slidably
Serial No. 833,420, ?led August 13, 1959, and now Pat
removable therefrom upon withdrawal of one of the pri
ent 3,063,594 for example, and that the housing may
mary anvil members. Furthermore, the inner cage is pref
have any desired shape in accordance with the partic
erably constructed so that an electrical current can be
ular con?guration of the enclosed cage and anvil assem
applied to the workpiece by passing it through the sec~ 65 bly, which is described hereinafter.
ondary anvils and, for this purpose, the inner cage is made
In accordance with the present invention, an anvil sup
of inner and outer conductive portions which are sep
porting and inter—anvil sealing member in the form of
arated by an insulative layer and connected to opposite
a cage 26 is placed within the enclosure, the cage being
terminals of a source of current.
Certain of the sec
supported on the horizontal surface 27 formed in the
ondary anvil-receiving apertures in this cage are insulated 70 top of the lower housing head 13. This cage is provided
along their boundary with the inner cage portion and the
with a plurality of tapered openings 28 ‘leading from its
rest of the apertures are insulated along their boundary
exterior surface to an internal cavity 29 and within these
with the outer cage portion so that some of the secondary
openings are disposed a plurality of tapered primary anvil
assemblies. 30a, 30b, 30c, 30d, 30c, and 30]‘. Although
the embodiment ‘of the invention illustrated in FIGS.
1 and 2 utilizes a cubic cage and anvil con?guration with
six anvil assemblies. supported in the cage for motion
along three orthogonal axes intersecting at the center
of the cavity 29, it will be readily apparent that other
cage and‘ anvil con?gurations, such as tetrahedral, octa
hedral, delta, etc. may be provided according to the
shape of the workpiece.
Inasmuch as the pressure to which each anvil assembly
is subjected during operation of the apparatus is substan
tially greater at the inner surface, adjacent to the cavity
29, than it is at the outer surface, the anvil assembly
is preferably composed of outer and inner portions sepa
rated along a surface transverse to the direction of mo
carries a ring 49 at its lower end, the ring being held
captive in a recess ‘50 in the anvil by a retainer 51-.
In this case, motion |of the anvil away from the head
12 is limited by the ring 49 so that this anvil can be
withdrawn from the cage 26 as the head 12 is removed.
Within the cavity 29 is- a cylindrical inner cage assem
bly 52 which is removably bolted to and centered in
the outer cage by a retaining plate '53. This cagev is
shaped to provide an anvil con?guration similar to that
of the cage 26 and, in the present example, six ortho~
gonal bores 54 cut into the ends and sides of the cage
assembly 52 receive corresponding secondary anvils 55,
each of these anvils being aligned with a correspond
‘ ing one of the primary anvils 30a, 30b, etc.
Each of the secondary anvils 55 consists of a central
cylindrical core 56 of hard material, such as tungsten
tion, the inner portion ‘being made of a very hard mate
carbide and ‘a sleeve 57 shrunk around it. The outside
rial such as tungsten carbide. As an example, the lower
diameter. of the sleeve 57 is accurately ?tted to the bore
anvil 30a shown in FIG. 2 consists of an outer portion
54 and, if desired, the bore and sleeve may include a
30a’ and an inner portion 30a" shaped with mating sur
keying arrangement (not shown) to prevent rotation of
faces 31 and 32, respectively. The outer portion has
the secondary anvil in its cage. Moreover, the sleeve
a. cylindrical end 33 provided with a sealing ring 34
57 is slightly shorter than the core 56 at the outer end
which ?ts within a corresponding bore 35 in the cage
so that only the core abuts the adjacent primary anvil
36to provide a pressure-tight seal between the cage and
the anvil assembly, and the inner anvil portion 30a” is 25 and the entire force is applied through the core. Also,
the portions of each of the inner ends of the anvils 55
retained in position at the inner end of the portion 30a’
which are adjacent to the other secondary anvils are
by a pluralityof inwardly extending plates 36 which are
beveled so that a closed cavity is formed by the inner
a?ixed to the outer portion. If desired‘, certain of these
ends of. all the secondary anvils, a small gap being left
plates may be provided with springs 37 which bear against
seats 38 formediin the adjacent portion of the cage 26. 30 between the adjacent portions of these anvils when they
are in the retracted position to allow for inward motion
These springs have suf?cient strength to restore the anvil
thereof. Because of this beveling the area of- the inner
assembly to a retracted position after the pressure has
end of each anvil is made smaller than the area of the
been ‘removed from its outer surface, but they are not
outer end which is in contact with the corresponding
strong enough to- restrict inward motion of the anvils
primary anvil, thereby providing a pressure multiplication
when pressure is applied thereto.
35 additional to that of the primary anvil.
Preferably, the anvil assembly is designed to permit
A workpiece 58v to which extreme pressure is to be
relative rotationv of the outer anvil portion 30a’ with
applied is placed within the cavity formed by the inner
respect to the innerportion of the anvil 30a" sothat
ends of the anvils 55 and substantially ?lls the cavity
rotation of the outer: portion during compression will
not disturb the inner portion. To'this end, the surface 40 when the primary and secondary anvils are retracted.
Preferably, as‘described in our above-mentioned copend
31 is shaped so that when no pressure is applied to the
ing application, Serial No. 785,690, the workpiece con-.
anvil it engages the surface 32» only‘ in the. central area
sists of an object embedded in a body of pressure-trans,
and is slightly spaced therefrom in the outer areas, as
mitting material such as a pyrophylite and, in the present
indicated by the dotted‘ line 31'. When full pressure
embodiment of the invention, this body is in the shape of
is applied, however, and- the anvil is under maximum
compression, the outer anvil. portion de?ects sightly so 45 a cube. The pyrophylite material is normally rigid but
has the property of becoming slightly viscous under ex
that the entire areas of the surfaces31 and‘ 32 are in
treme pressures, so that the forces applied by. the anvils
contact as illustrated in solid lines in FIGS. 1 and 2.
are transmitted uniformly throughout the body 58, but
In all of the above respects, each of the other anvil
material. is only slightly extruded out‘ of the cavity
assemblies 30b, 30c, 30d, 'etc. is identical to the anvil
50 through the spaces between the anvils as it is compressed,
assembly. 30a.
thus ‘forming a gasket.
In the. illustrated embodiment. of the invention the
In order to supply current to heat the workpiece while
location of each anvil assembly in its direction of motion
pressure is applied thereto, a plurality of insulated elec-.
prior to application of pressure can. be adjusted by an
trical conductors 59,, only one of which is shown in FIG.
anvil positioning arrangement. For the lower anvil as’
sembly 30a, this arrangement'comprises a plate 40 affixed 55 2, pass in through the lower head 12 and through the
to the outer anvil portion and a pin 41 which abuts the
plate 40 and is threaded intoa hole 42 in the'lower head
13 to provide a stop .for the anvil. By. rotating the pin
41 to raisev or lower it the outermostpositionof the anvil
30 can be varied. Each of the anvils disposed around
the sides of the, cage 26 is adjustably positioned by. an
arrangement of the type shown in FIG. 2 in connection
with the, anvil 30b wherein a bolt 43 is threaded into a
walls of the cage 26 to the intersection 60~of~ the bottom
and side walls of the cavity 29. ‘In addition, the tempera
ture of the workpiece is detected by a thermocouple con
nected to a cable which passes through the inner cage 52
in a similar manner.
The construction of the inner cage 52 will. be best
understood from an examination of FIG. 3 which, for
purposes of clarity, illustrates the cage as being split
open on a vertical plane, although, in fact, the cage com
cross shaft. 44.which spans the adjacent cage opening
and is af?xed at opposite ends to the cage .26. The bolt 65 prises a single unit consisting of an inner sleeve 62 and
an outer sleeve ‘63 with an insulative layer 64 between
43 has an enlarged head 45' received within a recess 46.
them. At its lower end the cage has a split ring arrange
in the anvil and a retaining ring 47 prevents the head
ment including an outer ring 65 in electrical contact
from being withdrawn from the recess. By turning the
with the outer sleeve, 63 and an inner ring 66 in contact
bolt 43 the outermost position, of the anvil 30bv in the
cage opening can be adjusted. Inaddition, the bolt. 43 70 with the, inner sleeve 62, along with a layer of insulation.
67 between the two rings. The lower portion of one
can be used to retract the anvil assembly manually, if;
half of the outer ring 65 is cut away and the inner ring
desired, when the cage 26 is removed from the hous
is extended outwardly in this area, as indicated at 6-7,
ing. The top anvil assembly 300 is linked to the upper
so that it can make contact with some of the electrical
head '12 by a pin 48 which is al?xed to the head andv
75 conductors 59 at the intersection 60 when the cage is
inserted in the apparatus, the remainder of the electrical
conductors being in contact with the outer ring 65 along
its full thickness portion.
Three of the four bores 54 which pass through the
sides of the cage 52 are coated with an insulating layer
69 only along the inner sleeve portions of the bores and
the other bore passing through the side of the cage is
provided with an insulating layer 70 only along the outer
sleeve portion of the bore. Inasmuch as the bores passing
enclosure in the same manner as in the apparatus of
FIGS. 1 and 2.
Within the housing enclosure is an integral anvil sup
port and sealing cage 75 in the shape of an elongated
body having two end portions 76 and 77 (FIG. 4) and
two side portions 78 and 79 (FIG. 5), the latter being in
the form of ?xed tapered anvil members. If necessary,
the tips 80 and 81 of the ?xed anvils 78 and 79‘ may be
made ‘of a hard material such as tungsten carbide, and
through the end walls of the cage do not intersect the 10 the apices of these tips are space-d by a distance equal
to the width of an elongated thin workpiece 82 so that
outer sleeve, they do not require any insulating layer.
they provide lateral support for the workpiece or the die
Consequently, current ?ows from some of the conduc
during forging. In two tapered openings 83 and 84 in the
tors 59 through the outer ring 65, the outer sleeve 63
top and bottom of the cage 75 there are disposed mov
and three of the secondary anvils 55 into the workpiece,
these anvils being made of electrically conductive mate 15 able anvil members 85 and '86, respectively, and these an
vils carry at their inner ends ‘dies ‘87 and 88 which are
rial. From the work piece, which includes the usual
resistive heating element (not shown), the other three
formed with the negative impression of the pattern which
is to be impressed into the surfaces of the workpiece 82.
anvils conduct current to the inner sleeve 62 and the
As illustrated in FIG. 5, retracting devices, such as springs
inner ring 66 from which it is carried out by the rest of
20 89, are inserted between the upper anvil 85 and the cage
the conductors 59.
to retain this anvil in a retracted position when it is not
In operation, the apparatus of FIGS. 1 and 2 is loaded
under pressure.
with a workpiece by removing the top plate 17 and the
The entire anvil and cage assembly is supported on a
upper head '12 which brings with it the upper anvil 300.
bottom plate 90' provided with an adjusting bolt 91 to
The top secondary anvil 55 is then withdrawn from the
inner cage '52 and the workpiece 58 inserted into the 25 limit the downward motion of the lower anvil in the man
ner described previously with the respect to the appa
cavity. After this the secondary anvil 55, the primary
ratus shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. Moreover, as shown in
anvil ‘30c, the head 12, and the top plate 17 are replaced
FIG. 4, the cage 75 is attached to the head '73 by bolts
and the bolts 18 and 19 are tightened to draw the head
92 so that the cage and anvil assembly can be withdrawn
12 up tight against the mating portion of the shell 11.
when that head is removed from the shell 71. A?ixed to
If desired, the entire cage 26 may be withdrawn from
the head 72 at the other end of the shell, as by threads,
the enclosure to adjust the locations of the side anvils
is a gasketed sealing plug which fits into a correspond
with the bolts 43.
ing hole in the end of the cage 75. This plug is remov
Current is applied through the conductors 59 until
able with the head 72 to provide access to the interior of
the workpiece temperature, as indicated by the thermo
couple attached to the cable 61, has reached the desired 35 the cage and anvil assembly. Also, a ?uid pressure con
duit 94 leads into the interior of the housing through this
value. In order to compress the workpiece a liquid, such
as oil, is directed into the enclosure through the conduits
In order to seal the interior of the cage 75 from the
24 and 25 until it surrounds the cage and anvil assembly,
?uid supplied through the conduit 94 sealing means is
air being withdrawn through the conduits 22 and 23'.
When the enclosure has been ?lled with the liquid, high 40 provided at each of the tapered openings 83 and 84. In
the present example the sealing means comprises a ?exible
pressure is applied through all the conduits and through
diaphragm 95 covering each ‘opening which is made of
the liquid to the outer surfaces of all the anvils 30a, 30b,
rubber or the ‘like and held in sealing relation to the cage
etc., the sealing rings 34 being effective to prevent any
75 by a rectangular frame member 96‘ mounted about
liquid from seeping into the interior of the cage 26.
As the primary anvils are driven inwardly in the open 45 the opening. Alternatively, if desired, each anvil may
be provided with a gasket in the manner described above
ings 35 they force the secondary anvils 55 inward-1y
with respect to FIGS. 1 and 2. Consequently, pressure
against the workpiece, transmitting a pressure to the sec
from the ?uid in the enclosure can be transmitted to the
ondary anvils which is equal to the pressure of the liquid
outer surfaces of the anvils 8'5 and 86 but no fluid can
multiplied by the ratio of the outside primary anvil area
to the primary anvil area in contact with the rear surface 50 leak into the interior of the cage.
In operation, the apparatus shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 is
of the secondary anvil. In an apparatus similar to that
opened by removing the end head 72 and with it the
of FIGS. 1 and 2 this multiplication factor is about 90.
sealing plug 913‘. The workpiece 82 is then inserted into
The secondary anvils, in turn, apply to the workpiece 58
the space between the anvils 85 and 86 and the apparatus
a pressure which is increased by the ratio of its rear sur
face area to the area in contact with the workpiece and 55 is reassembled. If desired, the entire cage and anvil as
sembly may be removed by withdrawing the head 73.
this factor is about 1.8 in the present instance, so that the
Fluid under high pressure is introduced through the con
total multiplication factor provided by the two anvils is
duit 94 so that acting through the diaphragrns 95, it
about 160. As the workpiece is compressed both sets of
forces the anvils 85 and 86 inwardly against the work
anvils move inwardly in the cage and anvil assembly.
After the hydrostatic pressure has been released the 60 piece to impress the die pattern on the surfaces thereof,
the pressure on the workpiece being equal to the ?uid
springs 37 restore the primary anvils to their normal re
pressure multiplied by the ratio of the outer and inner
tracted position and the workpiece can be removed by
surface areas of the anvils. During this process the side
withdrawing the upper head of the enclosure in the man
portions 78 and 79‘ of the cage provide lateral support
ner described above.
65 for the workpiece to prevent it from being extruded out of
In certain cases it may be necessary to subject an
the space between the dies 87 and ‘88, or for the lateral
elongated thin object to extreme pressures of the type
surfaces of the die proper.
produced in accordance with the present invention, as,
‘In addition to the advantages of compactness and
for example, in forging a rib pattern on the surface of a
of operation previously mentioned, it will
thin plate. To accomplish this the embodiment of the 70 be apparent that
the apparatus of FIGS. 4 and 5 permits
present invention shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 may be uti
forging under extreme pressures without the problems
lized. This embodiment comprises a horizontally disposed
resulting from platen de?ection usually encountered in
housing consisting of a tubular shell 71 having closure
conventional presses. Moreover, because the anvils and
heads 72 and 73 mounted therein by bayonet arrange
dies are uniformly loaded on their entire area, the dies
ments and having sealing rings 74 to form a pressure-tight 75
will: remain ?at throughout the forging process, and the
forged piece will have uniform thickness throughout,
Consequently long, narrow plates can be forged to very
close tolerances.
Although the invention has been described herein with
reference to specific embodiments many modi?cations and
variations therein will readily occur to those skilled in
an inner surface extending transversely to the direction
of anvil motion and ‘an inner portion having an outer
surface extending transversely to the. direction of anvil
motion, and the outer and inner surfaces are shaped so
that they normally are in contact only in the central
portion of their areas but when the outer portion de?ects
under pressure, the two surfaces come into contact over
the art. For example, the cage '75 of FIGS. 4 and 5
substantially their entire areas.
could be made with movable side anvils to provide in
8. Apparatus, according to claim 1 wherein the housing
creased laterial die support or with other anvil con?gura
tions to permit the use of multi-axis forging ‘dies with the 10 comprises a cylindrical shell withtwo end heads and at
least one of the end heads isremovably connected to the
apparatus. If the slide ‘anvils are movable they may be
shell by a bayonet. joint.
slidably supported in rectangular openings in the sides of
9. Apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the cage
the cage 75 and shaped to provide the same pressure
means has a cubic con?guration and includes six tapered
multiplication as the main anvils 85 and 86 and ?exible
openings disposed on orthogonal axes.
diaphragms similar to those used to seal the main anvils
10. Apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the cage
may be provided. It will be understood that the pressure
means is formed with two oppositely disposed tapered
multiplication factor for the embodiment shown in FIGS,
openings and includes at least one portion located ad
4 and 5 is approximately ?ve, but that other factors may
be provided 'by using appropriate dimensions for the 20 jacent tothe intersection of the, openings, to provide
lateral support for an object under pressure.
outer and inner surfaces of the anvils. Moreover, in
ll. In apparatus for subjecting an object to extreme
stead of using full diaphragms attached only to the cage,
pressures, a plurality of relatively movable tapered anvil
theysealr between ."the anvils and the cage may comprise
members each. having a large area outer surface, a small
a sheet of ?exible material cut in the form of a rectangle
and affixed to both the cage and the anvil so as to cover 25 area, inner surface, and a peripheral surface portion ad
jacent to the outer surface which extends parallel to the
their‘ line of contact. Accordingly, all such variations
direction of anvil- motion, and. an anvil support cage
and modi?cations are included within the intended scope
of the invention as de?ned by the following claims.
having a plurality of tapered anvil-receiving openings
the object and a plurality of tapered openings formed
jacent ‘to the outer surface, of the corresponding anvil
and independently support an 'anvil ‘member for limited
pressures including a plurality of tapered’ anvil members,
an anvil cage having a plurality of tapered anvil-receiving
adapted to receive the. anvil members and provide seats
We claim:
1. Apparatus for subjecting an object to extreme pres 30 for the tapered portions thereof, each opening having a
surface portion which extends parallel to the direction
sures comprising a housing forming a ?uid-tight enclosure,
of motiono'f the corresponding anvil. member and which
means for supplying ?uid under high pressure into the
surrounds and engages the peripheral surface portion ad
enclosure, cage means having a central cavity to receive
therein leading from the exterior of the cage means to 35 member in sliding. pressurev sealing relation.
12. In apparatus for subjecting an object to extreme
the central cavity, each opening being arranged to receive
motion toward and away from the central cavity, a corre
openings, a corresponding plurality of anvil members re
sponding plurality of pressure-multiplying anvil mem
bers each mounted in one of the tapered openings and 40. ceived in the openings for motion between a retracted and
a pressure-transmitting position, and sealing means at
having a large area surface exposed to the pressure of a
each opening. providing a pressure-tight seal‘ to prevent
?uid in the enclosure and a small area surface directed
?uid from reaching the interior of the cage while per
toward the central cavity to transmit increased pressure
mitting anvil motion in the opening.
to an object therein, and means forming a pressurest-ight
13. Apparatus according to claim 12 wherein the seal-.
seal at the outer end of each opening in the cage means 45
ing means comprises a sealing ring interposed between
to prevent ?uid from passing into the interior of the cage
each anvil and the adjacent wall of the cage, opening.
14. Apparatusaccordingto claim 12 wherein the seal
‘2. Apparatus according to claim 1 including means.
ing means comprises a ?exible diaphragm extending»
within the cage means for applying a force between the
across each. opening in the cage.
cage means and an anvil member to urge the anvil mem
ber outwardly toward a retracted position.
3. Apparatus according to claim 2 wherein the means,
for applying a force comprises spring means extending
between the cage means and the anvil member.
4. Apparatus according to claim 1 including adjustable
anvil positioning means for limiting the extent of motion
of ananvil member toward or away from the central
5. Apparatus according to claim 1 including’ second
(15. In apparatus for subjecting an object to, extreme
pressures a pressure-multiplying anvil member compris
ing an outer anvil portion having a rear surface to be
exposed to a medium under pressure and afront surface
extending transversely to the direction of pressure-trans.
mitting motion, and an inner portion having a front sur-.
face for transmitting pressure to an object and a rear
surface extending transversely to thedirection of anvil
motion, the rear surface of the inner portion and the
front surface of the outer portion being formed so as to
cage means located within the central cavity having a
plurality of intersecting openings aligned with the tapered 60 be in contact only in their central areas when the anvil
member is not under compression and to engage over
openings, and a plurality of secondary anvil members
their entire areas in response, to bending of the outer
disposed in the openings of the second cage means to,
portion‘ whenv the anvil member is under compression.
transmit pressure from the primary anvil members to the
:16. In apparatus for subjecting an object to extreme
object located at the intersection of the openings.
6. Apparatus according to claim 5 wherein the second
cage means comprises inner ‘and outer electrically con
ductive portions separated by an insulating layer and the
pressures and high temperatures, a cage assembly having
a plurality of anvil receiving bores intersecting at a cen~
tral cavity comprising an electrically conductive inner
shell, an electrically conductive outer shell, a layer of in
ductive material, and including insulating means in at 70 sulation between the inner and outer shells, means provid
ing electrical insulation at the surface of the inner shell of
least one of the openings of the secondary cage means
at least one of the bores, a plurality of'electrically conduc
for electrically insulating one portion of the cage means
tive anvil members inserted in the bores so that at least
from the corresponding anvil member.
one of them conducts current between an obj ect in the cen—
7. Apparatus according to claim 1 wherein at least one
of the. anvil members comprises an outer portion having 75 tral cavity and the inner shell and at least one other
conducts current between the outer shell and the object,
secondary anvil members are made of electrically con
and means for supplying electrical current to the inner
and outer shells.
17. Apparatus for subjecting an elongated thin object
to extreme pressures comprising a housing forming a ?uid
tight enclosure, means for supplying ?uid under high
pressure into the enclosure, cage means having an elon
gated central cavity to receive the object and at least two
oppositely disposed tapered openings formed therein lead
ing from the exterior of the cage means to the central
ing a pressure-tight seal at the outer end of each open
ing in the cage means to prevent ?uid from passing into
the interior of the cage means.
18. Apparatus according to claim 17 wherein the
means forming a pressure-tight seal comprises a ?exible
diaphragm covering the opening.
19. Apparatus according to claim 17 including spring
means extending between at least one of the anvil mem
bers and the cage means to restore the anvil member to
a retracted position when high pressure on its exterior sur
cavity, each opening lbeing ‘arranged to receive a tapered 10 face is released.
anvil member and permit limited motion thereof toward
and away from the central cavity, rigid support means in
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
tegral with the cage means adjacent to the cavity to pro
vide lateral support for an object therein, at least two
Scott _______________ __ Mar. 7,
pressure-multiplying anvil members mounted in the 15 2,499,530
Bundy ______________ __ June 21,
tapered openings carrying a die member of relatively
small surface area at the inner end thereof to engage the
object and having a large outer surface area exposed to
the pressure of a ?uid in the enclosure and means form
Zeitlin et al ___________ __ Ilan. 24, 1961
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