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Патент USA US3094290

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- June 18, 1963
I
3,094,280
J. F. MELZER
HEATING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed July 2, 1959v
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTORY
JUL [/5 F. MELZER
BY’
M
TORNEY
June 18, 1963
J. F. MELZER
3,094,230
HEATING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed July 2, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
' Fig-‘3
INVENTOR
JU as F. ygggk
BY
ATTORNEY
United States Patent 0 "
3,094,280
Patented June 18, 1963
2
FIG. 2 is an end view of FIG. 1 taken on the line
3,094,280
1-1;
HEATING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Julius F. Melzer, 544 King St., Port Chester, N.Y.
Filed July 2, 1959, Ser. N0‘.’824,578
2 Claims. (Cl. 236-93)
My present invention rel-ates to water heating and has,
FIG. 3 is a top plan view of metering apparatus which
limits and restricts water ‘?ow through the boiler of FIG.
1 at low temperatures despite the water pumping pres
sure in the system and permits increased ?ow as the tem
perature of the circulating water increases;
as a general object, the prevention of thermal shock to
FIG. 4 is‘ a sectional view of the apparatus of FIG. 3
taken on the line B-B;
stallations such as forced hot water heating systems‘ ‘for 10
FIG. 5 is a sectional view 0t FIG. 3 taken on line
boilers. My invention is especially useful for large in
schools, hospitals, apartment houses, zoned heating sys
O~C;
tems, etc.
In 'such installations, distant heat radiating units are
connected to a large central boiler by way of ‘long lines
A FIG. 6
a sectional view of FIG. 5 taken on the line
FIG. 7
a plan view of a special valve part or ele
or connecting pipes.
Although for heating purposes‘, 15 ment especially adapted for my invention as embodied
but water boilers are, in general, designed for a 20° F.
temperature differential ‘between outlet and inlet water
flow, boiler operators, in order to bring heat up more
quicloly have been known to increase water circulation to
a point such that the water flow is 30 to 50 times greater 20
in part, in FIG. 5; and
FIG. 8 is a view, partly in seotionyof a modi?ed form
than the heat input to, or heating capacity of, the boiler.
of water ‘?ow control apparatus which limits water ?o-w
at low temperatures, despite pumping pressure, and auto
matically admits more Water to the boiler, or permits
increased circulation or flow only
the temperature
'As a result, the boiler is often subjected to a complete
of the circulating water increases.
change of Water in as little as two minutes.
Accom
panying this rapid change in water, is a sudden tem
perature drop of ‘as much as 150° F., ‘giving rise to
thermal shock in the boiler. This thermal shock is
productive of severe stresses, violent and powerful enough
to loosen tubes, crack plates and generally damage the
boiler. The damage ‘is aggravated in highly ef?cient
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, I have illustrated a water
heating, Scot-ch marine type, return tubular boiler 2 ‘hav
ing a ?rebox or combustion chamber 4. A suitable ther
mostatically controlled oil burner, diagrammatically illus
trated at 6, is mounted Within the ?rebox. The prod
ucts of combustion of burner 6 travel down the hollow
central, cylindrical portion 8, forming part of the com
boilers‘ and is also more pronounced in cases wherein 30 bustion chamber of the boiler, and return through ?re
tubes 10 to the smoke box 12. The smoke box 12 is
there is inadequate water treatment. In the latter in
provided with an outlet or stack 14 for connection to a
stance, scale tormations cause still greater uneven con
tractions in the steel of the boiler with attendant cracking.
chimney. The paths of the smoke, ?re and other prod
ucts of combustion are indicated diagrammatically in
my invention. [In ef?ecting this object, I provide for ini 35 FIG. 1 by arrows 16, 18, 20 and '22.
Water is returned to the boiler from distant heating
tial circulation of water ?ow through the boiler, when
started up, that is restricted or limited to a safe value
units such as radiators (not shown), through return line
. To overcome these dif?culties is a further object of
within the heat recuperativle capacity of the boiler. As
the temperature throughout the system increases, my in
33 by the action of a water pump P. The pump drives
Water through the unit “B,” which will be described in
the inlet and outlet of the boiler. ‘In other words, my
by means of a restrictive ori?ce. At the beginning of
heating operations, this restrictive ori?ce retards and re
vention provides for automatic increase in water ?ow 40 greater detail later, back into the boiler. Unit “B,” acts to
without exceeding a safe temperature di?ie-rential between
limit or meter the feed or return water ?ow into the boiler
invention reduces the possibility of thermal shock by
stricts boiler water feed to the heat recuperative capacity
admitting water to the boiler at a controlled rate which
is matched by the recuperative capacity of the boiler, 45 of the boiler or to the fuel heat input delivered by the
the relation of the feed and ‘discharge Water temperature
of the boiler being thermostatically controlled and nar
burner at the start of heating operations.
Additional
means are provided within unit “B,” as will be described
more fully later, thermostatically responsive to the rela
tion of the water feed and water discharge temperatures
This desirable condition ‘also follows, with my invention,
when full water ?ow, productive of a large amount of 50 so as to maintain a narrow, predetermined temperature
rowed ‘down to a safe temperature \ditferential at all times.
differential between the same while increasing water ?ow,
until full flow is established.
ing opening which, despite the pumping capacity in the
The thermostatic valve unit “B,” containing a restrictive
system, admits approximately the pounds of water per
ori?ce and a thermostatically controlled ori?ce, is mount
minute equivalent to the heat input to the ‘boiler. I 55 ed on a curved feed pipe or cooling Water leg 26 Which
also provide a thermostatically controlled arrangement
acts to heat insulate or isolate valve unit “B” from the
heat of the boiler thereby providing a more stable am
for permitting greater water flow through the boiler as
it absorbs heat and ‘as the circulated water rises in aver
bient temperature condition for unit “B.” In other words,
age temperature. This controlling apparatus is mounted
leg 26 affords a measure of separation from and reduces
in such a Way as to be unresponsive to radiant heat 60 the in?uence of boiler heat from a?ecting the operation of
unit “B.”
?rom the boiler or to the boiler temperature but is re
heat radiation, is established.
. ,
More speci?cally, I provide a restrictive ori?ce or limit
sponsive, however, substantially only to the temperature
of the circulating water.
Water, returning to the boiler by way of return pipe 33,
Further, in accordance
pump P, return line section 31, unit “B” and curved leg
26, is introduced and fed into the boiler Water through
‘another ‘?eature of my invention, means are provided
to enable inspection and repair of the control apparatus 65 the openings 28 at the extreme left hand end of the closed
‘without removing water from the heating system.
off feed line 30 as shown in FIG. 1 suitably mounted,
My invention will be described hereinafter in greater
?xed Within, or otherwise made integral with boiler 2.
detail with the aid of the accompanying drawing wherein:
Feed line 30 tempers the water and feeds it into the boiler
FIG. 1 is a crosstsectional view of a hot Water boiler
at points 28 which are remote from the water outlet 32
and shows the general positioning and relationship of 70 located in the water back section 34 located at the oppo
the elements of my invention for preventing thermal
site end of the boiler. In brief, the internal feed line 30
provides a more uniform tempering of the inlet water to
shock to a boiler by circulating water;
»
3,094,280
3
4
the boiler and carries the inlet or feed water to the end of
7) provided between the cross arms 83, 85, of the valve
the boiler which is remote from and opposite to that of the
The unit “B,” which limits water ?ow into the boiler
to a value which falls well within the recuperative heat
part 64 (FIGS. 4 and 5).
The apparatus is so designed that when the temperature
of the Water circulated through the unit B has the greatest
temperature differential between the ‘outgoing and incom
input to the boiler and admits more water to the boiler
as the circulated water in the system increases in tempera
ing water, the only water that can be circulated through
this unit B and the boiler will be through the ori?ces 46
ture, while, however, maintaining a safe temperature dif
ferential between water input and output of the boiler, is
illustrated in greater detail in FIGS. 3 to 8 inclusive, to
which speci?c reference is now made.
As best seen in FIGS. 4 and 5, the water ?ow control
ling unit is provided with a cast iron or steel casing 40
and openings 62 (FIG. 4). This circulated amount would
then be the equivalent to the fuel thermal input to the
boiler. Excess Water circulated by reason of the capacity
of the pump P is by-passed externally to the system. As
the circulated water through the ori?ces becomes heated,
the valve 48, attached to the thermostatic element 70,
water discharge or outlet 32 of the boiler.
is expanded, allowing a greater capacity ?ow through unit
having a water inlet connection 42 to which water is fed
from the pump P of FIG. 1. An outlet or discharge port 15 B until the differential is reduced and the temperatures
44, is provided from which controlled water flow through
the unit passes into the leg 26 of FIG. 1. Inlet and outlet
ports 42, 44 are at right angles to each other and are pro
vided with connecting ?anges 43 and 45.
Cam operated valve heads 49, 50 are integrally pro
vided to shut off a space Within casing or housing 4%},
which contains the ?ow controlling equipment, so that the
latter may be inspected and adjusted through access door
become so ‘close that the thermostatic valve has opened
to its maximum opening and the full pump capacity will
then be circulated throughout the system.
If it is desired to inspect the ?xed ori?ce 46 and/or
the thermostatic element 70-72-76 with its valve 48;
the disc valves 49 and 50 are ?rst closed by rotating
shafts 90-—92 (FIGS. 4 ‘and 5). Shaft 90 rotates the cam
element 94, fastened thereto (see FIG. 4) to an open or
shut position as desired. Similarly, cam 96 (FIG. 5) is
110, which may be removably bolted in place. Threaded
opening 54, in axial alignment with opening 42, is pro 25 driven by shaft 92 to open or shut valve 50. Pointers
98, 100 are provided to indicate whether valves 50 and
vided with a closing off or plug member (not shown).
This plug should be removed to let out water in the shut
off space, before the access door 110 is removed.
Normally with the valve heads 49, 50 in their open
positions as shown in FIG. 5, water ?ows or is pumped
into the casing 40 through inlet 42. Water then ?ows
through the conical knife edge openings 46, provided in
the valve head 48, into the lower space 60 of casing 40.
The water then passes through the open valve 5%) to the
49 are closed or open.
These valves are provided with
guiding spiders 102, 104, as shown in FIG. 5. With earns
94 and 96 driven by the shafts 90 and 92 to the closed
positions, access door 110 may be removed as ‘for example
by removing bolts or other fastening means (not shown).
Before removing the access ‘door 110, the plug (not
shown), in screw threaded opening 54 should be un
screwed to remove the trapped water in the space within
housing 40 between cut off valves 49 and 50. The meter
ing equipment including valve 48 and thermostatic con
trolling elements 70, 76 will, upon removal of door 110,
ings 62 in the supporting valve part or base 64. A plan
be accessible for inspection and adjustment.
view of this valve part or valve base 64 is given in FIG. 7.
The arrangement is such that the openings 62 are aligned
To summarize, the unit “B,” as described, constitutes
with the sharp edged openings 46 in the valve head 48. 40 a metering unit which, by virtue of the sharp edged
conioally shaped ori?ces 46, limits water ?ow through the
The valve part 64 is provided with a shoulder 66 so as to
system, when valve head 48 is in its lowermost position,
?rmly and relatively ?xedly engage and be supported by
so as to be effectively restricted to the heat input of the
cooperating shoulders 68 carried by and made integral
burner or the heat recuperation of the boiler. The water
with housing 40.
The ori?ces or holes 46 are designed to restrict the flow 45 circulation is permitted to increase only when a predeter
mined temperature differential exists between boiler inlet
of water therethrough to a safe value well within the
and outlet by the action of thermostatically controlling
heat recuperative power of the boiler when it is started
apparatus 70, 76.
up. The ori?ces 46 therefore, restrict, limit, meter or
The integral valve cutoffs 49, 50 permit retention of
control the ?ow of circulating water, despite the starting
up capacity of the pump P brought about by a demand 50 the water in the boiler and throughout the heating sys
Item while allowing access to the thermostatic control and
for increased heating by the distant heating units. In this
other elements within housing 40. The unit “B” is mount
way, my invention prevents the injection of a large mass
outlet port 44. It should be noted that the sharp edged
openings 46 in the valve head 48 are aligned with open
of cold water into the boiler ‘at such a rate as would
cause damage to the boiler.
ed on a cooling or tempering water leg or pipe 26 spaced
‘from the boiler so as to prevent boiler heat from affect
As the temperature of the water in the boiler increases, 55 ing the thermostatic control element within housing 40.
My improved system also contemplates the use of an
I have provided, also in accordance with my present in
integral, boiler tempering, water feed 30 from the cool
vention, means for automatically increasing the amount
ing leg 26 to the end of the boiler opposite to and re
of water admitted or fed to the boiler, and therefore, the
mote from the discharge end 32 or water outlet or out
circulation of water, until full water ?ow or circulation is
established. This increase in ?ow is only carried out and 60 put end of the boiler.
In FIG. 8, I have illustrated another form of ?ow con
permitted, according to my invention, while maintaining
trolling or metering unit. As shown, water ?ows into the
a safe di?erential in temperature between inlet and outlet
unit through the input end 200 thereof and out through
water for the boiler. As best seen in FIGS. 4 and 5, the
outlet 202. Coupling ?anges 204, 206 are provided for
means for accomplishing the foregoing, is in the form of
the temperature operated or thermostatically operated 65 connecting input and Output water pipes thereto. The
bellows system 70, mounted within a support 72, carried
by the valve part 64. This bellows is ?lled with a suitable
casing 208 has, integral therewith, a web 210 and a base
or bottom 212. As shown, one or more hollow cylinders
214 are carried by the base 212 and extend through suit
temperature responsive ?uid which expands with increase
able openings in web 210. Each of the cylinders 214
of temperature. The end result of the expansion of the
bellows is to drive the valve supporting rod 74 upwardly 70 is provided with a ?xed water ?ow ori?ce or opening 216.
These ?xed ori?ces 216 have sharp edges and limit the
against the normal valve closing action of helical safety
.water ?ow through the system to a safe value when the
spring 76. As a result, the rod 74, to which valve head
system is started up. The water ?owing through the ?xed
48 is attached, raises the latter and permits additional
openings 216 reaches the outlet 202 through the slots or
water ?ow around the valve head bevelled edge 80 (see
FIG. 4), and through the additional openings 82 (FIG. 75 other side openings 220 in the hollow walls of the cylin
3,094,280
ders 214. The openings 220‘ are located below web 210
alignment with said inlet opening, the perforations in said
head having sharp edges, a valve seat carried by said cas
ing against which said valve head closes, a safety spring
surrounding said valve stem for normally closing said
valve head against said valve seat; a valve pant mounted
beneath said valve head, said part having cross arms with
openings in the cross arms aligned with the perforations
tem increases, thermostatic elements 230 permit addi
in said valve head and a temperature responsive bellows,
tional water ?ow until full ?ow is established. The
supported by said valve pant, connected to said valve
thermostatically controlled valves 230 of FIG. 8 are pref
erably of the type described in FIGS. 4 and 5 and each 10 stem for moving said valve stem against said safety spring
and thereby separating said valve head from said valve
makes use of a bevelled valve head 48, thermostatic bel
lows 30 and a safety closing spring 76. These springs,
seat and valve part.
2. A Water ?ow controlling unit comprising a metal
it should be noted, close the thermostatically operated
as shown. Also, one or more thermostatically controlled
valves 230 are provided in the arrangement of FIG. 8.
These elements 230 are diagrammatically illustrated in
FIG. 8 and are supported by the base 212 in any suitable
way. As the temperature of the Water through the sys
casing, having a water inlet connection and a water out—
valves, should they become defective, as for example,
through loss of temperature responsive operating ?uid. 15 let connection; a removable plug in the casing opposite
Although not illustrated in FIG. 8, there may be used,
integral with the input and output sections 208, 210,
the inlet connection; disc valves adjacent the inlet and
outlet connections mounted within the casing for shutting
disc cutoif valves such as 49, 50 of the type shown in FIGS.
01f the space between the inlet and outlet connections, an
access door in said casing leading to said shut off space;
3 and 4. Instead of the access door 110 shown in FIGS.
4 and 5, the units are made as integral parts, the ori?ce 20 a valve having a perforated disc valve head and a stem
units 214 and the thermostatic elements 230 are self con
mounted within said casing in said shut o?’ space in align
ment with said inlet opening, the perforations in said head
tained and are inserted in the bottom of container or
housing 208. The cutolf valves 49 and 50 are the same
having sharp edges, a valve seat carried by said casing
as shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 and, as shown in FIG. 8 are
against which said valve head closes, a safety spring sur
provided with indicators 100 and 98.
25 rounding said valve stem ‘for normally closing said valve
Although I have described my invention in connection
head against said valve seat; a valve part mounted beneath
with the heating of water, it should be clear that the in
said valve head, said part having cross arms with openings
vention is also adapted and useful for the heating of other
in the cross arms aligned with the perforations in said
?uids. Hence, in the claims which follow, the term water
valve head and a temperature responsive bellows, sup
is intended to include such other ?uids as lend themselves 30 ported by said valve part, connected to said valve stem
for moving said valve stem against said safety spring and
to the use of my invention. Also, other changes within
the‘ scope of my invention may be made without deviating
thereby separating said valve head from said valve seat
from the spirit and scope thereof, as for example, other
and valve part.
types of boilers may be employed, cast iron, steel, brass,
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
or other material may be used tor the housings, and so on. 35
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1. -A water ?ow controlling unit comprising a metal cas
ing, having a water inlet connection and a water outlet
connection, arranged at tight angles to each other; a re—
movable plug in the casing opposite the inlet connection; 40
disc valves integral with the casing for shutting off the
1,406,922
1,806,530
1,880,539‘
'Boyce _______________ __ ‘Feb. 14, 1922
Giesler _______________ _, May 19, 1931
Wald ________________ __ Oct. 4, 1932
2,081,831
Moore ______ __- _______ __ May 25, '1937
space between the inlet and outlet connections, an access
2,086,360
Hill __________________ __ July 6, 1937
door in said casing leading to said shut off space; a valve
in the shut oif space of said casing having a perforated
disc valve head and a stem mounted within said casing in 45
2,340,844
Dillman ____ ,_-__-_. _____ __ Feb. 1, 1944
2,461,136
Bomquist _____________ -.. Feb. 8, 1949
2,895,496
Sanctuary ____________ __ July 21, 1959
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