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Патент USA US3094768

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June 25, 1963
H. R. HERRON
3,094,759
TUNNEL KILN CAR TOP
Filed April 5, 1962
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June 25, 1963
H, RHERRON
3,094,759
TUNNEL KILN CAR TOP
Filed April 5, 1962
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
@T raf .5715.
3,094,759
_ice
tes
Patented June 25, 1963
1
2
a horizontal T that has a stem 5 crossed at one end by a
3,094,759
TUNNEL KILN CAR TDP
°
Henry R. Herron, Vandalia, livio., assigner to Hai-bison
Walker Refractories Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corpo
ration of ïennsylvania
Fiied Apr. 5, 1962, Ser. No. 185,473
6 Claims. (Cl. 25-142)
This invention relates to tunnel kiln cars, and more
particularly to the refractory tops with .which they are
provided.
This application is a continuation-in-part of ‘my copend
ing application, Serial No. 12,706, filed March 4, 1960,
for “Tunnel Kiln Car rfop,” which has been abandoned
in favor of the present application.
It is customary to provide a tunnel kiln car with a flat
bar 6 that projects from opposite sides of the stem. The
second 'shape Áforming tiles 7, is produced by integrally
joining two tiles 4 of the iirst shape stem-to-ste-m so that
their cross bars :are -at opposite ends of the tile. In actual
practice, tile 7 would be considered the basic shape, be
cause the other yshapes can be cut -from it. Tiles 8 have
the third shape, which is the same as the first sh-ape,
except that one end of the cross bar has been omitted.
These tiles are made in rights »and lefts. The -fourth or
last shape, Afor tiles 9, is like two tiles 8 (right and left)
of the third shape joined stem to stem with their cross bars
at opposite ends of the tile where they project from only
one and the same side of the stem. The stem side 10
of each end of all cross bars forms Ian acute `angle with
the «adjoining stern.
Therefore, the space between the
refractory top that supports a layer of sand, on which
cross bars of each tile 7 and 9 lforms at the side of the
the articles that are to be tired :are set. Although a mono
tile a dovetail notch ll.
lit-hic top would be ide-al in some respects, it is not prac
The tiles are arranged in parallel rows, preferably eX
tending crosswise of the car. The two outer rows, which
are at the front and back of the car, »are for-med entirely
tical in most cases for several reasons.
It is therefore
customary to form the top from a number of tiles. Tiles
are cheaper and easier to handle, and if »any of them
of tiles 9 because they have flat sides extending from end
break, it is a simple matter to replace them. However,
to end and can therefore form fiat ends for the top. Their
when a top is formed from a large number of tiles, there
notched sides face inwardly. The row of tiles eng-aging
necessarily is a large number of joints between them. It 25 each outer row is composed mainly of tiles 7 arranged bar
is conventional to place silica sand or quartz over the
to bar, with their stems in alignment. These tiles are
upper surface of the car top to prevent sticking between
staggered relative to those in the outer rows, so that the
items being fired in the kiln :and the car top; and this
joints between tiles 7 are opposite the centers of tiles 9.
sand has had a tendency to sift down the joints between
Since the width of each notch l1 is about a sixteenth of an
tiles. The sand deposits tended to lbuild up and the joints 30 inch greater than twice the width of a tile cross bar, each
became packed, so that when the oars were passed through
notch in tiles 9 can receive and retain the ends of a pair
the kiln, because of differences in thermal expansion be
of cross bars on two adjoining tiles 7 beside it. This six
tween the quartz or sand »and the refractory tiles, there
teenth inch diñerence in wdith is repeated >across the top in
was buckling of the tiles, car top failure, and in some
all the notches 11 »and is maintained during all tempera~
instances spreading of the top suiiicient to cause contact
ture variations because all the tiles are fabricated of the
with internal kiln walls resulting in wrecks inside the kiln.
same material and thus have an identical coefñcient of
Also, since the top also becomes uneven in the process,
thermal expansion. Likewise, the cross bars on tiles 9 are
breakage of ware supported by it may occur. The
retained in the notches in the sides of tiles 7 beside them.
mechanical handling of cars and the ware on them are
Since tiles 7 extend only half way across the two end tiles
other causes of oar top destruction. Any severe bumping 40 9 in each outer row, the space remaining is filled 'by two
of the cars together or ramrning by lift trucks will usually
tiles 4 of the ñrst shape, which therefore form the ends of
knock the car top out of «alignment `and soon require it to
the second row and make it the `same length `as the outer
be rebuilt.
row. It will be seen that «all of the tiles in the two rows
The monolithic type tops -above referred to seemed an
at each end of the car -are interlocked by the cross bar
answer to the problem of sand build up in joints. But
ends and the notches in two directions, lengthwise and
crosswise of the car.
monolithic tops have not been successful, because the
temperatures involved in tunnel kiln used for tiring refrac
The rest of the rows of tiles could be formed solely of
tories is much greater than presently available, eastable or
tiles 4 and 7 linterlocking in the same way as those just
monolithic >material can successfully withstand Without
described. In that case, every other row would «be com
failure due to cracking.
50 posed entirely of tiles 7. However, in order to permit
It is among the objects of this invention to provide a
the ear top to be removed from the car mechanically, it
tunnel kiln car top which is made from a large number of
is desirable to make the top divisible into sections small
small tiles, but in which the tiles are interlocked together;
enough to be handled. For that purpose, the top may be
»and interlocked in such a m'anner as to prevent silica sand
build up in joints.
The invention -is illustrated in the accompnaying draw
ings, in which:
FTG. 1 is a side view of a kiln car provided with my
top;
FiG. 2 is an enlarged plan view of the top;
FIG. 3 is [an end view of the top alone; Iand
FIGS. 4, 5 »and 6 are plan views of other patterns in
which the same tile shapes -as shown in FIG. 2 can be
arranged.
divided into completely separate -front `and back half
sections. To do that, the top is made lfrom an even num
ber of rows of tiles, and the two center yrows may he
Áformed of tiles 9 placed back to back. Since half of the
top may still be too large to remove as a unit, it is desir
able to divide the top into quarters before it is removed.
60 rlihis can be done by ñrst removing the middle tile 9
from each outer row, but as it would be difficult to lift
out the middle tile 7 in the center row of each half sec
tion of the top, it is preferred to use two tiles 4 in place
of that middle tile 7. The two tiles 4 `are placed stern to
Referring to FIG. l of the drawings, a conventional 65 stern as shown. For the same reason, two tiles 8 are used
kiln car l supports suitable cored refractory blocks 2, on
instead of the center tile in each center row of tiles 9.
which a liat top 3 is mounted. The top consists of la
Therefore, the car top not only has a joint extending
number of interlocking tiles. As shown in FIG. 2, the
straight across the car between the two center rows, but
tiles are made in several diñerent shapes, a maximum of
also another straight joint extending lengthwise of the car
four shapes being required, with tiles of one shape made 70 across the centers of the two half sections of the top from
as both -rights land lefts. For the purpose of this descrip
the front to the rear row. In use, the two outer rows of
tion, tiles 4 will be called the first shape, which is like
tiles hold the halves of the half sections of the top to
3,094,759
3
gethcr, and the pressure of the ends of the tops against
one another as a line of cars is pushed through a kiln
will hold the half sections together. By merely remov
ing the middle tile 9 from each outer row, a top is di
vided into four quarter sections.
The bottom of each tile preferably is provided centerly
of its stem with a downwardly opening recess 13 that
extends throughout the length of the tile as illustrated in
FIGS. l and 3. When the tiles are laid in rows, these
recesses form a continuous passage from one end of the
Iow to the other. Because of the one sixteenth inch dif
the space between the cross bars of each tile of the second
and last shapes forming at the side of the tile a dovetail
notch receiving and retaining the ends of a pair of cross
bars of two tiles in an adjoining row, said dovetail notch
being wider than a said pair of cross bars, whereby the
tiles are interlocked in two directions horizontally at right
angles to each other, the bottom of each tile being pro
vided centrally of its stem with a downwardly opening
recess extending throughout the length of the tile, all of
said recesses in each row »being in alignment with one
another and in open communication with some of the
joints between tiles.
ference in width between the notches 11 and a pair of
2. A tunnel kiln car top comprising a plurality of inter
tile cross bars, the joints between tiles are in open com
locking tiles disposed in parallel rows, all said tiles fabri
munication with these continuous passages, and sand is
thus free to sift downwardly into them. The passages 15 cated oÍ the same refractory material, said tiles including
serve three functions. They help to cool the tiles, they
provide openings for receiving vacuum lances to clean
out sand that sifts down between the tiles, thereby pre
venting sand -buildup and related diliìculties, and they
also provide openings for receiving long parallel fingers
three different shapes, the lirst shape being like a hori
zontal T having a stem and a cross bar, the second shape
being like two of said ñrst shape join stem to stern to
locate the cross bars at opposite ends of the tile, the last
shape being like the second shape but with the ends of
recesses 14 in the lower outer corners of each cross bar.
both cross bars omitted at one side of the stem, the stem
side of each end of the cross bars forming an acute angle
with the adjoining stem, the tiles in each row being ar
‘In the modifications shown in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, threev
ranged bar to bar with their stems in alignment, the two
different patterns or arrangements of tiles in a kiln car
top are shown. The tiles have the same shapes as those
shown in FIG. 2. It will be understood that as many
outer rows consisting of only tiles of said last shape, said
»on a device for lifting a quarter section of the top as a
unit.
The tiles may likewise be provided with similar
top including a plurality of alternate intermediate rows
consisting of only tiles of said second shape with tiles of
said first shape at the opposite ends of the same rows, and
the space between the cross bars of each tile of the second
top of any desired size.
ln the embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the arrangement 30 and last shapes forming at the side of the tile a dovetail
notch receiving and retaining the ends of a pair of cross
is such that each outer row of tiles contains a tile 8 at one
bars of two tiles in an adjoining row, said dovetail notch
end in addition to the tiles 9 that make up the rest of
being wider than a said pair of cross bars, whereby the
those rows. As a result, it is necessary that one end of
tiles are interlocked in two directions horizontally at right
each intermediate row of tiles 7 contain a tile 4 to make
tiles as desired can be connected together to form a oar
all of the rows the same length.
Because the rows are 35 angles to each other, the bottom of each tile being pro
staggered, tiles 4» will fall at opposite ends of adjoining
vided centrally of its stem with a downwardly opening
rows.
This pattern can be used where a kiln car is not
recess extending throughout the length of the tile, all of
wide enough to support a top in which the outer rows are
made up entirely of tiles 9.
said recesses in each row being in alignment with one
another and in open communication with some of the
the same length as the other rows.
ing of four different shapes, the ñrst shape being like a
In FIG. 5, tiles 8 are located at all four corners of the 40 joints between tiles.
`i. A tunnel kiln car top comprising a plurality of inter
car top, with the result that the rows immediately adjoin
locking tiles disposed in parallel rows, all said tiles fabri
ing the outer rows are composed entirely of tiles 7. The
cated -of the same refractory material, said tiles consist
center »row has tiles 4 at `both ends to make it come out
In the moditication shown in FIG. 6, the outer rows are 45 horizontal T having a stem and a cross bar, the second
composed entirely of tiles 9, the center row is formed only
of tiles 7, and the remaining two rows are each composed
of tiles 7 with tiles 4 at both ends. This arrangement is
similar to a half-section of the top shown in FIG. 2, but
it does not contain any tiles 8 of the third shape, and the 50
shape being like two of said lirst shape being joined stem
to stem to ilocate the cross bars at opposite ends of the
tile, the third shape being like the iirst shape but with
one end of the cross bar omitted, the last shape being
like two of said third shape joined stem to stern to
locate the cross bars at opposite ends of the tile and
projecting from the same side of the stern, the Istem side
of each end of the cross bars forming an acute angle with
According to the provisions of the patent statutes, I
the adjoining stem, the tiles in each row being arranged
have explained the principle of my invention and have
illustrated and described what I now consider to represent 55 bar to bar with their stems in alignment, tiles of said third
and last shape being in the two outer rows with said
its best embodiment. However, I desire to have it under
third shape lonly at row ends, tiles of said iirst and second
stood that, Within the scope of the appended claims, the
shapes being in only the intermediate rows with said íirst
invention may be practiced otherwise than as speciñcally
shape only at row ends, and the space between the cross
illustrated and described.
60 bars of each tile of the second and last shapes forming at
I claim:
the side of the tile a dovetail notch receiving and retain
1. A tunnel kiln car top comprising a plurality of inter
middle tile in the center row is not formed from two tiles
4 as it is in FIG. 2.
locking tiles disposed in parallel rows, all said tiles fab
¿ing the ends of a pair of cross bars of two tiles in an
ricated of the same refractory material, said tiles includ
ing three different shapes, the iirst shape -being like a
a said pair of cross bars, whereby the tiles Iare interlocked
adjoining row, said dovetail notch beingi Wider than
horizontal T having a stem and across bar, the second 65 in two directions horizontally at right angles to each
shape being like two of said first shape joined stem to
stem to locate the cross bars at- opposite ends of the tile,
the last shape being like the second shape but with the
ends of both cross bars omitted at one side of the stem,
the Stem side of each end of the cross bars forming an
other, the bottom of each tile being provided centrally of
its stem with a downwardly opening recess extending
throughout the length of the tile, all of said recesses in
each row being in alignment with one another and in
open communication with some of the joints between
tiles.
4. A tunnel kiln car top comprising a plurality of inter
acute angle with the adjoining stem, the tiles in each row
being arranged bar to bar with their stems in alignment,
locking tiles disposed in parallel rows, `all said tiles fabri
tiles of said last shape being in the two outer rows, tiles
cated of the same ‘refractory material, said tiles consist
of said first and second shapes being in only the inter
mediate -rows with said first shape only at row ends, and 75 ing of four dilîerent shapes, the tìrst shape being like a
3,094,759
5
horizontal T having a stem and a cross bar, the second
second shape with two tiles of said ñrst shape disposed
shape being ylike two of said first shape joined stem
stem to stem at its middle and the space between the
cross bia-rs of each tile of the second and last shapes
forming at the side of the tile a dovetail notch receiving
and retaining the ends of a pair of cross bars of two tiles
in an adjoining row, said dovetail notch being wider
than a said pair of cross bars, whereby the tiles are inter
locked -in two directions horizontally at right angles to
to stern to locate the cross bars at opposite ends of the
tile, the third shape being like the iirst shape but with
one end of the cross bar omitted, the last shape being
like two of said third shape joined stern to stem to
locate the cross bars `at opposite ends of the tile and
projecting from the same side of the stem, the stern side
of each end of the cross bars forming an acute angle with
each other, the bottom of each tile being provided centrally
the -adjoining stem, the tiles lin each row being arranged 10 of its stem with a downwardly opening recess extending
bar to bar with their stems in alignment, the two outer
throughout the length of the tile, all of said recesses in
rows consisting of `only tiles of said last shape with tiles
each row being in alignment with one another and in
of said third shape at the `opposite ends of the same rows,
open communication with some of the joints between
said top including a plurality of alternate intermediate
tiles.
rows consisting of only tiles of said second shape, and
6. A tunnel kiln car top comprising a plurality of inter
the space between the cross bars of each tile of the second
locking tiles disposed in parallel rows, yall said tiles fabri
land last shapes forming vat the side of the tile a dovetail
cated of refractory materials having similar coeñ'icients
notch receiving and retaining the ends of a pair of cross
of thermal expansion, said tiles including three diiîerent
bars of two tiles in an adjoining row, said dovetail notch
shapes, the iirst shape being like a horizontal T having
being wider than a said pair of cross bars, whereby the 20 a stem land a cross bar, the second shape being like two
tiles are interlocked in two directions horizontally at
of said first shape joined stem to stem to locate the cross
right angles to each other, the bottom of each tile being
bars at opposite ends of the tile, the last shape being
provided centrally of its stem with a downwardly open
like the second shape but with the ends of both cross
ing recess extending throughout the length of the tile, all
bars lomitted at one side of the stem, the stern side of
of said recesses -in each row being in alignment with 25 each end of the cross bars forming an acute angle with
one another and in open communication with some of
the adjoining stem, the tiles in keach row being arranged
the joints between tiles.
bar -to bar with their stems in alignment, tiles of said
5. A tunnel kiln car top comprising a plurality of inter
last shape being in the two outer rows, tiles of said first
locking tiles disposed in an even number of parallel rows,
and second shapes being in only the intermediate rows
all said tiles fabricated of the same refractory material, 30 with said ñrst shape only at row ends, and the space be
said tiles consisting of four different shapes, the first
tween the cross bars lof each tile of the second and last
shape being like a horizontal T having ya stem and a
shapes forming at the side of the tile a dovetail notch
cross bar, the second shape being like two of said ñrst
receiving »and »retaining the ends of a pair of cross bars
shape joined stem to stem to locate the cross bars at op
of two ti-les in an adjoining row, said dovetail notch being
posite ends of the tile, the third shape ìbeing like the 35 wider than a said pair of cross bars, whereby the tiles
Íirst shape but with one end of the cross bar omitted, the
lare interlocked in two directions horizontally at right
last shape being like two of said third shape joined stem
angles to each other, the bottom of each tile being pro
to stem to locate the cross bars at opposite ends of the
vided centrally of its stern with a downwardly opening
recess extending throughout the length of the tile, all of
tile and projecting from the same side of the stem, the
stem side of each end of the cross bars forming an acute 40 said recesses in each row being in alignment with one
angle with the adjoining stem, the tiles in each row lbeing
another fand in open communication with some of the
arranged ‘bar to bar with their stems in alignment, the two
joints between tiles.
outer rows consisting of only tiles of said last shape, each
References Cited in the file of this patent
of the two center rows consisting of `only tiles of said last
UNITED STATES PATENTS
shape with a pair `of tiles of said third shape disposed stern 45
to stem at the middle of the row, each of alternate inter
1,306,160
Zwenmann ____________ __ June 10, 1919
mediate rows between the outer rows yand the center rows
consisting of only tiles `of said second shape with tiles of
said ñrst shape `at their opposite ends, each of the rows
between said alternate rows consisting of tiles of said 50
1,485,109
1,587,210
2,099,149
2,104,307
Beth et al. __________ __ Feb. 26,
Beecher et al. ________ __ lune 1,
Turnquist ___________ __ Nov. 16,
Miller _________________ __ lan. 4,
1924
1926
19‘37
1938
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