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Патент USA US3094837

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June 25, 1963
Filed Aug. 11, 1958
s Sheets-Sheet 1 '
Fig. l
J1me 25, 1963
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Aug. 11,
June 25, 1963"
Z5 Sheets-Sheet 3
Filed Aug. 11, 1958
0 km
United States Patent 0
Patented June25, 1963
which is comprised of "a lcylindrically shaped wall 11, and
a slanting ?at ‘wall 12. Supe'f posed upon casing 10
is a more or less frusto-conical shaped dome 13 which
terminates in a scroll 14‘ for the exit of gas such as air,
Robert E. Payne, Newton Square, and Fred ‘P. Go’oc‘h,
Media, Pa., assignors to The Sharples Corporation, a
corporation of Delaware
virtually denuded of solid particles. Adjoining casing
10 and 'dome'13 is a tubular collecting chamber 15 for
Filed Aug. 11, 1958, Ser.‘No. 754,334
5 ‘Claims. (Cl. 55-407)
This invention pertains generally to centrifugal dust
relatively smaller particles. It will be evident that if frac
tionation between relatively larger and smaller particles
is not a factor in the separation, which frequently is the
case, casing 10 and tubular chamber 15 may be combined
separators, and more particularly to dust separators‘of this 10 in a unitary collecting-chamber, or that chamber 15 may
type which are adapted to separate from a gas, such as air,
exhaust into chamber 10. In any case, any other suitable
structure may be substituted.
particles down to submicron size. This invention also
pertains to the concentration in a gaseous medium of such
Projecting upwardly through Wall 12 is housing 16 in
which is journaled, as by bearings 17 andn18, shaft 21 to
Although the invention is adapted to many uses, as will 15 which is connected, ‘at its upper end, impeller 22. Shaft
become evident to persons skilled in the art upon becom
21 is driven in any desired manner, such as by pulley 23,
ing familiar herewith, it is particularly useful in the
at various altitudes to determine the rela
tive proportion of suspended dust particles therein, in
cluding those of radioactive properties.
The importance of a device capable of separating
extremely ?ne dust particles for analysis, whether 'at or
belts 24, and pulley 25.
Surround-ing impeller 22 and projecting upwardly there
20 from is a more or less double bell-shaped member 26
which, at its upper bell-shaped end, serves as an inlet for
‘gas, such as air, and which, at its lower bell-shaped end,
serves as a bell-shaped housing for impeller 22. Member
near or below ‘the earth’s surface, or at altitudes up to
26 ‘may be supported in any desired manner such as on
those capable of being reached by airplanes or by balloon
or rocket ?ights, cannot be overemphasized, particularly 25 scroll
The body portion 27 of impeller 22 increases in diam
in view of present concern with respect to radioactive fall
eter .from its tip to its base, being generally .b'el-ldshaped,
out resulting from the testing of nuclear weapons, or,
‘e.g. having an ‘outward shape or surface conforming to
should it so transpire, their practical use.
a surface of revolution generated by a concave line. This
The separation from a gas, such as air, of particles 30 line oricurve, if desired, may conform to a mathematical
capable of being seen by the naked eye presents no prob
formula, ‘such, :for instance, as a hyperbola, in which case
lem, for ‘many devices are available for the purpose for
impeller 22 would conform to a hyperboloid. In any
both industrial and household use. However, in ‘the
case, body portion 27 is provided with a plurality of
case of particles having average dimensions of microscopic
longitudinally arranged primary vanes 28 circumferen
or sub-microscopic size, including those approaching the 35 tially'spaced about its periphery, each vane 28 being in
average size of viri,'pr0blems become involved which have
clinedin the direction of rotation as clearly seen in FIG
put the practical application of the intelligence of mankind
URES 3 and 4. The upper or inlet ends 31 of vanes 28
to the acid test, as will be readily recognized.
The application of centrifugal force quite naturally
suggests itself as a ‘means to a solution of the problem, 40
are shown curved inwardly in the direction of rotation,
as illustrated in FIGURE 4, which is highly preferred.
Vanes 28 are preferably spaced closely about body
but this tool standing by itself ‘heretofore has proved to
portion ‘27, and generally uniformly about its tip and
be inadequate for the purpose, although highly effective
about its base, ‘which, in view of the greater diameter of
in the case of particles of larger size. The past shows
‘its base, results in a gradually increasing distance between
clearly that not only is it necessary to apply centrifugal
vanes 28 from tip to base. To compensate for the progres
force under conditions of highest efficiency, but also that 45 sive increaselin the distance between primary vanes 28,
some joint-acting cooperative force'is essential to a realiza
secondary vanes 32 are preferably provided between
tion of the desired results.
adjacent primary vanes 28, starting adjacent the outer
The present invention is based upon the foregoing in
ends of the latter, as illustrated in FIGURE 4. Vanes 32
controvertible premise, and provides an apparatus for
may have any desired length, such-as between 1/3 ‘and %
the separation from a gas of extremely ?ne-solid particles, 50 vthe length of vanes 28, eg 1/2 such length, and preferably
by the-combined action of centrifugal forceand the forces
are tapered from? their outer ends toward their inner ends,
of Coriolis, at times with that of the drag forces of the
gaseous medium, to produce a result which is not only
surprising, but which is unique in and of itself.
terminating at their inner ends'in a more or less sharp
‘or rounded- edge or ‘line ‘to facilitate smooth’ ?ow of,
or reduced turbulence in,-- gas entering the channels on
' Further features of the invention will become apparent 55
"each side of each such secondary vane. ‘
to persons skilled in the art as the description proceeds,
The lower bell-shaped end of housing 26 conforms to
particularly with reference to the drawings in ‘which:
the outer contour of vanes 28 and 32, and is arranged in
FIGURE 1 is an elevation, largely in section, of an
close proximity thereto.
‘embodiment of the invention;
Annulus‘ 33 is ‘positioned around the lower periphery
FIGURE 2 'is :asection on line 2-2 of FIGURE 1; 60 of impeller 22 in a manner to provide an annular open
FIGURE 3 is a section on line 3-3 of FIGURE 1;
ing 34 ther‘ebetween, preferably of ‘restricted width, such
FIGURE 4 is a perspective view, partly diagrammatic,
of the impeller;
FIGURE 5 is a ‘sectional elevation of another ‘embodi
ment of the invention;
FIGURE 6 is .a section on line 6——6 of FIGURE 5;
FIGURE 7 is a ?ow sheet of a‘cascade system for con
centrarting dust particles.
‘Referring now more ‘particularly to FIGURE 1 to 4,
at 10 is shown a casing which serves as a collecting cham
ber, designated as 20, for relatively larger particles, and
vasbetween 1/2000” and 1/16”, “and annulus 33 is preferably
provided with an inner tapered edge 35, for purposes to
be hereinafter more particularly-described.
65 ’ ' Positioned within the space between dome 1B and the
lower bell-shaped portion of member 26 and transversely
thereof, are a plurality of spaced annuli 36 preferably of
diameter upwardly, or, in
progressively vdecreasing
from opening 34, said annuli 36 being
secured in position ‘by any suitable means, ‘such as a plu
rali-ty-of circumferentially spaced rods 37 to which said
annuli may be attached, e.g. by’ welding. Likewise, rods '
37 may be attached to the surrounding framework by any
suitable means, e.g. by bolting, welding, or otherwise.
It will be noted that the inner periphery of each annulus
36 is spaced from the outer periphery of member 26 to
not ‘only the ‘free circumferential flow of gas in chamber
52, but also the free flow of particles through the spaces
between annuli 36, which avoids large reduction in tan
gential velocities of the particles and consequent clogging.
The free rotation of ‘air in space or chamber 52 even
though con?ned, is a signi?cant factor in the avoidance
of clogging, and in the delivery of solid particles to tan
provide a circumferential path, chamber or free space
38, and that dome 13 serves as a second housing about
the lower end of the housing 26.
gential outlet v42.
Experience has shown that extremely ?nely divided
particles, particularly of certain types, sometimes have a
As illustrated, dome '13 is provided vwith a lower cylin~
drical portion or wall 41 having a tangential opening 42
(see FIGURE 3) which leads LlD'tO tubular collecting
chamber 15.
Gas recycle tubes 43 and 44 lead from collecting cham
bers 15 and 20, respectively, to the gas inlet end 45 of
member 26, the flow of recycle gas being controlled by
tendency to agglomenate or build up or pack at points or
areas somewhat analogous to snow in a blizzard, making
‘ it necessary to eventually shut down for cleaning punposes
to maintain a high level of e?’iciency. The period be
tween suoh shut downs may be markedly prolonged or
eliminated by permitting a small percentage of gas, e.g.
valves 46 and 47, respectively. Also collecting chambers
15 and 20 are shown provided with solid particle with
drawal valves, e.g. star valves,
air, to escape along with separated particles into the col
lecting chamber or chambers.
It will be noted that in the operation of the dust sepa
48 and 49 respectively, at 7
their lower ends.
The operation of the dust separator illustrated in FIG
rator particularly described, the gas pressure in the re
spective collecting chambers 15 and 20 is higher ‘than at
the inlet 45, due to the conversion of velocity into pres
URES i1 to, 4 is as follows:
When the separation of particles of sub-microscopic
size is involved, impeller 22 is driven at high speed by
virtue of shaft 21, pulley 23, belts 24, and pulley 25,
e.g. between 100,000 and 200,000 r.p.m. Rotation is
counterclockwise as seen in FIGURE 3.
Thus to cause a small percentage of gas to pass
through tangential opening 42 or through annular opening
34, to clear the respective openings or to maintain such
Gas laden with
openings clear of accumulations of particles, it is merely
?nely divided solid particles, e.g. atmospheric air, enters
inlet 45, and is brought into high speed rotation by vanes
necessary to open, or partially open, valves 46 and 47
respectively, thereby reducing the pressure in the respec
28 on impeller 22, inwardly curved ends 31, when em
ployed, assisting in the process, particularly in the reduc 30 tive chambers. In order to avoid the loss of any particle-s
which might be carreid along with the released gas and/ or
tion of turbulence, and in initiating the application of
to assure a diiferential in pressure, the released gas is
coriolis effect. By virtue of the forward inclination of
preferably recycled into inlet 45 in member 26. Any
vanes 28, and of the secondary vanes 32 when employed,
other means to accomplish the stated purpose obviously
may be substituted.
solid particles suspended in the gas are subjected to the
separating in?uences, not only of high centrifugal force
but also of the phenomena of ‘coriolis, whereby they are
deposited on the vanes and are caused to slide thereon
Although it has been convenient, in the particular de
scription of the embodiment of the invention shown in
GURES l to 4, to consider the dust separator as oper
outwardly toward ‘annular opening or solid particle outlet
34, through which they are ejected or pass downwardly
into collecting chamber 20. The gas, whirling at high
speed, on the other hand, passes outwardly into space 38,
and upwardly into scroll 14 from which it is discharged
the con?gurations of the ‘respective collecting chambers,
through outlet 51. On ascending through space ‘38, the
gas is brought inwardly toward the axis of rotation, out
operation is made possible about any axis vertical, hori
zontal or inclined, e.g. irrespective of any angle between
let 50 from chamber 38 into scroll 14 being of substan
tially lesser diameter than the diameter of ‘the outlet end
of housing 26, and, by virtue of conservation of angular
momentum, the gas is caused to increase in tangential
nection it should be kept in mind that the centrifugal
forces employed are such a large multiple of the ‘force of
gravity as to nullify the effect of the latter virtually alto
velocity with resulting marked increase in centrifugal
force, increase in tangential velocity being, of course,
accompanied by increase in angular velocity. Thus any
centrifugal force may be guided for collection completely
independently of the force of gravity or the position in
ating while in a Vertical position, including the fall by
gravity ‘of particles discharged into collecting chambers
15 and 20, it will be understood that, by modi?cation of
the axis of rotation and the earth’s surface. In this con
As a result particles separating while under
space of the axis of rotation.
solid particles, such as ?ner solid particles, which have
failed to pass through annular opening 34 into collecting
Annulus 33 is preferably made adjustable axially rela
tive to terminal edge 53 of body portion 27 of impeller
chamber 20, are subjected to a substantially higher cen
trifugal force ‘for their separation from the gas. These
particles are thrown outwardly into the spaces between
22, so that, if desired, it may be made to occupy a selected
position radially outwardly from the space between edge
53 and terminal edge 54 on member 26. It will be under
annular rings 36, and pass downwardly into collecting
chamber 15. Final separation of particles ‘from the gas
the solid particles to
in space or chamber 38 is greatly ‘assisted by the progres
sive decrease in inner diameter of annuli 36, which are
preferably ?at as illustrated, for as the gas sweeps up 60
wardly past the inner edges of such ‘annuli, particles
thrown outwardly by centrifugal force are caused to strike
by the de?ecting or skimming action of edge 35.
the under surfaces of annuli v36, thus being released from
The dust separator of the invention may be made to any
the propelling or dragging force of the upwardly ?owing
gas. By reason of their high tangential velocity, parti 65 suitable dimensions, although it is preferred, when em
ploying a very high speed of rotation, such as in the sepa
cles thus separated or released from the upwardly pro
ration of particles of sub-microscopic size, to hold the
pelling force of the gas, ?y outwardly into the space 52,
largest diameter of impeller 22 to between 1'' and 3",
striking, for the most part at least, the inner surface of
and to employ, in the fabrication thereof, high tensile
dome 1-3 'on which they slide, both circumferentially and
strength material, such as high tensile strength alloy steel.
downwardly, due to their momentum, and the continued
action of the rotating air, and ?nally pass through open
It will be noted that impeller 22 lends itself readily to
machining operations.
ing 42 into collecting chamber 15.
It will be noted that annuli 36 are spaced radially in
wardly from the inner surface of dome 13, thus affording
Another embodiment of the invention is illustrated in
FIGURES 5 and 6.
At 61 is shown a shaft having an enlarged portion 62.
which reduction is not desired trom the standpoint of
blogging. The free rotational ?ow of air in space 77,
even though such air may be con?ned therein, is a signif
icant ‘factor ‘in the avoidance of clogging, and the delivery
of solid particles to outlet 84. Gas may be recycled to
inlet 71 through conduit 82, which as shown is connected
Shaft 61 is 'journaled in bearings 63 and 64, and is pro
vided with pulley 65 for driving purposes. Rotation of
shaft 61 is counterclockwise when viewed from the left
as seen in FIGURE 5.
Surrounding shaft 61 and spaced therefrom is housing
66 having a central enlarged portion 67, and ends of
to the higher pressure end of chamber 77 the same as
reduced diameter 68 and 69. Gas inlet conduit 71 is con
‘nected to inlet end 68 ofhousing 66.
conduit 43 is in ‘communication with the higher pressure
‘end of chamber 520i FIGURE 1.
A?ixed to shaft 61 and extending through housing 66
from inlet end 68 to outlet end 69, are a plurality of cir
cumferentially spaced radial vanes 72 positioned in a
The ‘use of ‘tips 74 on vanes 72 is preferred, although
10 not essential. The function of tips 74 is to recover power
manner to act ‘as gas impeller elements to cause the ?ow
of gas through housing 66 from left to right as seen in
FIGURE 5, as well as to impart a whirling motion there
to. Vanes 72 are shown arranged with tips'73 advanced in
the direction of rotation. Also tips 73 are preferably
curved vin ‘the ‘direction of rotation as illustrated at 75.
In addition, vanes 72 may be inclined in the direction of
from the exhausting gas which leaves housing 66 through
At the beginning of this speci?cation it was brought out
that this invention also pertains to the concentration in a
gaseous medium of ?nely divided solid particles, e.g. of
‘sub-micron size. This is illustrated in the flow sheet of
‘FIGURE 7, in which P indicates particles entrained in
the air stream.
rotation in a manner similar to that described in connec
Referring now more particularly to FIGURE 7, at 91 is
‘tion with vanes 28 and 32 of FIGURES 1 to 4, although 20 indicated a dust ‘separator, e.g. similar to that described
this is not an’essential, and in certain instances may not
‘in connection with FIGURES 5 and 6. Dust separator
be ‘preferred.
'91 may be of a 'size capable of handling, for example,
Tips 74 on vanes 72 within outlet end 69 of housing 66
100,000 cubic feet per minute of particle laden air, ex
are shown ‘positioned and shaped somewhat similarly to
hausting along with the separated particles 3000 cubic
‘-tips 73'within inlet end 68 but reversed in direction, that
feet per minute of air, through valve 85, and 97,000 cubic
is advanced in a direction opposite to the direction of
~fe'etzper minute of particle free air vthrough outlet end 69.
rotation, for reasons to be hereinafter more pa-rticuLarly
The particles or powder concentrated in the air ex
hausted from separator 91 may be subjected to analysis
Positioned within enlarged portion 67 of housing 66 are
as such, or if further concentration is desired, the mixture,
a plurality ‘of spaced annuli 78, supported as by rods 81. 30 ‘so ‘concentrated in powder or particles, may be fed to a
‘It is to be understood that whereas annuli 78 are shown
second dust separator indicated at 92, e.g. a dust separator
with equal inner diameters, they may be provided with
‘similar to that described in connection with FIGURES 5
progressively decreasing inner diameters from inlet to
outlet of housing portion 67 similarly to the case of
annuli 36 in FIGURES 1 to 4. It will be understood, of
course, that the diagrammatic illustration is intended to
and 6, and capable of handling, for example, 3000 cubic
feet per minute of air with particles concentrated therein.
ever, may’ be caused or facilitated by the use of a pump,
93, e.g. a dust separator similar to that described in con
Dust separator 92 could be set to exhaust 100 cubic
‘feet per minute of air along with the solid particles,
indicate spaced annuli 78 extending throughout housing
through ‘valve 85, and 2900 cubic feet per minute of
portion 67 ‘from left to ‘right as seen in FIGURE 5.
particle free air.
Gas recycle conduit 82‘ provided with valve 83 leads
At this point, the particles concentrated in air exhausted
from the inner periphery of housing portion 67 preferably 40 therewith from dust separator 92 might be utilized as such.
adjacent end 68 (this being the higher pressure end in
Onitheiother hand, if further concentrationis desired, the
housing portion 67) to inlet 71. Recycle gas flow, how
mixture can be fed into a third dust separator indicated at
or other device, if desired, such as a centrifugal pump.
nection with FIGURES l to 4 and capable of handling,
The same applies to the recycle of gas through ‘conduit 45 for example, the 100 cubic feet per minute of dust laden
43 and/ or conduit 44 in FIGURE 1. By the use of these
air ‘from separator 92, and exhausting air free of particles
features gas is recycled from a locus downstream of gas
at the rate of 100 cubic feet per minute, and the particles
?ow to a locus upstream thereof for purposes already
free from‘ suspending air.
described in' connection with FIGURES 1 to 4.
From the foregoing description it will be noted that
“Housing 66 is provided with tangential outlet 84, the
the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGURES 5
exit of which is controlled by valve 85, eg. a star valve.
and 6 is more particularly adapted to the concentration
.In operation gas laden with ?nely divided solid particles,
of particles in a gaseous medium, whereas the embodi
e.g. air, enters through inlet conduit 71, and is brought
ment shown in FIGURES 1 to 4 is particularly adapted,
up to speed by vanes 72. Separation of ?nely divided
not only to concentration of particles in a gaseous me
solid particles takes place, the particles collecting on the
vanes 72 and sliding outwardly along the same into the
enlarged portion 67 of housing 66, being thrown tangen
tially outwardly against the inner periphery thereof and
removed through tangential outlet 84. The gas, revolv
ing at the high rate of speed imparted to it by the vanes
72, continues through housing 66 ‘for the separation of
residual particles contained therein, spaced annuli 78 as
sisting in this connection, for particles thrown outwardly,
upon their impingement on a face of an annulus 78, are
dium, e.g. involving drawing off of gas with suspended
particles through lines 43 and/ or 44- without recycle, and/
or through scroll ‘14, but also to the complete separation
from a gaseous medium of solid particles. Also that
the various embodiments are adapted to the separation
from a gaseous medium of particles of any size up to and
including those visible to the naked eye. Moreover, the
various embodiments may be built to any desired size
to handle any desired cubic feet per minute of particle
laden gas, rotational speed being limited only by the
released from the dragging in?uence of the gas, and travel 65 strength of the materials employed. Thus it is contem
outwardly against and around the inner periphery of en
plated that the rotors may be made with relatively large
larged portion 67, due to their tangential velocity, and are
diameters in large capacity machines, e.g. with diameters
removed through outlet 84.
up to ten feet or more, which adapts the invention to
The spacing of annuli 78 from the inner periphery of
various industrial uses, such as the removal of ash from
enlarged portion 67 of housing 66 to form the cylindrical 70 ?ue gas. The cascade system described in connection
chamber or free space 77 affords not only the free cir
with FIGURE 7 is particularly adapted to the continuous
cumferential rotation of gas in chamber 77, but also the
rapid processing and analysis of large volumes of air, e.g.
free ?ow of particles outwardly through the spaces be
in an’ enclosure or room containing equipment capable of
tween annuli 78, which, the same as in FIGURES 1 to 4,
nuclear radiation, such as a nuclear reactor, or labora
avoids large reduction in tangential velocity of the particles 75
tory or test equipment as will be obvious upon ‘becoming
familiar herewith. Other uses for the invention will be
come apparent to persons skilled in the art.
In the various embodiment of the invention particularly
described it will be noted that recycle gas is preferably
taken from the higher pressure end of the respective
chambers or spaces surrounding the spaced annuli, e.g.
ejected by said rotor, a second housing downstream from
and surrounding said ?rst housing for the ?ow there
through of said gas, a plurality of spaced stationary gen~
erally ?at annuli ‘arranged longitudinally of and around
the path of ?ow of gas through said second housing, said
annuli progressively decreasing an inner ‘diameter in the
chamber 52 in FIGURES 1 to 4 and chamber 77 in
FIGURES 5 and 6. This represents an outstanding fea
direction of flow of said gas, an outlet for said second
housing for the exit of said gas, said last-mentioned out
such spaces.
prising .a rotor, vanes on the rotor, means for rotating
let being of substantially lesser diameter than the outlet
ture of the invention, in that whereas the free rapid
circumferential ?ow of gas is desired in the respective 10 for said ?rst housing to cause gas ?owing through said
second housing to move toward its axis of rotation, and
chambers for the reasons particularly described, the draw
a scroll connected to the outlet for said second housing
ing off of recycle gas from the higher pressure end re
for the exit of gas from said dust separator.
duces or eliminates any tendency for gas to short circuit
3. Apparatus for separating particles from gas com
or pass around the main separating chambers through 15
the rotor, a housing for said rotor having an inlet and
an annular exhaust opening about the periphery of the
rotor, ‘an enclosure surrounding at least the exhaust open
adapted to wide versatility, and that changes, omissions,
additions, substitutions and/or other modi?cations may 20 ing and outward vfrom the rotor for leading at least a por
tion ‘of the exhaust from the rotor in a direction generally
be made Without departing from the spirit thereof. Ac
axially with respect to the rotor, the enclosure being sub
cordingly it is intended that the patent shall cover, by
stantially coaxial ‘of the rotor and having an axial dis
suitable expression in the claims, the various features
charge opening of diameter less than the diameter of the
of patentable novelty that reside in the invention.
We claim:
annular exhaust ‘opening, a plurality of spaced stationary
25 annuli in the enclosure positioned around and trans
1. Apparatus comprising a rotor, said rotor being bell
verse‘ly of the ?ow from the rotor, said spaced annuli
shaped, vanes on the outer surfaces of said rotor ar
From the foregoing particular description which is by
way of illustration, it will be seen that the invention is
ranged generally longitudinally thereof, means for rotat
ing said rotor, said vanes ‘being inclined toward the direc
progressively decreasing in inner diameter in the direction
tionary generally ?at annuli arranged longitudinally of
opposite the flow of exhaust into the enclosure.
of ?ow from the rotor, and the enclosure having means
tion of rotation of said rotor, a bell-shaped housing sur 30 outward from the annuli for receiving particles.
4. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein the peripheral
rounding said vanes, said housing having an inlet and
wall of said enclosure gradually converges toward said
an outlet, an annular outlet for particles around the outlet
discharge opening.
‘for said housing ‘and positioned in the path of separated
5. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein an annulus is
particles ejected by said rotor, a second housing down
stream from and surrounding said ?rst housing for the 35 positioned about the annular exhaust opening from the
rotor housing to de?ect heavier particles in a direction
?ow therethrough of said gas, a plurality of spaced sta
and around the path of ?ow of gas through said second
housing, said annuli progressively decreasing in inner
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
diameter in the direction of ?ow of said gas, and an .40
outlet for said second housing for the exit of said gas,
Matthiessen _.... ________ __ July 2, 1867
said last-mentioned outlet being of lesser diameter than
the outlet for said ?rst housing.
Roberts ______________ __ Apr. 27, 1875
‘ 1,480,685
Ladd ________________ .._ Jan. 15, 1924
2. Apparatus comprising a bell-shaped rotor, vanes on
the outer surface of said rotor arranged generally longi 45
tudinally thereof, means for rotating said rotor, said vanes
being inclined toward the direction of rotation of said
Sylvan ____'_ ___________ __ Jan. 2, 1934
r 2,465,625
Aue ________________ __ Mar. 29, 1949
Goldberg ____________ __ Apr. 15, 1952
Walker ____., ___________ __ Dec. 1, 1953
rotor, a bell-shaped housing surrounding said vanes, said
housing having an inlet at the narrow end of its bell
shape and an outlet at the wider end of its bell-shape, an
annular ‘outlet for particles around the outlet for said
housing and positioned in the path of separated particles
Great Britain __________ __ Mar. 5, 1889
Germany _.. __________ __ Sept. 18, 1920
France ___________ __,____ Aug. 3, 1940
Germany _____________ _.. Jan. 5, 1945
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