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Патент USA US3094849

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June 25, 1963
F, _1_ HOGGUER
3,094,840
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING A ROTARY
PISTON ARRANGED ECCENTRICALLY 0N A SHAFT
Filed April 28, 1960
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
A
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INVENTOR,
.BMM 30m2 'mlm Wma/54M
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June 25, 1963
F J
. HOGGUER
3,094,840
INTERNAL COMBUS. TION
ENGINE HAVING A ROTARY
u
PISTON ARRANGED E
CCENTRICALLY ON A SHAFT
F‘lled
April 28, 1960
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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‘Ím
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INVENTOR.
.Íïwbd/flh lmfmm/g 716m/
WM”
@A @u
June
, 1963
F, J, HOGGUER
3,094,840
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE HAVING A ROTARY
PISTON ARRANGED ECCENTRICALLY ON A SHAFT
Filed April 28, 1960
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
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3,694,849
Patented June 25, 1963
2
FIGURE la is a corresponding section through a com
3,994,840
pression chamber according to another embodiment;
INTERNAL COMBUSTIQN ENGINE HAVING A
FIGURE 2 is a section on line II-II in FIGURE l;
ROTARY PISTÜN ARRANGED ECCENTRICALLY
FIGURE
3 is a section on line III-III in FIGURE l;
0N A SHAFT
FIGURE 4 is a section through part of the engine,
Fredrik Jeremías Hogguer, Nieuw Loosdrechtsedijlc 264, Ul
normal to the main shaft, but on line IV-IV in FIG
Nieuw Loosdrecht, Netherlands
Filed Apr. 28, 1950, Ser. No. 25,294
Claims priority, application Netherlands Oct. 13, 1959
6 Claims. (Cl. 64I-«$9.43)
URE 3;
FIGURE 5 is a section through a compression cham
ber and its associated sliding sleeve according to yet an
other embodiment;
The copending application Ser. No. 817,648 describes
FIGURE Sa is a section on line Va-Va in FIGURE 5;
an internal combustion engine having a rota-ry piston
FIGURE 6 is a section corresponding to FIGURE 5
arranged eccentrically on a shaft, a portion of which
through a compression chamber and its associated slid
piston having a circular section permanently bears
ing sleeve again according to another embodiment, the
against the inner side of the housing, a plurality of slid
cylindrical guide means `for the sliding sleeve being shown
ing sleeves regularly distributed over the periphery of the
at the one side in an air-cooled embodiment and at the
housing being accommodated in said housing, which slid
other side in a liquid-cooled embodiment;
ing sleeves are spring-pressed against the cylindrical sur
FIGURE 6a is a section on line VIa-VIa in FIG
face of the piston, a plurality of compression chambers
URE 6 and
being distributed over the periphery of the housing, each 20
FIGURE 7 is a section, corresponding to FIGURE 3,
of which chambers has a sliding sleeve associated there
through part of the engine, the left and the «right half
with and each chamber, as seen looking in the direction
of the present figure showing the air-cooled and the
of rotation of the piston, being located before its associ
liquid-cooled embodiment respectively.
ated sliding sleeve, while that portion of the cylindrical
The embodiment of the rotary internal combustion en
surface of the piston bearing against the inner side of the 25 gine shown in FIGURES l to 4 inclusive comprises a
housing is provided with one or more apertures which co
box-shaped cylinder or housing 1 having a cylindrical
operate with at least one inwardly directed driving blade,
periphery »and two covers 2, '3 secured thereto by means
the arrangement being such that the operating iluid sup
of bolts. Said cylinder 1 has four' cylindrical guide
plied centrally to the piston is passed to a space defined
means 4 equidistantly spaced _around its periphery, in
by the piston, the housing and two sliding sleeves and is 30 each of which a sliding sleeve 5 is slidable axially and,
subsequently ignited `after being compressed in a com
relative to the main shaft 6 of the engine, radially. Each
pression chamber, following which the combustion gases
sliding sleeve in transverse direction comprises a bottom
after having acted on the b1ade(s) provided in the piston,
7 extending over three quarters of its periphery and
are discharged .through an outlet centrally arranged in
radially inwardly directed extension pieces or wings 7’
the piston.
and 7", provided with a cyindrical pin 8, which pins en
Now the improvement according to the invention re
gage the -disc-shaped engine piston 9, the axis of which
sides in that each compression chamber is directed sub
runs parallel to the engine shaft 6. By means of its pin
stantially tangentially relative to the cylindrical surface
8, each sliding sleeve is in Contact with the partly con
of the piston, its open end adjoining one of the sliding
centric outer periphery v10, and the partly eccentric outer
40
sleeves that are reciprocated by the cylindrical surface
periphery @11 of the engine piston. It will be noted
of the piston.
that eccentric periphery :11 is a substantially regular
It is thus achieved that the expanding combustion
curvilinear surface which is tangent, at each end, to the
gases, after ignition, imping upon the main blade in the
cylindrical inner surface of the cylinder 1, and which has
piston at as favourable an angle as possible, and thus
with as great an effect as possible, without the gas ñow
having to be deñected over an angle, which latter entails
great losses.
In addition the internal combustion engine according
to the invention may be so constructed that each sliding
sleeve is guided by a guide means projecting substantial
ly radially from the periphery of the housing and sur
rounding the sliding sleeve, which guide means is closed
by a cover having an inwardly projecting tubular portion
which partially extends into the sliding sleeve and which
has a ybottom whose shape is adapted to the shape of
the sliding sleeve and the periphery of the piston, a heli
cal spring acting on the sliding sleeve being arranged
about said inwardly projecting tubular portion.
a 4maximum eccentricity, relative to the cylinder 1, at a
point substantially midway of its tangent ends. Helical
compression springs 1-2 ensure permanent contact be
tween the pins 8 of the sliding sleeves and the piston 9.
The wings 7' and 7" of the sliding sleeve bottom 7
laterally seal the engine piston 9. A counter-weight 13
effects the balancing of the piston 9.
If the engine is equipped with a double or multi-bladed
piston, thus a piston with two or more main blades equi
distantly spaced over its periphery and two or more con
centric and eccentric faces equidistantly spaced over the
periphery, the counter-weight 13` is supertluous.
A stationary compression chamber 15 is provided in
peripherally adjacent relation to each. sliding sleeve, on
the trailing side of the associated sliding sleeve as con
As a result the rotary piston and the sliding sleeves are
sidered with respect to the direction .of rotation of the
the only moving parts and are entirely sealed from the 60 piston as indicated by the arrow 14. Each compression
atmosphere, while only the outer surface of each sliding
chamber 15 is so oriented that its longitudinal center line
sleeve and the steel pin which is in contact with the pe
forms
a very small acute angle with a tangent to the circu
riphery of the piston, are sliding. The piston springs can
lar periphery of the housing 1. The compression cham
be omitted and only one pressure spring per sliding sleeve
is necessary. Furthermore corrosion is considerably 65 bers are formed by a circular-cylindrical casing 16 or
as appears from FIGURES 5 and Sa-are formed by a
restricted.
In the following description the improvement will be
elucidated with reference to the accompanying drawings,
in which:
FIGURE l is a section on line I-I in FIGURE 3,‘
and thus normal to the main shaft of the internal com
bustion engine according to the invention;
casing 16’ which in cross-section comprises two parallel
straight sides and two curved sides, as. well as by an end
wall 17.
In the embodiment according to FIGURE l, a screw
threaded spark plug hole -18 is provided in the end wall
17 to receive a spark plug 13a. In the embodiments ac
3,094,840
cording to FIGURES la and 5a this hole 18 is provided
in the side wall of casing 16.
The positions of the sliding sleeves 5 relative to the as
sociated compression chamber 15 in the different phases
of the four stroke operating cycle clearly appear from
FIGURE 1. The guide means 4 are permanently closed
at the outer side by covers 19, which covers also form
tubular inward projections 2t) which extend into the slid
ing sleeves 5 and have a bottom 21 whose shape con
«forms to the shape of the bottom of said sleeves and of
5 and 5a) to imping upon the main blade Z5 at the right
moment.
With the arrangement of FIG. 5, it’ will be noted that
the initial ignition will take place adjacent the opening
18', and that the thus ignited gases in the passage direct
ly communicating with the opening 18’ will, through the
opening `40, ignite the gases in the central passage. In
turn, the gases ignited in the central passage will, through
the opening 41, ignite the gases in the third passage, or
the upper passage as viewed in FIG. 5a. 'I'here is thus
piston. In the embodiment according to FIGURES l to
4 inclusive the helical spring y1?. is located in the space
between the guide means 4, the cover 19 a-nd the tubular
a progressive impingement of gases against the blade 25.
It is also possible to shape the compression chamber 15
such that the longitudinal section is: triangular with the
apex located in the point of contact on the inner periphery
projection 20 above the sliding sleeve 5, whereas said
spring is disposed within the sliding sleeve in the cm
bodiment according to FIGURES 5 and 5a. Through
this last-named arrangement the radially directed guide
cylinder. The cross~section of the chamber may be rec
tangular, as shown in FIGURE 6a». The average direction
the concentric peripheral surface portion 10 of the engine
of the cylinder (vide FIGURE 6i). Both sides, meeting
in the apex 42, practically touch said periphery of the
means 4 can be much shorter.
In order that the sliding sleeve wings 7’ and 7’l pro
vide for the pin 8 to yfreely follow the piston periphery
10, 11, the cylinder covers 2, 3 are recessed and ground
to form a cylinder segment, -as at 2.2.
The engine piston or rotor 9 comprises a hollow, ñat
disc including axially spaced end walls and a peripheral
wall joining the end walls, the eccentric periphery 11 of
which is entirely closed, but the concentric periphery 10
of which is largely open, so that there is a gap of a width
in which the explosion surge leaves said compression
chamber 15 is substantially normal to the main blade 25.
Finally the lateral sealing of the piston 9 may be effected
by means of axially slidable sealing rings 43, 44, which
are guided by pins 45 »and are loaded by springs 46.
It will further be apparent from FIGURES 6 and 7,
that the engine may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled.
Cooling ribs are designated by 47 and cooling liquid cavi
ties by 48.
Although the operation of the engine may be considered
to be clear, the lfour operating phases are indicated by
equalling
As seen looking
the space
in the
between
direction
the piston
of rotation
end walls
according
23, to 30 the letters a to d inclusive in FIGURE 1, a being the de
fined space in which air or a fuel-air mixture is being
the arrow 14, a radially extending blade 25 is located
sucked in, b >a defined space which has just been iilled,
adjacent the concentric peripheral portion 10, which
its charge being ready for compression, c a defined space
blade extends from the periphery to just past the main
in which the charge .is being compressed and d the space
shaft 6. The combustion gases are directed against the
trailing surface of said blade and cause the piston to 35 in which combustion and exhaust of the gases is taking
place.
rotate.
I claim:
1. A rotary internal combustion engine comprising, -in
rllhe outer surface of the wall 24 of the piston is pro
vided with a recess 26 extending from a portion of the
combination,
periphery towards the centre, which -recess communicates
(a) a casing having a cylindrical inner surface and
constituting a cylinder;
(b) a rotatable shaft extending coaxially of said cylin
drical inner surface;
(c) a substantially disk shape rotary hollow main piston
secured to said shaft for rotation within said cylin
der, and including a pair of axially spaced end walls
and a peripheral wall interconnecting said end walls;
(d) the periphery of said piston being divided into
with the inlet 27 and admits fresh mixture or air to the
operating space, according as to whether the engine runs
on a mixture or operates as an injection engine.
When the combustion gases have delivered their energy
to the blade 25 which is fixed with a pin 2S (vide FIG
URE 1), they are exhausted, partly via the axially bent 45
branch 29 of the blade 25, which latter is made from a
piece of tubing, and partly through the eccentric opening
30 in the side wall 23 of the piston, and are discharged
at least one group of four consecutive sections of
through the outlet 31.
'Ihis unimpeded discharge is made possible because the 50
side wall 24 of the piston, which is located at the inlet
"side of the engine, is secured to a flange 34, provided on
substantially equiangular extent; the first three lead
ing sections of each group, considered in the direc
the shaft 6, by means of bolts 32 and nuts 33. As a re
sult, a seal between the ñange and «the piston to prevent 55
the fresh mixture and the outlet gases from mixing, may
be omitted. The shaft bearing 35 is located so close to
the piston that danger of vibration is out of the question.
If, with a view to the combustion process taking place
in the engine, it is desirable to do so, a small piston 36 60
can be provided in each compression chamber, which
piston 36 is loaded by a spring 37 (vide FIGURE la)
and causes the explosion toi take place more gradually,
cylinder at the leading edge of the first section and
the trailing edge of the third section, the fourth scc~
tion of each group being substantially coaxial with
said shaft, having a radius substantially equal to that
of said cylinder, `and having a sliding sealing fit with
the surface of said cylinder;
(e) a plurality of substantially cylindrical sleeves, equal
while it can serve for removing combustion residues from
in number to the total number of said main piston
the compression chamber. Structural particulars, such
periphery sections, mounted in equi~angular spaced
as piston springs, an abutment defining the inward move
ment and suchlilre, are not indicated in said figure, which
relation cincumferentially of said casing vfor substan
tially radial reciprocation relative to said shaft, each
sleeve having a diameter equal to the axial extent
only shows the spark plug hole 18’ provided in the casing
16, and the hole 1-8 meant as a vent for the rear side of
of said main piston and an inner end in continuous
the piston 36.
If it is desired to have the explosion act more gradual 70
ly in a plurality of phases, on the main blade passing the
compression chamber, then each compression chamber
may be provided defining longitudinal partitions 38, 39
with passages ‘40, 41, through which the explosion surges
leave the compression chamber in stages (vide FIGURES
tion of rotation of said main piston, having a oom
mon curvilinear surf-ace which is eccentric to said
shaft, with the eccentricity increasing to a maximum
at the mid-point of said com-mon curvilinear sur
face, and which is tangent to the surface of said
Ul
fluid-tight engagement with the periphery of said
main piston; each sleeve being slideably mounted in
a respective substantially radially outwardly project'
ing sleeve guiding extension of said casing;
(y‘) means biasing -said sleeves inwardly toward said
main piston;
`
5
'3,094,840
(g) a plurality of compression chambers, equal in num
ber to said sleeves »and independent of said sleeve
guiding extensions, mounted -in equi-angular spaced
lrelation circumferentially of said casing and each
communicating with said main cylinder, each of said
compression chambers being associated with a respec
tive one of said sleeves and located, considered with
respect to the direction of rotation of said main
6
stantially radially from the periphery of said casing and
each coaxial with and slideably embracing a respective
one of said sleeves; each guide means having va closure
element secured to its outer end and lformed with an in
wardly projecting tubular portion forming, with the asso
ciated guide means, an annular space receiving the asso
ciated sleeve; the inner end surface of each tubular por
tion conforming to the cylindrical inner surface of said
piston, just in advance of its -associated respective
cylinder; said sleeve lbiasing means each comprising a
sleeve;
10 helical spring surrounding the tubular portion of a closure
(lz) each of said compression chambers extending tan
element and seated, between the outer end of said closure
gentially to said cylinder in a direction away from its
element and the associated sleeve.
associated respective sleeve, and the outer end of
3. A Irotary internal combustion engine, as claimed in
each compression chamber being closed; combustible
cl-aim 1, in -which each of said compression chambers has
mixture ignition means associated with each com
pression chamber; an admission port opening axially
through one side of said casing;
(i) inlet recesses -in the outer surface of one end wall
a circular cross-section.
4. A rota-ry `internal combustion engine, as claimed in
claim 1, including a plurality of auxiliary pistons, each
freely slideably mounted in va respective compression
chamber; and a compression spring disposed between the
of said main piston, equal in number to said groups,
each continuously communicating at its inner end 20 outer surface of each auxiliary piston and the closed outer
with said admission port and having its outer end
end of the associated compression chamber.
opening through the main piston periphery through
5. A rota-ry internal combustion engine, as claimed -in
out substantially the full angular extent of the lead
claim 1, in which each compression chamber has »at least
ing peripheral section of each group;
one partition extending longitudinally thereof and divid
(j) a driving blade extending radially .inwardly of said 25 ing the compression chamber into separate longitudinally
main piston adjacent the leading edge of the trailing
extending compartments; each partition being formed with
section of each group, said blade having a radial outer
end in continuous fluid-tight engagement, through
out the inner axial extent of said piston, with the
an access opening for communication between compart
ments, and the access openings being so disposed, relative
to the location of said ignition means, that the ignition
peripheral wall of said cylinder to completely seal
of the combustible mixture will progress respectively from
its associated trailing section from -its associated
said ignition means through each of said compartments in
third section; whereby, yas said shaft rotates, the
sequence.
space, deñned by the leading peripheral section of
6. A rotary internal combustion engine, as claimed in
each group «and a pair of circumferentially adjacent
claim 1, i-n which each compression chamber, as viewed
sleeves, will expand to draw combustible mixture 35 in a diametric plane of said cylinder, is longitudinally
thereinto through the associated inlet recess, and
triangular in section with the apex of the longitudinally
the thus drawn in combustible mixture will be oom~
extending sides thereof lying on the surface of said
pressed in the space deñned by the third peripheral
cylinder.
section of each group, a pair of circumferentially
spaced adjacent sleeves, and the associated compres 40
References Cited in the lile of this patent
sion chamber between the latter; the thus compressed
mixture being ignited as the driving blade of the trail
UNITED STATES PATENTS
ing section of each group passes the inner end of
such associated compression chamber for impinge
ment of the expanding gases, directed tangentially
into the cylinder, against the trailing surface of the
driving :blade to rotate said main piston;
(k) means associated with each driving blade for di
recting the exhaust gases impinging there against
radially inwardly of said piston;
(l) and means -for exhausting gases from the interior
of said main piston adjacent said shaft. .
2. A rotary internal combustion engine, as claimed in
claim l, said guiding extensions comprising a- plurality of
guide means, equal in number to said sleeves, and each
independent of the adjacent combustion chamber and
having an inner end opening through the inner cylindrical
surface of said casing, each guide means projecting sub
267,675
291,522
800,684
1,244,529
1,250,196
1,316,957
1,339,730
1,520,005
2,013,397
Cory ________________ __ Nov. 21,
Kimball ________________ __ Jan. 8,
Schneider _____________ __ Oct. 3,
Mehle _______________ __ Oct. 30,
Louche _______________ __ Dec. 18,
Johanson ____________ __ Sept. 23,
Williams _____________ __ May 11,
Broughton ____________ __ Dec. 23,
Blalsiger ______________ __. Sept. 3,
1882
1884
1905
1917
1917
1919
1920
1924
1935
2,015,027
Finley ________________ __ Sept. 17, 1935
2,421,898
Melrose ______________ __ I une 10, 1947
2,908,135
King et al _____________ __ Oct. 13, 1959
OTHER REFERENCES
“The Ame-rican Inventor,” April 1906, vol. 15, #4, p.
1‘01, published at 114 Liberty Street, New York, N.Y.
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