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Патент USA US3094868

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June 25, 1963
R. s. MaccAFFRAY, JR
WARP KNITTED FILE FABRIC INVOLVING
Filed Feb. 26. 1960
3,094,857
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
12 Sheets-Sheet l
INVENTOR
June 25, 1963
Filed Feb. 26, 1960
R, 5, MaGCAFFRAY, JR
3,094,857
WARP KNITTED PILE FABRIC INVOLVING
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
l2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR
June 25, 1963
Filed Feb. 26, 1960
R, s, MaccAFFRAY, JR
3,094,857
WARP KNITTED FILE FABRIC INVOLVING
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
12 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOR
June 25, 1963
R. s. MaGCAFFRAY, JR
3,094,857 >
WARP KNITTED PILE FABRIC INVOLVING
‘
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
Filed Feb. 26, 1960
12 Sheets-Sheet 4
INVENTOR
June 25, 1963
Filed Feb. 26, 1960
R, 5. MaccAFFRAY, JR
3,094,857
WARP KNITTED FILE FABRIC INVOLVING
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
l2 Sheets-Sheet 5
June 25, 1963
Filed Feb. 26, 1960
R. s. MaccAFFRAY, JR
3,094,857
WARP KNITTED PILE FABRIC INVOLVING
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
12 Sheets-Sheet 6
INVENTOR
June 25, 1963
R, s, MaccAFFRAY, JR
3,094,857
WARP KNITTED FILE FABRIC INVOLVING
I
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
Filed Feb. 26, 1960
12 Sheets-Sheet 'T
INVENTOR
June 25, 1963
Filed Feb. 26, 1960
R, 5, MaQCAFFRAY, JR
WARP KNITTED FILE FABRIC INVOLVING
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
3,094,857
12 Sheets-Sheet 8
June 25, 1963
Filed Feb. 26, 1960
R_ 5, MaQC-AFFRAY, JR
3,094,857
WARP KNITTED FILE FABRIC. INVOLVING
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
12 Sheets~Sheet 9
M
M)?
‘l
L)’
i
_
INVENTOR
36% J.
B MacCa?/ay,
,
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ATTORNEYS
June 25, 1963
Filed Feb. 26, 1960
R, 5_ MaocAFFRAY, JR
WARP KNITTED PILE FABRIC INVOLVING
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
3,094,857
12 Sheets-Sheet 10
June 25, 1963
Filed Feb. 26, 1960
R. s. MaccAFFRAY, JR
3,094,857
WARP KNITTED FILE FABRIC INVOLVING
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
12 Sheets-Sheet 11
June 25, 1963
R. s. MaCCAFFRAY, JR
3,094,857
WARP KNITTED FILE FABRIC INVOLVING
ORIENTATION BY MODIFYING WARP
12 Sheets-Sheet 12
Filed Feb. 26, 1960
- '. Z0.
)FZ/E
INVENTOR
26x J2 Mawa??my, Jr.
United States Patent 0 " 1C6
3,094,857
Patented June 25, 1963
2
1
knitting yarn stitch, and will cause the legs of the pile
3,094,857
‘
WARP KNITTED PILE FABRIC INVOLVING ORIEN
TATION BY MODIFYING WARP
projections to be erected into a vertical position or a
position inclined from the vertical depending upon the
tension in the modifying warp ends, at the same time
Rex S. MacCalfray, Jr., Boiling Springs, Pa., assignor to
C. H. Masland & Sons, Carlisle, Pa., a corporation of
orienting the pile projection in proportion to the tension
applied to the modifying warp ends.
Filed Feb. 26, 1960, Ser. No. 11,306
20 Claims. (Cl. 66-191)
tern in a pile fabric by selectively controlling the tension
Pennsylvania
A further purpose is to produce a surface texture pat
on the modifying warp ends for each individual end and
The present invention relates to warp knitted pile 10 for each stitch, the modifying warp ends pressing against
the legs of the pile projections and moving in each stitch
fabrics. The invention is applicable to pile fabrics gen
opposite to the knitting chain, and the modifying warp
erally but particularly to carpets, rugs, upholstery fabrics,
ends by tension clamping the legs of the pile projections
decorative fabrics and the like.
between the top loops of the knitting stitches and the
This application is a continuation-in-part of my co
pending application Serial No. 856,263, ?led November 15 modifying warp ends. Thus under a high tension of the
modifying warp ends one type of pile orientation will be
30, 1959, for Warp Knitted Pile Fabric and Method In
obtained and under a lesser tension 3 different type of
volving Orientation by Modifying Warp, now US. Patent
pile orientation will be obtained, due to the looser
3,029,621. This application includes the fabric subject
clamping action exerted on the legs of the pile projections
matter divided from application Serial No. 856,263.
A purpose of the invention is to control the orientation 20 against the top stretches of the knitting chain.
A further purpose is to produce a warp knitted pile
of the pile projections on a warp knitted pile fabric by
fabric with a backing of sinuously laid-in backing yarn,
means of two warp ends for each pile yarn end, one
warpwise lines of warp chain stitches locking the weft
of which warp ends is formed into knitted stitches, and
wise backing yarn into a ?at fabric, face or pile yarn
the other of which warp ends is laid into the knit-ted
25 with legs of the pile projections held in the stitches of
stitches.
the knitting chain, and modifying warp yarn which is
A further purpose is to increase the tuft bind in
laid~in in the stitches of the knitting chain. The modify
warp knitted pile fabrics by use of two binding warps,
ing warp yarn acts opposite to the knitting chain, so that
one of which forms knitting stitches and the other of
the legs of the pile projections are clamped between
which is laid into the knitted stitches.
A further purpose is to reproduce a texture pattern in 30 the upper loops of the knitting chain and the modifying
warp ends, causing the legs of the pile projections to be
loop pile fabrics such as carpets or the like, especially
erected vertical in the fabric.
level loop pile fabrics, by the use of a modifying warp
A further purpose is to prevent the: backing yarn from
end for each pile warp.
grinning or showing through on the face of the fabric,
A further purpose is to produce a more glamorous and
in areas of the carpet where the pile is low, or far apart,
attractive pile fabric using a single guide bar for pile
or where the pile projections are pulled down so that they
yarn, without the necessity of burying extra pile yarn
or ‘using extra laid-in pile yarn.
A further purpose is to avoid the alternate row effect,
sometimes called the rowy effect, which is commonly as’
sociated with knitted pile fabrics.
are only flat in-laid stretches of yarn secured in the
1 knitted chains.
A further purpose is to utilize for the modifying warp
40 face yarn, a quality of yarn which is suitable for face
A further purpose is to knit a pile fabric in which the
yarn but which is inferior to that used for the high pile
legs of the pile projections are erected and held between
‘ projections, in respect particularly to resistance to wear,
stretches of two different warp yarn ends.
A further purpose is to ?rst lock the forward or newly
and resiliency.
formed leg of each of the pile projections (loops) under
A further purpose is to make the modifying warp per
form a dual purpose, that of modifying the orientation
the top stretches of knitting warp yarn stitches, and
at the time of forming the pile projections, make this top
contributing to the formation of the face of the carpet
and particularly erecting the pile projections, and also
at areas between‘high pile projections.
stretch of knitting warp yarn pass around one side of
Further purposes appear in the speci?cation and in the
the legs of the pile projection at the same time that an
end of modifying warp yarn passes around the opposite 50 claims.
In the drawings I have chosen to illustrate one only
side of the legs of the pile projection, the modifying warp
of the numerous embodiments in which the invention may
yarn then being laid-in and bound under the same top
appear, selecting the forms shown from the standpoints of
stretch of knitting warp yarn.
_
convenience in illustration, satisfactory operation and
A further purpose is ?rst to hold the forward or newly
clear demonstration of the principles involved.
formed leg of each one of the newly formed pile projec
FIGURES 1 to 8, inclusive, are diagrammatic stepwise
tions by means of a modifying warp end which passes
vertical sections showing the positions of the operating
around and over the base of each leg of the pile projec
parts of the knitting machine in producing the fabric of
tion and which then is laid into the knitting warp stitch,
the present invention, particularly directed to FIGURE 9,
the forward leg of the newly formed pile loop crossing
over the newly formed warp chain stitch and being in 60 but serving as a basis for understanding the operations
for producing all of the fabrics.
a position so that it will be locked under the top stretch
FIGURES 1a to 8a are enlarged and expanded diagram
of the next warp chain stitch but not under the top
matic plan views of the knitting according to FIGURES
8, to produce the fabric shown in FIGURE 9.
A further purpose is to provide pile projections of 65 l to
FIGURES 4b and 7b are enlarged expanded diagram
pile yarn with legs which are laid into stitches of Warp
matic plan views of knitting steps which correspond to
knitting yarn, with a modifying warp yarn above the
FIGURES 4a to 7a respectively, but: which illustrate the
warp stitch binding point of the legs, the modifying warp
changes made in the method of FIGURES 1 to 8 and
stretch of the chain stitch of the present course.
yarn being laid into the same loops of warp knitting yarn,
by shogging and moving opposite to the knitting yarn so
that the modifying warp yarn ends will clamp the legs of
the pile projections against the top stretch of the warp
la to 8a in order to produce the fabric of FIGURE 13.
FIGURES 4c and 7c are enlarged expanded diagram
matic plan views corresponding to FIGURES 4a and 7a,
but showing the modcations in the knitting steps of FIG
3,094,857
URES 1 to 8 and 1a to 8a which are employed in pro
ducing the fabric of FIGURE 14.
FIGURE lb is a view corresponding to FIGURE 11:
but showing formation of out rather than uncut pile.
FIGURE 9 is a fragmentary expanded face of a fabric
produced according to FIGURES 1 to 8 and la to 8a.
FIGURE 10 is an enlarged fragmentary section of FIG
URE 9 on .the line 10--10.
4
been overcome by knitting the pile yarn into the needle
stitch, and, since the legs of the pile projection are par-t‘
of the stitch, the appearance of the face of the fabric is
improved. This procedure is impossible, however, with
very heavy pile yarns of the ‘type commonly used in
carpets, as the knitting needle would have to be so large
that it could not be used with an ordinary carpet pitch
or gage. Furthermore this procedure is very wasteful of
FIGURE 11 is an expanded plan view illustrating a
pile yarn.
cut pile fabric according to the invention. While the 10
In the present invention the legs of the pile projections,
arrangement of the yarn corresponds to FIGURE 9, this
which may be loops or tufts, are held between tlJWO 0p
?gure is intended to indicate that cut pile can be used in
posed warpwise stretches of yarn, and this forces the legs
any of the forms, following FIGURE 1b.
of the loops into a vertical position or a position close to
FIGURE 12 is an expanded plan view showing a modi
the vertical. As a result a stiffer pile projection is formed,
?ed form of the fabric of FIGURE 9, omitting the back 15 and yet, because of the inherent inflexibility of the warp~
ing yarn.
wise stretches, the pile is more resilient, and has more
FIGURE 13 is an enlarged expanded top plan view of
resistance to crushing. Accordingly, the fabric is
a variation on the fabric of FIGURE 9, of the character
“livelier” and less likely to pack down.
produced in accordance with FIGURES 4c and 7c, omit
In accordance with the invention it is possible to control
ting the backing wefts. In this form the pile projections 20 the orientation of the pile projection by relatively adjust
have their legs bound in the same stitch and also in an
adjoining stitch of the next chain.
FIGURE 14 is an enlarged expanded plan view of a
modi?ed fabric according to the invention, produced in
accordance with FIGURES 4b and 7b, and omitting the
backing wefts.
FIGURE 15 is an enlarged expanded plan view of a
modi?ed fabric according to the invention which is simi
lar to that of FIGURE 14 except that the legs of the pile
ing the tension of one or both of the controlling warps
without any other modifying means. One of the control
ling warps is the warp which forms the chain of knitting
stitches, and the other of the controlling warps is a modi
fying warp which is interlocked with the chain warp by
laying-in.
’
Below the binding point the pile yarn may be laid-in
into as many warpwise or Weftwise stitches as desired for
the purpose of increasing the tuft bind, or to get distribu
projections are bound in corresponding stitches of adjoin 30 tion of the yarn ends in color patterns so that individual
ing chains. The backing wefts are omitted.
areas at the face of the pile will appear to be a particular
FIGURE 16 is an enlarged expanded plan view of a
color, as well known in the art. As this action take-s place
modi?ed fabric according to the invention which is similar
low the binding point of the legs of the pile projections
to FIGURE 14 but has the modifying warp ends shogged
it has no effect on the orientation of the pile projections.
across and engaged in corresponding stitches of adjoin 35 To get the best advantage from the present invention,
ing chains. This omits backing yarn.
it is not necessary to bury any pile yarn below the binding
FIGURE 17 is a view similar to FIGURE 16 which
of the legs of the pile projection.
illustrates a modi?cation.
In the simplest form of the invention each chain warp
FIGURE 18 is a photographic face view of the fabric
yarn will be forming warpwise lines of alternate right and
of FIGURE 9.
40 lefthand chain stitches which are engaged around bundles
FIGURE 19 is a photographic face view of the fabric
of weftwise stretches of backing yarn.
of FIGURE 14.
In front of the backing yarn guide bar there will be a
FIGURE 20 is a photographic face view of the fabric
pile yarn guide bar and immediately ahead of that there
of FIGURE 17.
will be a modifying warp yarn guide bar, and then a knit
Describing in illustration but not in limitation and re 45 ting chain guide bar which will form knitting stitches.
ferring to the drawings:
In order to hold the fabric together it is only necessary
The fabric and process of the present invention may
that the knitting warp yarn form knitting stitches, but it
be produced or carried out on a warp knitting machine
will be evident that the modifying warp yarn may be
of the Raschel type, of the character shown for example
similar to the knitting yarn, but it will in every case run
in my ‘US. Patent No. 2,891,396, granted June 23, 1959, 50 in an opposite direction in each stitch to the direction of
for Method of Producing a Fabric by Warp Knitting. It
the warp‘ knitting guide bar.
will be evident that from the standpoint of the present
In each case when the warp knitting yarn end forms a
invention any suitable warp knitting machine of the gen
righthand stitch around the needle hook, the modifying
eral Raschel type is applicable, and can be used without
yarn end at the same Wale will be laid-in to‘ the knitting
any change in the machine except of course to provide 55 yarn stitch in the opposite direction from the knitting
suitable loop forming mechanism.
stitch, but regardless of the type of knitting stitch used, the
In warp knitted pile fabrics in the prior art it has been
modifying Warp yarn will be laid-in so that the base legs
the practice in some cases to bind the legs of the pile
of the pile loops will be in between the top stretch of the
projections into stitches of adjoining lines of warp chain
knitting yarn stitch and the warpwise- stretch of the
stitches in the same course. In other prior art fabrics
warp modifying yarn.
the legs have been bound in stitches of the same line of
The pile yarn will form pile projections on books or so
chain, or under stretches of binding weft, or in some
called plush points set to the same gage as the needles,
cases under stretches of adjacent lines of chain warps
and the new or forward legs of the pile projections, ex
and adjacent courses.
It will of course be evident that when a leg of a loop
is bound into a knitting stitch, it is normally turned into
a weftwise direction, and as the leg of the loop is bent
upward to form the loop this bend from the weft-wise
direction to the vertical tends to turn the loop, causing
tending back through the knitting yarn and modifying
warp yarn, will be locked between the knitting yarn and
the modifying warp yarn as the sitich is made and locked.
It will be evident of course that the invention can be
embodied in various different forms as later explained.
In one preferable form of the invention, the fabric is
many types of yarns to form rows of loops in the same 70 particularly well adapted to produce pile carpet with high
course all of which are oriented in a similar way and
and low loops of face yarn forming a surface pattern.
which vary only in alternate adjoining courses. Other
types of binding of the loop with the leg resting ?at on
This technique is responsible for the sharp de?nition of
high and low pattern pile projections which is obtained, as
the fabric have a similar effect on the face of the fabric.
contrasted with the prior art when there is often gradual
In some cases in warp knitted pile fabrics, this has 75 demarcation between high and low pile.
3,094,857
6
In the above discussion it has been assumed that the
modifying warp performs its most important function by
changing the orientation of the pile, and therefore the
character and construction of the modifying warp need
not be like face yarn or pile yarn. In many cases, how
ever, it will be advantageous to employ modifying warp
yarn which itself is face yarn, suited to form part of the
face of the carpet or other fabric, and particularly to ap~
pear at the face in wells of the pile or in background
areas which are interspersed among pile areas. In this
instance the modifying warp yarn performs a dual func
tion, since it modifies the orientation of the pile, but also
for-ms in-lays which produce coverage for the back of the
fabric in the wells.
Before describing the somewhat more complicated em
bodiments, I will describe a relatively simpler form of the
invention.
In this embodiment of the invention the forward leg of
each loop as formed is bound only under the stretch of
the modifying warp yarn which passes around the base of 20
FIGURES 2 and 2a correspond to 30° of advance in
the cycle. The position of the needles and of the singers
is the same as in FIGURE 1. The guide bars are all the
way back, out of line with the needles ‘and the plush points,
and the plush points have just completed their forward or
upward motion. If the plush points are cutting as later
explained (FIGURE lb) they will at this point cut the
previous loops.
Backing yarn guide bar 40 continues to shog in the
same direction forming backing yarn stretches 43‘.
FIGURES 3 and3a correspond to the position at 90°
in the cycle. The swing bar and the guide bars with it
move to the front past the raised plush points and pile
yarn guide bar 37 now shogs so that in the next succeed
ing step pile loops will be formed around the plush
points as well known in the ‘art. The formation of such
loops is shown at 44 in FIGURE 3a.
At 150“ in the cycle, as shown in FIGURES 4 and 4a,
the swing bar has moved back, carrying with it the guide
bars, while the position of all of the other elements
the pile projection and then into the knitting stitch. At
this point in the knitting process the size of the pile loop
remains the same. Modifying yarn guide bar 35 now
shogs to form stretches 45 over the new legs of loops
can be controlled by tension on the pile yarn because the
46 of pile yarn 38.
pile loop is very loosely bound. The forward leg of this
The position at FIGURES 5' and 541', corresponding to
loop passes across above the top binding stretch of the 25 210° in the cycle, corresponds to the completion of all
knitting warp yarn, and as the next loop is formed and
shogging except for the knitting yarn. The pile yarn and
bound in turn by the second warp end, the stitch Will not
knitting yarn guide bars have moved forward past the
only bind the second warp end in this following stitch but
plush points. Depending on the shogging positions, the
will also bind in what was formerly the leading leg of the
pile yarn has formed loops 47 around the plush points.
previous loop.
The needles 21 have ‘advanced or raised and the latches
It will be evident however, that when level pile is
formed, it is more advantageous to form the loop of pile
yarn in such a way that the leading leg of the loop will
be knitted into the existing and forming knitting stitch.
24 of the needles have been opened by‘ the previous knit
ting stitch as shown at 48 and as well known.
The position of FIGURES 6 and 6a corresponds to
270° in the cycle. All guide bars have moved back of
the plush points and the needles, and the new stitch is
ready to be formed when it enters the hook of the needles
in the next step. The pile yarn ends are now arranged
in more completely formed loops 47 ‘around the plush
points and the backing yarn is now laid-in in stretches 50
First considering the form of the invention as embodied
in FIGURES 1 to 8, 1a to 8a, 9 and 10, the warp knitting
machine is suitably a double needle bar Raschel type, one
needle bar mounting supports 20 for a series of latch
needles 21, as well known, which extend vertically and are
guided by a trick plate 22, which is tapered and extends 40 in the stitches, while the knitting yarn guide bar 33' is
generally vertically, the fabric being taken off at one side
now shogging to place the knitting yarn in the hooks
and the needles being guided at the other side.
of the needles above the latches. This forms loops 5-1
The latch needles, as well known, have hooked ends 23
of knitting yarn.
at the top directed away from the trick plate, and latches
In FIGURES 7 and 7a at 300° in the cycle, the guide
24 pivoted at 25, and in one position closing against the
bars are moving to the front and are midway in their
book ends.
swing. The sinker comb 30, which has been in position
The other needle bar in the device of the invention is
across the fell and across the end of the trick plate and
equipped with a plush point mounting 26 which carries
among the plush points, is now retacted to clear the
generally vertically extending plush points 27. The plush
ends of the needles, and the needles are beginning to re
points can be cutting or non-cutting as desired, and as
tract and the latch is closed by the previous stitch, and
later explained in more detail, but FIGURES 1 to 8 show
the plush points are retracting. The effect therefore is
non-cutting plush points which at the upper ends toward
to bind the stretches 52 of modifying warp yarn 36 and
the trick plate have recesses 28.
bind the forward legs of the pile projections 47, with the
A sinker comb 30, as well known, is mounted on sinker
stretches of knitting yarn and of modifying warp yarn on
supports 31 and moves across the top of the trick plate. A
opposite sides of the legs of the pile projections.
latch wire 32 extends across the back of the machine.
FIGURES 8 and 8a, corresponding to 330° in the cycle,
A swing bar across the machine supports a series of
show the guide bars moving to the front and midway in
separately shoggable guide bars of well known character,
comprising a knitting yarn guide bar 33 having eyes which
guide knitting yarn 34, a modifying yarn guide bar 35
having eyes which guide modifying yarn ends 36, a pile
yarn guide bar 37 having eyes which guide pile yarn ends
38, and a backing yarn guide bar 40' having eyes which
their swing. The sinker comb 30 is fully retracted and
is now about to advance again to the position of FIGURE
1. The needles have fully retracted.
By reference to FIGURES 9' and 10, it will be evident
that the completed fabric comprises a series of warpwise
guide backing yarn ends 41. The various ends are suit
ably placed at each needle position in the preferred em
bodiment.
Considering now particularly FIGURES 1 to 8 and
la to 811, in FIGURES 1 and la which correspond to
zero or 360° in the cycle, the ?rst step is being taken after
chains of successive righthand and lefthand stitches 53,
completion of the last stitch, the needles 21 and the plush
knitting stitches of the same ‘knitting chain. On the
opposite side of each pile projection from the top stretch
points 27 are down or retracted, the sinker comb 30 is
advanced or forward, and the swing bar with the various
guide bars is in mid-position and moving back. At this
position the backing yarn guide bar shogs to lay-in
stretches 42 of backing yarn.
each of which has bottom stretches 54 ‘and a top stretch
55. Engaged in stitches between the top and bottom
stretches are bundles 56 of weftwise stretches of backing
yarn 41. The pile projections 47 have legs '57 and 58
which are bound beneath the top stretches of successive
of each stitch is a stretch 60 of modifying warp yarn 36
which is running warpwise engaged beneath the top
stretch of each stitch and extending sinuously. The
stretches 60 of modifying warp yarn 36 are always op~
3,094,857
7
posite to the direction of formation of the stitch in any
course.
Thus each modifying warp end 36, in this form remains
in one line of chain stitches. The tension of the modify
ing Warp end with respect to the tension of the chain is
important and will suitably be controlled and in some
cases modulated in the present invention. The tension
8
the new legs of the pile projections as previously described,
and it will be evident that both legs of the pile loop‘ 47
are engaged in loop '51 of knitting yarn.
In FIGURE 7b, it will be evident that as shown previ
ously in FIGURE 7a, the pile loop 47 is engaged in the
stitch and in this case the nearly completed stitch has se
cured both ends of the pile loop. The stretch of modify
ing warp end is shown at 71.
of the knitting chain should always be higher than that
of the modifying warp end.
FIGURE 14 shows a further embodiment of the inven
A typical knitting yarn tension is likely to be of the 10 tion, which is particularly adapted for forming high and
order of two pounds per end and as compared with this
the modifying yarn tension is likely to be of the order
produce very high and very low loops in succeeding
of from three to six ounces.
courses of the same pile yarn ends.
It will be evident that the tension of the modifying
low pile by control of the feed of the pile yarn so as to
'
warp end can be controlled from stitch to stitch using a
paternt control mechanism as shown in the following US.
As each succeeding warp stitch is made by the needles,
loops of pile yarn form around the plush points, and the
leading or forward leg of each pile projection is crossed
patents: Rex S. MacCatfray, In, Patents Nos. 2,784,689
and 2,811,244; Frank W. E. Hoeselbarth Patent No.
and held by the modifying warp yarn at 72 as shown
in FIGURE 14. The modifying warp yarn as in the pre
vious forms always runs opposite to the looping motion
2,842,259‘; C. H. Masland, 2nd, Patents Nos. 2,866,424
and 2,880,684.
20 of the knitting yarn stitch. As the knitting stitch is formed,
It will be noted that as each stitch of knitting warp
yarn is formed, it also binds in a stretch of modifying
the knitting stitch does not catch the forward leg of the
pile [loop at the time of loop formation, but instead mere
ly locks the modifying warp ends which are holding the
warp yarn and binds the forward leg of the pile projection.
As the stitch is locked the pile loop legs 57 and 58 are
forward legs of the pile loops 47 at 72. The knitting yarn
locked. These locking points are formed by the pressure 25 stitch, however, does knit in the last leg of the loop which
of the modifying warp end stretch 60. The effect is to
was the forward leg of the previous loop as shown at 73
erect the pile projections (the plan views show it lying
in FIGURE 14, because the pile loop in forming crosses
down according to a convention well known in the art
in front of the knitting yarn.
to permit seeing it as a pile loop, but actually the pile
Thus it will be evident that the modifying warp yarn
projection extends upwardly). In the second place there 30 passes around the forward leg of the pile projection and
are additional binding points established for the pile
then under the top stretch of the warp knitting yarn in
projection, which increase the tuft bind.
the same course, the forward leg of the pile projection
in FIGURE 10 the grip of the modifying warp end 36
avoiding the path lof the warp knitting‘ stitch of the same
on the leg 58 of the pile projection 47 is clearly shown
course, and the forward leg of the previous pile projection
at 61.
35 is lapped under the top stretch of the warp knitting yarn
It will be evident that the invention is applicable to cut
of the next stitch and course, it not being lapped under
pile fabrics as well as loop pile fabrics- and in FIGURE
the knitting yam of the previous course.
11 I show out pile projections 47' produced by the tech
Thus it is that each pile loop as it formed is bound
nique of the present invention through the use of a cutting
only by the relatively loose stretch 60 of the modifying
plush point 27' as described in detail in my Patent No. 40 warp yarn end, ‘and the pile loop 47 in consequence is
2,891,396 above referred to, and shown in FIGURE 1b.
subject to being pulled back until it is nonexistent or just
For most purposes the tuft bind of FIGURE 9 or FIG
URE 14 is adequate, but when the pile yarn shogs from
a ?at end in the surface, or it may be allowed to remain
at its full height, or it may be pulled down to any inter
mediate height, as suggested by the dotted line 74 in FIG
is also gained by the extra lay-in of the leg of the pile 45 URE 14. This is accomplished by a pattern control of the
projection between the two chains.
character of the MacCaffray patents and Masland patents
one chain to another as in FIGURE 15, greater tuft bind
In some cases it is preferable to modify the form of
‘aforesaid, which control each individual pile yarn end as
FIGURES 1 to 8, 1a to 8a, 9 and 10 by binding the legs
it is fed during each stitch. The pile yarn loop remains
of the pile projections in adjoining stitches of the same
at this height locked only by the modifying warp and until
chain and also in adjoining stitches of adjoining chains, 50 the next succeeding knitting stitch is formed, at which time
while obtaining the same orienting effect by the modifying
the pile loop will be locked completely by the knitting
stitch and will almost appear as though it had been formed
warp end ‘as already described. Thus in FIGURE 12 the
by the original double locking method of FIGURE 9.
pile loop legs 57 and 58 each have stretches 67 and 68
FIGURE 40 at 150° in the cycle illustrates the forma
which are shogged across to the next knitting chain and
bound-in in the corresponding stitches of the next chain, 55 tion of the loop 47 which is locked in the stitch at one
end and is locked at the other end only at 72 by the
so that the particular pile warp end, instead of remaining
modifying warp end 36, and FIGURE 70 at 300° in the
always in the same wa?e, forms pile alternately in ad
cycle shows that this condition remains even when the
joining wales.
knitting yarn stitch is nearly completed at 51. FIGURES
In some cases it is preferable to bind the legs of the pile
4c and 7c otherwise correspond to FIGURES 4a and 7a.
projection 47 in the same stitch. This is shown in FIG
It will be evident that if desired the control of the
URE 13, Where the legs 57 ‘and 58 of the pile projections
modulation of the tension on the modifying warp ends
as well as the modulation of the tension, on the pile warp
ends may be employed in FIGURE 14, in which case there
to the next knitting chain and are bound in adjoining
stitches in the next knitting chain. In this case each pile 65 will be differences in orientation as well as differences in
47 ‘are bound in the same knitting stitch, and also con
nected by stretches 67 ’ and 68’ which are shogged across
projection is fully formed and locked with both legs in the
same stitch instead of having its legs split and locked in
successive courses.
height of the different pile projections.
FIGURE 15 shows a fabric which in other respects is
similar to that of FIGURE 14 with the same locking of
the pile projection as that of FIGURE 14, namely, by
In FIGURE 13 the effect of the modifying warp end
in erecting the loop and meeting the tuft bind is the same 70 the modfying warp stretch 60 as well as by the succeeding
as that described in the previous form.
knitting stitch. ‘In this case, however, there are stretches
The technique of producing the fabric of FIGURE 13
67 of pile yarn ends which extend across and provide
is illustrated by FIGURES 4b and 7b.
locking of the legs of the pile projection also in the cor
In FIGURE 4b, corresponding to FIGURE 4a, the
responding stitch of the next knitting chain 53. In this
modifying yarn ends 36 are shogged to form loops 70 over 75 case the pile projections of any particular yarn end will
3,094,857
10
vention which in this case is similar to that of FIGURE
a pile loop and is therefore similar in some of its char
acteristics to the warp modifying lay-in in this case. It
will therefore be evident that the modify-ing warp in ac
cordance with similar principles can be used to form
14, except that between the stretches 60 of the modifying
pile loops in the present invention.
yarn ends they shog across weftwise at 75 to the next
It will be evident that according to the present inven
tion the pile loops are formed and held by an in-laid
stretch of modifying warp yarn and the base of the leg
of the pile loop is not locked and stabilized until after the
not come up in the same knitting chain on two succeed
ing courses.
FIGURE 16 illustrates another embodiment of the in
knitting chain and are engaged in the corresponding
stitches of the same course.
This provides a somewhat
different form of double bind, but the erection of the
pile projections is similar to that in the other forms of the 10 succeeding loop has been fully formed and the succeeding
invention.
stitch locked.
The usual knitted stitches as referred to in the speci?
In FIGURE 17 I illustrate a construction in which the
cation are in some cases described in the claims as crochet
modifying warps function as face yarn in wells or the
stitches as well known in the art.
like. The backing lay-in goes across three or more wales
In view of my invention and disclosure, variations and
as in other forms. In this view there are parallel lines 15
modi?cations to meet individual whim or particular need
of knitted crochet stitches 76, dual purpose modifying and
will doubtless become evident to others skilled in the art,
face warp yarn ends 77, and pile warp ends 78 each sup—
to obtain all or part of the bene?its of my invention with
plied by a different guide bar of the warp knitting ma
out copying the fabric shown, and I, therefore, claim all
chine as well known in the art. The backing yarn which
extends sinuously back and forth between the lines'of 20 such insofar as they fall within the reasonable spirit and
scope of my claims.
knitting chains as illustrated for example in FIGURES
Having thus described my invention what I claim as
9, 10 and 1'1, is omitted in FIGURE 17 so as not to cause
confusion in reading the view.
'
new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
.
l. A warp knitted pile fabric comprising sinuously
In this instance the modifying in-laid warp yarn 77 has
the relatively bulky character and wear resistance which 25 laid-in backing yarn forming bundles, warpwise rows of
chain stitches binding together the backing yarn bundles,
pile yarn forming pile projections the legs of which are
are characteristic of face yarn, and is intended to be seen
and felt as part of the face of the ?nished fabric.
The pile yarn 78 in this instance forms high loops 80
and low loops 81, in view of the operation of any suit
bound into the warpwise rows of chain stitches, and modi
‘fying warp yarn also bound by inlay into the chain
able pattern control that is capable of varying the tension 30 stitches and passing around the legs of each pile projec
tion on the side opposite to the top stretch of the associ
on individual pile warp ends which are fed to individual
ated warpwise chain stitch, thus binding the legs of the
stitches, a suitable example being C. H. Masland, 2nd,
pile projection between the said top stretch and the said
US. Patent No. 2,880,684, granted April 7, 1959, for
modifying warp yarn.
Formation of High and Low Pile by Needling; C. H.
Masland, 2nd, US. Patent No. 2,866,424, granted Decem 35 2. A warp knitted pile fabric having knitted chains of
successive right and lefthand crochet‘stitches extending
ber 30, 1958, ‘for Control of Pile Height in Needling;
warpwise, backing yarn extending weftwise and engaged
my US. Patent No. 2,811,244, granted October 29, 1957,
in the knit-ted stitches, pile yarn forming pile projections
for Needling Pile Fabric; and my US. Patent No.
2,784,689, granted March 12, 1957, for Formation of
High and Low Loops by Needling.
40
around the legs of each pile projection on the side oppo
site to the top stretch of the associated warp knitted
The low pile loops v81 may, if desired, be reduced to
?at stretches 82 of pile yarn, which are almost completely
buried beneath the modifying warp yarn 77. There are
therefore three conditions of pile yarn, that is, high pile
loops, low pile loops, and absence of pile loops, as shown.
Where the pile yarn forms high pile loops 80, this will
conceal the modifying warp yarn 77 , and produce a face
in the area of the high pile loops which is entirely formed
and extending warpwise and with base legs engaged in
the knitted stitches, and modifying warp yarn wrapped
stitch, and bound by inlay in the knitted stitch, the modi
fying warp yarn aiding in binding and also in erecting
45
the pile projections.
3. A pile fabric of claim 1 in which the pile projections
are uncut pile loops.
\
14. A pile fabric of claim 1, in which the pile projec
tions are cut pile tufts.
by pile yarn 78. In such areas the modifying warp 77
5. A pile fabric of claim 1, in which the opposite legs
functions purely as a modifying warp and holds the pile 50
of the pile projections are bound in successive stitches of
projection in position and erect as shown at 83, until the
the same chain.
last ‘for-med leg of the pile loop is knitted into the follow
6. A pile fabric of claim 1, in which the pile yarn ex
ing knitted stitch at 84.
tends weftwise between chains, and the opposite legs of
If the pile projections are low as shown at 81, both
the pile yarn 78 and the modifying warp yarn 77 will 55 the pile projections are bound in successive stitches of the
show at the face, and the face of the fabric will be a blend
same chain.
7. A pile fabric of claim 6, in which the opposite legs
of the two yarns in proportion to the size of the loop.
of the pile projections are bound both in adjoining stitches
0n the other hand at 82 where the pile yarn is sub
of the same chain and corresponding stitches of adjoining
stantially completely buried, there will be no loop of pile
yarn 78, and modifying warp yarn 77 will form the face
chains.
-8. A pile fabric of claim 1, in which the legs of the pile
of the fabric. Therefore it will be evident that suitable
projections are bound in the same stitch of the chain.
coloring and appearance of the modifying warp yarn will
9. A pile fabric of claim 8, in which the opposite legs
be desirable to form the correct pattern in these areas
of the pile projections are also bound in successive stitches
where the modifying warp yarn forms the face of the fab
ric, as in wells and background.
65 of an adjoining chain.
10. A pile fabric of claim 1, in which the modifying
FIGURE 20 illustrates the face of the fabric according
warp yarn passes around the forward leg of the pile pro
to the invention, showing a large number of wells in
jection and then under the top stretch of the warp knit
which the modifying warp forms warp stretches which
ting yarn in the same course, the forward leg of the pile
cover the face.
projection avoiding the path of the warp knitting stitch
It will be evident that the principles of the invention
of the same course, and the forward leg of the previous
can also be applied to a fabric according to my copend~
pile projection being lapped under the top stretch of the
Warp knitting yarn of the next stitch and course, it not
1959, now abandoned, for Warp Knitting With Pile Con
being lapped under the knitting yarn in the previous
tributing to Lay-In Weft Bind, in which the laid-in weft
forming warp yarn makes not only a lay-in but also forms 75 course.
ing application Serial No. 837,728, ?led September 2,
3,094,857
12
11
form the face and conceal the laid-in modifying face warp
11. A pile fabric vof claim 10, ‘having different pile pro
yarn, and areas in which the modifying face warp yarn
jections of different heights.
forms the ‘face of the ‘fabric and .is visible at the face of
12. A pile fabric of claim 1, in which one leg of the
the fabric.
pile projections is bound in a particular stitch of the knit
'18. A pile fabric of claim 17,‘ having high pile projecf
ting chains and the opposite leg of the pile projections Ul
tions which form the face of the "fabric in certain areas
‘is bound by the modifying warp crossing said opposite leg
and conceal the modifying face warp yarn and having
and then the said opposite leg of the pile projection is
lower pile projections which in other areas allow the
bound only by the modifying warp crossing until the next
modifying face warp yarn to be visible between lower pile
stitch of the same warp knitted chain.
projections of the pile warp.
13. A pile fabric of claim 12, in which the leg of the
19. A pile fabric of claim 18, in which certain areas
pile projection is also bound in the corresponding stitch
are composed entirely of modifying face warp yarn at
the face of the fabric, there being in such areas loops of
the pile Warp which are pulled down to the back where
warp yarn follows a sinuous course and is engaged in the
stitches of adjoining knitted chains.
15 they form mere stretches of yarn under the modifying
face warp yarn.
15. A pile fabric of claim 1, in which the modifying
in an adjoining knitted chain.
14. A pile fabric of claim 12, in which the modifying
.20. A warp knitted pile fabric, comprising parallel
chains of knitted crochet stitches extending warpwise, the
successive stitches being respectively lefthand and right
Warp yarn follows a sinuous course and is engaged in
stitches of at least two adjoining knitted chains.
16. A pile fabric of claim 1, in which the pile projec
tions are of variant height throughout the fabric.
20 hand, backing yarn extending sinuously weftwise and laid
17. A warp knitted pile fabric, comprising walewise
extending parallel chains of knitted crochet stitches, in~
laid backing weft yarn ends extending walewise, each
undulating sinuously across and bound into the stitches
in at least three of the knitted chains, pile warp yarn 25
forming pile projections at intervals, the pile projections
alternating in adjoining walewise rows and with the base
legs of the pile projections bound by inlay into the knitted
stitches, modifying face warp yarn free from pile projec
tions undulating sinuously across lines of knitted chains
and bound into the stitches of the chains, the modifying
face warp yarn in its undulating sinuous path wrapping
in the stitches of the knitted chain, pile yarn extending
warpwise, rising in pile projections and having legs of
each pile projection boundxin the stitches of the knitted
chains, and modifying‘ warp yarn extending sinuously
warpwise and also inlaid and bound .in the stitches of the
knitted crochet stitches, at each crochet stitch where at
least one base leg of each pile projection extends from
the inlay in the stitch, the said base legs also extending
between the top single stretch of yarn in the crochet stitch
30 and the warpwise stretch of the modifying warp yarn.
around base legs of the pile projections, bound by inlay
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
in the knitted stitches, and modifying the orientation of
the pile projections so that they are forced to assume a 35
more nearly vertical position in the fabric, the face of
the fabric including areas in which the pile projections
1,475,325
2,396,525
2,531,718
Springthorpe _________ __ Nov. 27, 1923
Newman ____________ .. Mar. 12, 1946
=Rice ________________ _.. Nov. 28, 1950
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