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Патент USA US3094966

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June 25, 1963
'
T. F. PAULs
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3,094,956
_FABRICATION oF HOLLOW ARTICLES:
Filed April 16, 1956
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Patented June 25, 1963
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3,094,956
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having applied 玹o the lsurface thereof a pattern of weld
inhibiting material;
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FABRICATION 0F __HOLLOW ARTICLES
j
FIGUR-E 2 is a perspective View of the sheet shown
Theron F. Pauls, Godfrey, Ill., assigner to Olin Mathiesoll
in FIGURE l `with a second sheet superimposed thereon
Chemical Corporation, East Alton,- Ill., a corporation
or virginia
in llaminar fashion and tacked thereto as by spot welding,
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-with the 'pattern =of weld-inhibiting material sandwiched
Filed Apr. 16, 1956, Ser. No. 578,296
6 Claims. (Cl. 113-44)
b閠w桦?i the sheets and showing the sheets being welded
together in a rolling mill to form a blank;
This invention relates to the fabrication of hollow arti
FIGURE 3 is a sectional schematic View of the re
cles _and more specifically to the fabrication of hollowl 10 sultant blank yof FIGURE 2 With the line 3_3 in FIG
URE l indicating the portion of the weld-inhibiting pat
articles which are smooth on one side.
,
? vln the fabrication of hollow sheet metal panels by a
tern shown in FIGURE 3, and showing the blank posi
well _known process, two sheets of metal are arranged in
tioned between an embodiment of a pair of pressure pads;
stack-like fashion with a design of weld-inhibiting mate
FIGURE 4 is a sectional schematic view of there
rial applied to a portion of one of the adjacent faces of 15 sultant blank of FIGURE 2 positioned between another
the sheets. The sheets are secured together to prevent
embodiment of pressure pads, and with the same section
relative slippage and are then welded together in their
through the blank as in FIGURE 3;
adjacent areas not separated by the weld-inhibiting ma'
FIGURE 5 is a sectional schematic View similar to
t-erialin any suitable manner suchl as by hot rolling-.- ?As
FIGURE 3 after the pressure pads have been clamped
the sheets are being welded together by hot rolling they 20 against the blank and the unjoined portion of the blank
are elongated in the direction of rolling and therefore the
expanded;_
design of weld-inhibiting material must be foreshortened
in the intended direction of rolling when it- is applied to
for actuating the pressure pads and for expanding the
the sheet. After the sheets are 'welded together they are
maar;
FIGURE 6 is a schematic View of a control< system
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usually softened as by annealing and the unjoined portion 25 FIGURE 7 is a perspective view of the expanded blank
to which the weld-inhibiting material has been applied
0f >FIGURE _5;
I
is outwardly expanded as by injecting therein a fluid pres
sure of suiiicient magnitude to permanently distend the
sheets in the area adjacent to the weld-inhibiting design
FIGURE 8 is a perspective View of the opposite side
of the blank Shown in FIGUR-E 7.
i
ple, a design which wi-ll define, after expansion of the
panel, a Huid conveying circuit of the type required in
Referririgto the drawings, a sheet 1 such as aluminum
yor copper has applied to a clean surface V3 thereof a
serpentine design 5 and 縜n inlet 6 of weld-inhibiting ma
teria-l. A second sheet 7 is superimposed on the surface
refrigerator heat exchanger panels. The aforementioned
3 of the first sheet 1. The two sheets are then tacked
which may assume any desired configuration, for exam
30
process is more fully described in U.S. Patent 2,690,002,
together as byl spot welding 9? to prevent relative slippage
35 of the adjacent surfaces of 縯he sheets during a subse
issued September 28, 1954.
_
This invention oomprehends clamping a blank having
an unjoined inner portion sandwiched between opposite
quent welding operation. After the sheets have been
tacked together they are welded together along their ad
`outer surfaces of the blank between a 'hard and a com
jacent surfaces not separated by the weld-inhibiting ma
pressible pressure pad and then expanding the unjoined
terial S. One well known method of `wel-dingthe sheets
40
portion Iof the blank by injecting therein a iiuid pressure.
together is by hot rolling', in 4which the sheets are iirst
The blank is dist/ended on the face adjacent the compres
heated' and then passed through mill rolls 114 between
sible pressure pad and is smooth on the side adjacent the
which they are reduced in thickness and elongated in
hard pad.
the directioh of `rolling'. if desired, the resultant blank I13
As used.4 herein, the term ?smooth? means a surface 45 having a'n u'njioin?ed inner portion 1?5 may be softened in
substantially devoid of depressions or protrusions in the
any appropriate manner as by annealing and4 thereafter
overall general configuration of the surface.
the blank ?iay he cold rolled to provide a more even
This invention is directed primarily to the fabrication
thickness andA again annealed. The inlet design of weld
of metal panels, but in part the invention is equally ap
inhibi'tin'g? mate?ial produces an unjoined- inlet into the
plicable to panels fabricated from materials other than 50 unj骾ri閐 serpentine design after welding together of the
metal, such as various plastics, and to panels fabricated
from dissimilar materials such as metal and a plastic
Referring to FIGURE 3, the resultant blank is posi
joined .together with an unjoined portion between the
tioned between a compressible pressure pad ?17 and a
sheets.
hardr pressure pad 19.> The compressible pressure pad is
It is an object of this invention to fabricate a hollow 55 mounted?on?a hard backing plate Z1 having coniining
panel in which one side is smooth and the other side is
side walls 23 which engage the side wall of the com
distended.
pressible pad limiting outward displacement of the pad.
Another object tof this invention is to fabricate a panel
The compressible pressure pad 17 _and its backing plate
having formed therein a hollow portion, such as 籪luid
21' are positioned on a iixed jaw 25 of the press 27 and
carrying conduits, the pane-l having a smooth surface and 60 the hard pressure pad 1'9 is secured to a vertically mov
sheets'.
an opposite surface having protrusions conforming to the
dist?entions of the hollow portion.
Another object of this invention is to provide an im
proved method of fabricating panels of the type disclosed
in the aforementioned patent, U .S. 2,690,002, in which 65
one of the outer surfaces has a high degree of smoothness.
Additional objects and advantages will be" apparent
from the following description and drawings in which:
FIGURES l and 2 indicate schematically .a process for
fabricating a blank from which a hollow smooth-sided 70
panel is subsequently formed, and more speci馽ally:l
FIGURE 1 is a perspective View of a sheet of material
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ing jaw 29 of the press. The movable upper jaw 29
of the press is secured to a plunger 311 received in a
cylinder 33
a Ifluid-tight sliding lit. The movable
jaw yZ9 is` Imaintained in a raised position by a spring
35 chg-aging' a shoulder 37 on the lower end of the cylin
der 33' and a?shoulder 39 on the plunger 31. 'Ilhe cylin
de?'3'3 isi靫ed with respect to the lower jaw 25 of the press
iii a?i1`y`approp.r'iateA manner 'as by arms 41. A fluid? pres
sure conveying conduit 43 opens into ,the upper end of the
cylinder3� fof injecting a _duid into the cylinder 33 >there
hy forcing the plunger v_31 downward and the hard pres
sure pad ?1159" against the compressible pressure pad 17'.
3,094,956
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The blank 13 is inserted between the pressure pads and
a fluid pressure conveying nozzle 45 is inserted into the
inlet in the blank. A fluid pressure is conveyed through
the conduit 43 into the cylinder ?33 clamping the hard
upper pressure pad 19 against the lower compressible
pressure pad I17 and .the horizontal sur-faces yof the walls
square inch, depending on the thickness of the blank and
the pressure required to fully distend the particular pat
tern of the unjoined portion of the blank. Valve A is
then closed Iand valve C is opened, equalizing the force
exerted within the unjoined portion of the blank `and on
the opposite exterior faces of the panel 47. Valve D is
then opened, simultaneously discharging the pressure
within the distended portion 75 of the hollow article 47
between the hard pressure pad and the compressible
and within the hydraulic chamber 55. The pressures
pressure pad. The unjoined portion of the blank 13 is
then expanded by injecting a 駏id pressure therein through 10 indicated above are intended merely to clarify the ex
ample, the pressure actually used will depend on the
the nozzle 45 Iand conduit 46 connected thereto.
strength land thickness of the panel and the unjoined
-In order to assure ta smooth-sided hollow article 47
23 -of its backing plate 2l. The blank 13 is sandwiched
devoid of protrusions, the total compression of a com
pressible rubber pad 17 should be limited to between
twenty and thirty percent for a 30 Shore-durometer
rubber. I-f the percent of compression of the rubber is
increased past this limit, the intended smooth side will
tend to have formed therein distentions. The percent
age of compression .is controlled by the height of the
side walls 23 relative to the thickness of the rubber pad 20
17. Preferably the ?compressible pad should also be resil
ient such as a rubber pad, however, a pad which is not
resilient will function properly to a degree but may not be
reused.
pattern design.
-
It is usually necessary for these pressures to be re
leased simultaneously. If the pressure within the unjoined
portion 75 lof the panel 47 is released first the pressure of
the diaphragm 57 against the distended portion of the
panel may cause the distention to collapse. Conversely,
if the pressure Within the hydraulic chamber 55 is re
leased f靣st the pressure within the distended portion 75
of the panel 47 will cause the panel to rupture. After
the pressures have been released, the screw 67 is rotated
to separate the hard and compressible pressure pads and
the resul-tant hollow article 47 is removed from the press
FIGURE 4 shows another embodiment of the inven 25 53.
As shown in FIGURES 7 and 8, the hollow article 47 is
tion. In this embodiment, 籥 hard pressure pad 49 is
positioned on a lower iixed jaw 51 of a press 53 and a
distended on one side 77 and smooth on the opposite side
79 which was against the hard pressure pad 19? or 49'.
hydraulic chamber 55 having` a resilient diaphragm 57
Referring to FIGURE 3, the process of expanding the
籥djacent the hard pressure pad 49 replaces the compres
sible pressure pad 17 in the embodiment shown in FIG 30 blank is substantially the same as vthe method of FIG
URE 4 with the following exceptions: With all the valves
URE 3. The resilient diaphragm 57 is secured to the
shown in FIGURE 6 closed, valves C and A are opened
inner surface 59 of la peripheral side wall 60 of a cham
forcing the hard pressure pad 19 `against the side walls
bered member 61 secured to an upper vertical movable
23 of the backing plate 21 of the compressi-ble pressure
jaw 63 of the press S3. A fluid pressure supply conduit
70 opens into the hydraulic chamber 55 for introducing 35 pad 17. It is only necessary that sufficient pressure be
applied through valve C to firmly press the hard pad 19
4therein a 駏id. The movable upper jaw 63 of the press is
against the side walls 23. Valve B is then opened, exert
secured to a screw 67 rotatably mounted as at 69, on
the upper surface of the movable jaw. The screw 67 is - > ing .the same pressure within the unjoined portion 15 of
the blank 13 as is exerted in the hydraulic chamber 33
threaded into a threaded socket 71 rigidly tixed to the
lower jaw >5?1 of the press in 籥ny suitable manner such as 40 and valve 1C is closed.
The pressure from the pump is
then increased su耦cient-ly to fully inflate the unjoined por
by arms 73. Thus, by rotating the screw `67 lthe upper
tion of the blank. The pressure required will vary de
movable jaw 63 of the press may be raised or lowered.
pending `on the thickness and strength of the blank and
The blank 13 is inserted between the hard pressure pad
the configuration of the unjoined portion thereof. Valve
49 and 4the diaphragm 57 and the nozzle 45 is inserted
into the inlet in .the blank. 'Ihe screw 67 is then rotated 45 A is then closed, and valve D and valve C are opened
concurrently, simultaneously releasing the pressure in the
to clamp the side walls l60 ofthe hydraulic chamber
hydraulic chamber 33 and within the distended portion of
against the hard pressure pad 49. Fluid pressure is -in
the panel. If the unjoined portion of the blank is dis
jected through -a conduit 70 into the hydraulic chamber
tended to too >great an extent, the smooth 籹ide of the panel
55 and the blank 13 is then expanded by injecting a 駏id
may tend to pull in. This eifect may be eliminated by re
pressure into the unjoined portion thereof, through the
ducing the expansion pressure exerted within the unjoined
nozzle 45 ,and a conduit 46 connected to the nozzle.
portion of the blank.
The outward distention 77 of the unjoined portion 15
Although the invention has been described with refer
of the blank 13 is controlled by ythe difference between
ence to certain specific embodiments, materials and de
the -force exerted within the unjoined porti-on of the blank
tails, various modifications and changes will be apparent
and the force exerted by the compressible pressure pad 17
to Vone skilled in the art and the invention is therefore not
or the diaphragm 57 against the outer surface of the
to be limited to such embodiments, materials or details
blank. In the embodiment shown in FIGURE 3, this
except as set forth in the appended claims.
control is obtained by increasing or decreasing the thick
I claim:
ness of the compressible pad 17 relative to the height
of the backing plate side Walls 23, since the hard pres 60
l. An apparatus for use in expanding a hollow article
from a blank formed of a plurality of sheets with said
sure pad 19 engages the side walls. In the embodiment
blank having an unjoined interior portion defined within
shown in FIGURE 4, the force exerted against the outer
joined portions of said sheets and also provided with an
face of the blank 13 is controlled solely by the hydraulic
inlet for fluid pressure to said unjoined portion with said
pressure exerted by the fluid in the chamber 55 against
the diaphragm 57.
65 unjoined portion being adapted to contain -a fluid under
pressure, said apparatus comprising a rigid pad having a
Referring to FIGURE 6, with the press 53 shown in
surface against which one side of said blank is placed in
FIGURE 4 closed `and the blank 1?3 sandwiched between
'adjacent relationship, compressible clamping pressure
the hard pressure pad 49 and the diaphragm `57 and with
means adjacent the other side of said blank for applying
al1 the valves closed, valves A and C are opened and a
pressure of about 1,000 pounds per square inch is intro 70 a uniform pressure on the other side of said blank with
duced 籪rom -a pump into the hydraulic chamber 55
said compressible clamping pressure means being opera
through conduit 70. Valve C -is then closed and valve
tively connected to said pad and opposite said surface so
B is opened, :injecting a pressure of about 1,000 pounds
that said compressible clamping pressure means holds said
into the unjoined portion 15 of the blank and the pressure
blank against said surface, engaging means operatively
is then raised to between `1,500 and 2,000 pounds per
connected to said compressible clamping pressure means
3,094,956
for engaging said compressible clamping pressure means
with and against said other side of said blank so that said
compressible clamping pressure means holds said one side
of said Iblank substantially contiguousiy ?against said sur
face during expansion of each unjoined portion, �uid in
jecting means adapted Ito be operatively connected -to said
inlet while said blank is held against said surface by said
compressible clamping pressure means for injecting into
pressible pressure means with the other side of said
blank s-o that said compressible pressure means applys a
uniform pressure to said other side to hold said one side
of said blank substantially contiguously against said
surface during expansion of said unjoined portion, iiuid
injecting means -adapted to be operatively connected to
said inlet while said blank is held against said surface
by said compressible pressure means for injecting into
said unjoined portion a -駏id under pressure of sufficient
said unjoined portion for expansion 籺hereof a 駏id under
magnitude to expand said unjoined portion ?while said one 10 pressure of su駃cient magnitude to impress said other
side is held against said surface, and pressure relieving
means operatively connected to said compressible clamp
side of said blank opposite said unjoined portion into
said compressible means, :and pressure releasing means
operatively connected to said compressible pressure means
and to said Huid injecting means to simultaneously re
currently relieve the forces of said compressible clamp
ing pressure means and the pressure applied Within the 15 lieve the force of said compressible pressure means and
ing pressure means and said fluid injecting means to con
said unjoined portion of said blank.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said compressible
said fluid .pressure applied within the unjoined interior
portion of said blank.
clamping pressure means is a 玶esilient solid.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein said resilient solid
is rubber.
20
4. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said compressible
clamping pressure means comprises a hydraulic chamber.
5. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein said hydraulic
chamber has a flexible diaphragm adjacent said blank.
6. An Iapparatus for expanding a blank formed of a 25
plurality of sheets having an unjoined interior portion
defined `and contained within joined portions of said
sheets provided with an inlet for fluid pressure to said
unjoined portion with said unjoined portion being adapted
to contain a lluid under pressure, said apparatus compris 30
ingV a pair of opposed pressure means operatively oon
nected to each other for receiving .said blank thereirnbe
tween, one of said pressure means being rigid and non
compressible and the other of said pressure means being
compressible, said lrigid means having Aa surface against 35
which one side of said blank is placed in adjacent rela
tionship, engaging means operatively connected to said
compressible pressure means for engaging said com
References Cited in the lile of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,625,914
2,066,085
2,317,869
2,479,702
2,519,661
2,582,358
2,662,273
2,690,002
2,728,317
2,741,205
2,749,867
42,762,395
2,771,850
2,857,659
2,857,660
2,866,429
3,003,228
Seibt ________________ __ Apr.
Whistler _____________ __ Dec.
Walton _____________ __ Apr.
Rood _______________ __ Aug.
Johnson _____________ __ Aug.
Schoellerman _________ __ Jan.
Long _______________ __ Dec.
Grenell _____________ __ Sept.
Clevenger et al. ______ __ Dec.
Paulton _____________ __ Apr.
Engel _______________ __ June
Lamb _______________ __ Sept.
Wheelon ____________ __ Nov.
Staples ______________ __ Oct.
26,
29,
27,
23,
22,
15,
15,
28,
27,
10,
12,
11,
27,
28,
Staples ______________ __ Oct. 28,
Staples ______________ __ Nov. 19,
Thomas _____________ __ Oct. 10,
1927
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