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Патент USA US3095017

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June 25, 1963
H. ALLEN
3,095,007’
THROUGH CONDUIT TYPE VALVE APPARATUS
Filed Sept. 6, 1960
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Herder!‘ /4//c—>/7
INVENTOR.
ATTO/P/VEI/J
June 25, 1963
H. ALLEN
3,095,007
THROUGH CONDUIT TYPE VALVE APPARATUS
Filed Sept. ' 6, 1960
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June 25, 1963
3,095,007
H. ALLEN
THROUGH CONDUIT TYPE VALVE APPARATUS
4 Sheets-“Sheet 3
Filed Sept. 6, 1960
/6
38
37
36
32
v/o
2.9
30
INVEN TOR.
June 25, 1963
3,095,007
H. ALLEN
THROUGH CONDUIT TYPE VALVE APPARATUS
Filed Sept. 6, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
% r A e r / A um
INVENTOR.
ATTOP/VEKI'
United States Patent 0 ice
3,095,007
Patented June 25. 1963
1
2
of this type in which the centerlines of the ?owways may
be disposed as close together as the tubing strings; and,
more especially. wherein the centerlines of adjacent ?ow
ways about the circular pattern of their arrangement
may be spaced apart a distance substantially no greater
‘3,095,007
THROUGH CONDUIT TYPE VALVE APPARATUS
Herbert Allen, Houston, Tex., assignor to Cameron Iron
Works, Inc., Houston, Tex., a corporation of Texas
Filed Sept. 6, 1960, Ser. No. 53,956
3 Claims. (Cl. 137-630)
than one and one-half times the average diameters of
the tubings.
Still another object is to provide a master valve or
This invention relates generally to valve apparatus;
like apparatus of the type described in the foregoing
and, more particularly, to improved valve apparatus for
separately controlling flow through three or more side-by 10 objects and of such construction as to permit its height
side ?owways within a single body. In one of its aspects,
‘it relates to such apparatus which is particularly well
to be kept to a minimum.
from a single zone, a master valve is installed above the
for insertion into and removal from a position across
‘
A further object is to provide valve apparatus of the
type above described in which the valve member for
suited for use as a master valve of a wellhead “Christ
controlling ?ow through each ?owway may be easily
mas tree.”
,
In the completion of a Well for producing oil or gas 15 and quickly moved through a side opening in the body
the ?owway in which it is engaged by an annular seat
tubing head for controlling the ?ow of the well ?uid from
within such ?owway, and more particularly, in which
the tubing connecting with the zone to the remainder of
such seat may be replaced through the side opening upon
the “Christmas tree” above the master valve. For this
removal of the valve member.
purpose, it comprises a body having a ?owway there
Another object is to provide valve apparatus of the
through which, upon connection of the body at its op
type above described‘ wherein the seats are retained
posite ends in the wellhead, forms a straight continua~
within the ?owway for engagement with the valve mem
tion of the inside diameter of the tubing, thereby enabling
bers in a manner which greatly simpli?es the manufac
various tools to be passed therethrough into and out of
the tubing. Ordinarily,‘ the valve member which is dis 25 ture of the valve body.
A still further ‘object is to provide valve apparatus
posed across the ?owway has an opening through it
having a rotatable ball-shaped valve member and a seat
which forms a smooth continuation of the ?owway when
for engagement therewith which is rotated to distribute
wear about it in response to opening and closing move
means of parallel strings, each tubing is disposed as close 30 ment of the valve member by a mechanism which is
compact and inexpensive to manufacture.
as possible to an adjacent tubing in order to reduce to
I have found that these and other objects may be ac
a minimum the size of the well casing through which
complished, in accordance with the illustrated embodi
such tubings extend] Thus, in the case of three or more
ment of this invention, by valve apparatus in which the
strings, they are ‘arranged as a cluster with their center
lines in a generally’ circular pattern and adjacent tubings 35 ?ow through each of three or more ?owways extending
through a single body, and with their centerlines ar
spaced from one another by only the thicknesses of their
ranged in the aforementioned generally circular pattern,
couplings. Although it will vary in di?erent sizes of
is separately controlled by means of a' rotatable plug
tubing, ‘this requires that the centerlines of adjacent
type valve member mounted for movementbetween
tubings be spaced apart approximately one and one-half
such valve member is in open position.
'
In the completion of two or more zones of a well by
times their average outside diameters.
‘
>
'
40 opening and closing positions within a chamber across
the ?owway which has an innermost limit curved con
It is, of course, desirable to bring the centerlines of _
the master valve ?owways equally as close together in
order to avoid the necessity of oversized heads. This
cavely and at'least substantiallysymmetrically of the ?ow
way intersected by the chamber.. More particularly,
was made possible, in case of dual zone wells, by a
the innermost limit of each such chamber is curved con
master valve having a pair-of ?owways extending side 45 centrically of such ?owway as well as the inner surface
of the valve member therein; There are stems ‘on op
by-side through a single body and controlled by means
posite sides of each valve member received within bear
of the through-conduit type gates disposed thereacross,
ings in the body to mount said valve member for rota
tion about an axis transverseto the ?owwaycenterline
More particularly, the two valve members were ar
ranged -in vertically or longitudinally ‘staggered relation
in order to maintain 1a Web of metal between adjacent 50 and longitudinally staggered with respect to the axes
of rotationof the other valve members.
?owways which was thick enough to prevent its failure
under high pressure. At the same time, this staggering
.
In a preferredform of the invention, each valve mem
her is ball-shaped so as to ‘not only enable its fabrica
was kept to a minimum in order to avoid an undue‘ in
tion at the least possible expense, but also to enableit
crease in the height of the body.
However, the mere staggering \of such valve members 55 to be engaged by an annular seat which is symmetrical
about its opening. _More particularly, the spherical sur
does not permit the use of a ‘solid block type of master
face of the valve member is adapted to be engaged by
valve in the case of wells having three or morezones
aseating surface on an annular seat which is rotated
completed with parallel strings, because, evenwith such
about its opening for distributing wear thereabout. It
staggering, a gate will interfere with an adjacent ?ow
way when the centerlines of the ?owwaystare brought 60 is also preferred that the inner surface of the chamber
within the limits above mentioned.‘ That is, it has not .. for each valve'member be hemispherical and concentric
of the inner surface of the valve member'as this permits
been possible with a solid block master valve of‘ this
the axes of rotation of the valve members to be disposed
type to bring the centerlines of the three or more master
valve flowways as close together as ‘those of a correspond:
_ing number of tubings and’ yet maintain a web of metal 65
as close ‘together as possible.
‘
It is further preferredthat each seat be sealably slid
'Angobject of this invention .is to provide valve ap
ab‘le within an ‘end of the ?owway on one side of the
> valve chamber which _is enlarged with respect to the
paratus for separately'controlling flow through each, of
other "end thereof, and that each seat be retained in posi
three or more parallel ‘?owways ‘through a single body
tion to engage the valve member by means of a'tubular
- between adjacent ?owways.
Wher'einjthe ?owways may be. disposed closer together 70 sleeve ?tted within theenlarged end of the ?owway. This
than heretofore possible.
'
.
' ‘A more particular object is to provide a master valve
construction enables the seats to_ be retained without the
necessity of a complex undercutting of the valve chamber
3,095,007
4
V
18 and an annular groove 19 surrounding the upper ends
of the ?owways 15. In this manner, additional well
head equipment may be connected above the master valve
and sealed with respect thereto and aboutthe ?owways
upon fabrication of the body. More particularly, the
enlarged end of the ?owway may be formed by asirnple
boring operation from the end of the body.
When this valve apparatus is employed as a master
for a purpose well known in the art.
As best shown in FIG. 4, the centerlines or axes of
the ?owways 15 are arranged in a generally circular pat
valve, and the body thereof is connected at'its opposite
ends as part of a wellhead, each chamber connects with
an opening in the side of the body through which the
tern. Thus, with each such ?owway being of equal size
valve member passes during insertion into and removal
and adjacent ?owways being equally spaced apart from
from mounted position within the chamber. A bonnet
releasably connected to the body across each such open 10 one another, the centerlines of the ?owway will be dis
posed in radii extending laterally outwardly from the
center of the circular pattern and equally angularly spaced
ing provides a bearing for a part on a stem on the valve
member which extends exteriorly ‘of the body for manipu
lation in opening and closing the valve member.
apart from one another.
a The flow through each ?owway 15 is separately con
In the drawings, wherein like reference characters are
used throughout to designate like parts:
'
FIG. I is a perspective view of 1a master valve con
15 trolled by means of a valve member 20 rotatable within
structed in accordance with the preferred embodiment of
the present invention and adapted for use in controlling
?ow through four well tubings;
a chamber intersecting the ?owway. More particularly,
the valve member 20 is a plug type having an opening 22
therethrough and mounted in the body for rotation about
an axis extending transversely of-the ?owway for align
ing and disaligning the opening 22‘ with the ?owway
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view of the valve 20
1'5. In this manner, and as will be explained more
of FIG. 1, as seen along broken line 2-—2 of FIG. 1;
fully hereinafter, this type of valve member provides a
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the outer end of
smooth continuation of the ?owway 15' in its open posi
one of the bonnets on the valve, as seen along broken
tion, thereby reducing turbulence and ?ow resistance with
line 3—3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the valve, as seen 25 in the ?owway to a minimum.
The axis ‘of rotation of each valve member 20' is longi
along broken line 4-4’ of FIG. 2;
tudinally staggered with respect to the axes of rotation
FIG. 5 is an exploded view on an enlarged scale of
of the other valve members. Thus, for example, in the
one of the ‘valve members and the bearing for its outer
stem; together with a dog carried by the valve member
and cooperable with a groove in the bearing for guided
movement into engagement with a seat engageable with
arrangement shown, the valve membershown on the left
hand side of FIG. 2 is in the highest longitudinal posi
tion, while the. valve member shown on the right-hand
side is in the next to the lowest such position. The valve
member for controlling ?ow through one of the other two
FIG. 6 is an enlarged sectional view of a portion of
?owways is disposed intermediate the two shown in solid
one of the valve members in its open position, together
with the annular seat engageable therewith and the dog 35 lines, as shown by the uppermost broken lines in FIG. 2,
such valve member;
'
carried by such valve member for engagement with the
while the other is disposed at the lowest longitudinal
level, as indicated by the lowermost broken ‘lines of FIG.
2. More particularly, and viewing the valve from the
top, the valve members are arranged in descending spiral
path starting with the left-hand valve member shown in
FIG. 2 and continuing in a clockwise direction.
showing, respectively, the positions of such parts just
The purpose of this longitudinal staggering of the valve
prior to the end of opening movement of the valve mem
members is to prevent the valve members in adjacent
ber, at the end thereof, and just after the start of the
?owways from interfering with one another. More par
closing movement ‘of the valve member.
' As shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 4, the master valve 10 45 ticularly, the valve members are staggered a distance to
prevent the web of metal between the chambers of their
comprises a body 11 having a central portion 12 which
adjacent‘ ?owways from being less than that shown be
is substantially square in cross-section and connected at
its opposite ends to upper and lower ?anges 13 and
tween them in FIG. 4.
14, respectively. There are four spaced apart ?owways
In accordance with the aforementioned preferred em
15 which extend substantially parallel to one another 50 bodiment of the present invention, each valve member 20
longitudinally through the body 11 from one end to
is ball-shaped and has an inner portion closely adjacent
the other.
'
and concentric with an inner hemispherical surface 21 of
the chamber in which it is disposed. More particularly,
When the master valve is installed at the wellhead, its
the inner end of the valve member and adjacent cham
lower ?ange 14 is connected to the upper ?ange of a
tubing head (not shown) to align the ?owways 15 with 55 ber surface 21 is hemispherical about a center lying within
the centerline of the ?owway as well as within a radius
the tubings carried within the head. For this purpose,
which extends perpendicularly with respect to such center
the ?ange 14 is provided with holes 16 for alignment
line from the center of the circular pattern of the ?ow
with similar holes in the upper ?ange of the tubing head
ways.
to receive bolts for connecting the ?anges in end-to-end
As will be appreciated from FIG. 4, this arrangement
relation. As shown in FIG. 2, there is an annular groove
enables the centerline of adjacent ?owways as well as the
17 in the lower face of the ?ange 14 and in surrounding
axes of rotation of vertically adjacent valve members to be
relation to the ?owways 15- to receive a seal ring of suit
disposed as close together as possible, while at ‘the same
able construction. As well known in the art, this ring
time maintaining adequate separation between the cham
is held between the ‘groove 17 and a similar and oppositely
facing groove in the upper face of the ?ange on the tubing 65 bers. It also provides room for an inner stem 23 on the
head to form a seal about the ?owways as the flanges
valve member which, together with an outer stem 24
seat to rotate same during movement of the valve mem
ber between open and closed position; and
FIGS. 7, 8 and 9 are enlarged views of the parts shown
in FIG. 6, but viewed along line 7—7 of FIG. 6- and
are connected together.
,
As shown in FIG. 2, the lower end of each ?owway
15 is enlarged at 1511 to receive the upstanding neck
of a tubing string supported from the tubing head. More 70
particularly, and as well known in the art, these tubing
thereon, securely supports the valve member for rotation
without being moved laterally out of position due to pres
sures exerted thereacross in the closed position of the valve
member.
‘
The stems 2,3 and 24 extend radially of the circular
pattern of the ?owways through the centerline of the ?ow
necks are adapted to be sealably received within the
way controlled by. the valve member. As shown in FIGS».
lower end of. the master valve to provide a continuous
2 and 4, the inner end of each valve chamber is recessed
opening from the tubing into the ?owway 15.
The top ?ange 13 is similarly prepared with bolt holes 75 at 25 to provide a bearing for the stem 23. However, due
3,095,007
to the radial extension of the inner stems, the sides of
this bearing need be no closer to the adjacent ?owways
valve. ‘The upper end of each ret ‘' er sleeve 41 is spaced
from the lower end of the seat 39 to receive a Belleville
than the hemispherical surface 21 of the chamber.
spring 43 or the like therebetween for yieldably urging the
The advantages realized in a master valve constructed
in accordance with the foregoing are illustrated by the
following comparison of same with a solid block type
upper end of the seat against the valve member. An annu
lar seal assembly 44 is carried within a groove about‘ each
seat, as best shown in FIG. 6, for forming a sliding seal
with the ?owway in which the seat is received. This, of
course, enables the urging of the spring 43v to be supple
mented by the upward force of ?uid within the lower end
master valve having its four ?owways controlled by con
duit type gate valve members:
of the ?owway acting across the lower end of the seat.
As illustrated in FIG. 2, the lower end of each retainer
‘sleeve 41 is knurled at 45 or otherwise prepared to form
a tight ?t within the lower end of the ?owway. Thus,
upon assembly of the valve, ‘and with the valve member
15 20 disposed within its chamber, the annular seat 39 is ?rst
moved into place to engage at its upper end with the valve
member. The Belleville spring 43 and retainer sleeve 41
are then moved into the lower end of the ?owway, and
when the latter is moved into a desired longitudinal posi
Distance from Center 10
of Circular Pattern to
Genterline of Flow
way
Diameter of the Valve Bore
Conduit
Type Gate Ball Valve
Valve
1194s.
2M0
2%
3%6
3%6
The outer stem 24 of each valve member 20 rotates
within a bearing 26 slidably received within a lateral open
20 tion, the knurling 45 will hold it in place until such time
‘ing 27 in the body 11 which connects the exterior of the
body with the chamber for the valve member. More par
ticularly, and as will be seen ‘from the drawings, the side opening 27 is of a diameter to pass the valve member 20
into and out of mounted position within the chamber
across the ?owway. The bearing 26 is held in place about
the valve stem 24 by an annular shoulder 28 on the inner
that it is desired to remove or replace the seat 39.
As can be seen from the valve member 20 on the right
hand side of FIG. 2, the Belleville spring 43 is yieldable
to permit the seat 39 engageable with such valve mem
ber to be moved downwardly a distance to release the
valve member for movement therepast into and out of
mounted position. That is, this spring and the spacing
between the seat and retainer sleeve 41 will permit the
. seat to be urged downwardly a distance at least as great
‘side of bonnet 29 which is r-elea-sably connected by bolts 30 as the vertical component of the engagement of the upper
30 to the body across the opening 27.
'
The outer end of the stem‘ 24 is provided with a flat
end of such seat with the spherical surface of the valve
member in the open position of the latter. This, of
sided projection 30a for engagement by a ?at~sided groove
course, enables the valve member to be removed from and
31_ on the inner end of an extension 32 which is rotatably , then inserted into mounted position past the annular seat
mounted within a central opening in the bonnet 29. More 35 39. Thus, upon disconnection and removal of the hon
particularly, the extension is held in rotative driving con
net 29 from the master valve body, the valve member is
nection withthe stem 24 ‘by 'means of an annular shoulder
movable in a radial or transverse direction out of mounted
‘33 on the bonnet which, in the connected position of the
position, and is then movable back into mounted posi
bonnet,,bears upon an oppositely facing annular shoulder
tion to permit the bonnet to be again installed and con
‘34 about the extension. A Belleville-type spring 35 dis 40 nected to the master valve body. Obviously, removal of
posed between the inner end of the extension and an outer
the valve member also permits removal and replacement
side of the bearing 26 yieldably urges the bearing into
of the seat 40.
'
"the position shown vand to be described more fully herein
" As shown in FIG. 2, a grease ?tting 45 or the like may
after.
-
'
The outer end of the extension 32 has- a nut 36 or simi
lar part attached thereto for connection vn'th a suitable
tool for imparting rotation to the extension and thus to
‘the valve member 20. More particularly, there are stop ’
parts 37 on opposite sides of theextension exteriorly of
the bonnet but inwardly of the‘ nut 36 which are adapted
to engage with "stop parts 38 formed ‘on the outer end‘of
be connected with the bearing surfaces between‘ the ex
tension 32 and its journal within the bonnet 29 to prevent
the loss of well ?uid therepast. ’Also, of course, a suit
able thrust bearing 46 may bedisposed between the oppo
sitely facing shoulders 33 and 34 on the bonnet 29 and
extension 32, respectively.
Each valve member 20 carries a dog 47 “ for engaging
the bonnet 29 laterally opposite the stop parts 37. The
and’ rotating the annular seat 39 engageable with such
tension in the alternate opened and closed portions of the
valve member for engaging and following one of several
teeth 47a about the periphery of the seat 39 toward the
valve member during rotation of the valve member from
stop parts 38 on the bonnet form shoulders which are an
gularly spaced apart approximately 90 degrees to engage _ g closed to open positions. More particularly, and as best
illustrated in ‘FIGS. 6 to 9, the dog 47 is carried by the
the oppositely facing ‘sides of the stop parts 37 on‘ the ex- '
valvevmenrber.
'
'
'
‘
‘
'
‘
‘
‘
end of its opening movement to rotate the seat from one
The upstream or lower side of each valve member 20 is
rotative position (FIG. 7) to another (FIG. 8). Then,
engaged by an annular seat 39 having an opening 40 there-v
upon return closing movement of the valve member, it
through adapted to form a smooth continuation of the
opening 22 through the valve member in the open posi 60 moves past such teeth without rotating the seat. In this
manner, the seat is rotated to different seating positions
tion of the valve member, as shown by the valve member
during normal operation of the valve member in order to
on the right-hand side of FIG. 2. On the other hand,
distribute wear thereabout which otherwise would be con
when the valve member is closed, as illustrated by the
centrated across a relatively small portion of the inner
valve member on the left-hand side of FIG. 2, the inner
periphery of the seat.
end of the annular seat 39 is tightly engaged with the solid
As best shown in FIGS. 5 to 9, each dog 47 has a pin
portion thereof to interrupt ?ow from the lower end of
48 on one end which is pivotally received within a recess
the ?owway to the upper end thereof.
49 formed on the outer surface of the valve member. As
Each seat is retained in engagement with its respective ‘
shown in FIG. 5, such recesses may be formed on di
valve member by means of an annular sleeve 41 received
within each ?owway 15 beneath the valve member. vMore 70 ametrically opposite positions of the valve member 20 to
permit ?exibility in assembly, as well as to permit rota
particularly, each sleeve has an opening 42 therethrough
tion of a seat engageable with the other side of the valve
of substantially the same diameter as the upper end of the
?owway and the opening 22 through the valve member, as
member. The remainder of the dog 47 includes a ?ange
well as the opening 40 through the annular seat 39, to pro
portion 50 extending forwardly of the pin 48 closely ad
vide a smooth continuous ?ow path through the master 75 jacent to the valve member for guided movement within
‘3,095,007
.8
7
The _invention having been described, what is claimed is:
an annular groove 51 formed on the inner end or face of
1. Valve apparatus, comprising a body having at least
three spaced apart, substantially parallel ?owways ex
tending longitudinallytherethrough with their centerlines
bearing 26. As shown in FIG. 5, the groove is continu
ous to provide portions on each side of the valve mem
ber, again in the interest of simplifying assembly and
arranged in a generally circular pattern, a separate cham
ber intersecting each ?owway, the maximum width of
permitting the use of two rotatable seats. As alsoshown
in FIG. 4, the inner end of each bearing is recessed at
diametrically opposed locations 26a and to the general
any chamber in a plane transverse to the axes of the ?ow
ways being greater than the shortest distance between the
?owways on each side of the chamber, and a ball-shaped
posed closely adjacent the valve member for receiving
valve plug within each chamber and across the ?owway
the dog 47.
intersected by said chamber for controlling flow there
. The flanged portion 50 of each dog has a ?nger 52 on
through, each plug having an opening therethrough and
one side and an enlargement 53‘ at its opposite side.
stems on its opposite sides mounting it within the body
More particularly, the free end of the ?ange 50 of the
for rotation about an axis extending radially from the
dog de?ned by these parts is substantially the same width
as the groove 51 for guided movement therein. as the dog 15 center of said circular pattern and transversely to the
centerline of said ?owway between positions opening
moves into engagement with the teeth 47a'on the seat.
and closing said ?owway, the axis of rotation of each
As shown in FIG. 7, this will direct the ?nger 52 into en
‘contour of the seat 39 to permit the groove v51 to be dis
gagement with the front face 54 on a toothv so that it will
be moved in a clockwise direction between the positions
of FIG. 7 and FIG. 8 ‘as the dog continues to move with
the valve member.
. However, central portions of the groove 51 are en
larged at 51a and 51b to permit the ?nger 52 to follow
the tooth it engages and the enlargement 53 of each dog
plug being staggered longitudinally with respect to the
axes of rotation of the plugs in’ the other chambers.
2. Valve apparatus of the character de?ned in claim 1,
wherein there are lateral openings in the body connect
ing each chamber with the outer side of the body and of
a size to pass the plug in said chamber, and including an
annular seat sealably slidable within each ?owway for
to move over the back face 55 following the tooth it has 25 engagementwith the plug in the chamber intersected by
said ?owway, and means urging each seat into engage
engaged and-moved as the valve member is moved from
ment with the plug and yieldable to permit said plug to
be inserted and removed through its lateral opening.
3. Valve apparatus, comprising a body having a ?ow
gradually to permit the ?nger 52 to move thereover as
the dog is moved with the valve member from the posi 30 way therethrough and a chamber therein intersecting the
?owway, a ball-shaped valve member having an opening
tion of FIG. v8 to that of FIG. 9.
a
therethrough and mounted in the body and across the
During movement of the dog from the FIG. 7 to the
flowway for rotation within the chamber between posi
FIG. 8 position, ?nger 52 will move into groove enlarge
tions aligning and disaligning its opening with the ?ow
ment 51b, and the tapered back‘face >55 of the tooth will
raise the enlargement 53 of the dog into the enlargement 35 way, an annular seat sealably slidable within the ?owway
51a of the groove 51 as the dog moves from the FIG. 8 ‘ for engagement with the valve member, teeth about the
periphery of the seat, a dog pivotally mounted on the
to the FIG. 9 position. As the dog continues to move
its opened position (FIG. 8) toward its closed position.
Thus, the back faces 55 of the teeth 47a are tapered
counter-clockwise from the position of 'FIG. 9, the ?nger
valve member, and means on the body providing a groove
52 will drop freely into the recess provided in front of
guidably receiving the dog for movement into engagement
From the foregoing it will be seen that this inventionv
is one well adapted to attain all of the ends and objects
tating same upon movement of said valve member in the
the face 54 of the next tooth, whereby it will then be 40 witha tooth on the seat to rotate said seat about its open
ing, upon movement of the valve member in one direction,
guided into the normal con?nes of the groove 51 during
and disengagement from said tooth and seat without ro
further opening movement of the valve member.
opposite direction.
hereinabove set forth, together withv other advantages
which are obvious and which are inherent to the appara
tus.
It will be understood that certain features and sub
combinations are of utility and maybe employed without 50
reference to other features and subcombinations. This is
"contemplated by and’ is within the scope of the claims. ,
As many possible embodiments may be made of the
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
' UNITED STATES PATENTS
. 1,616,386’
\O’Stroske _____________ .._ Feb. 1, 1927
1,770,900
Dawson ______________ __ July 22, 1930
_. 2,335,355
4, 2,825,527
Penick _--, __________ __ Nov. 30, 1943
Wendell ______________ _.- Mar. 4, 1958
f 2,854,209
invention without departing from the scope thereof, it is
I
itobe understood that all matter herein set forth or shown 55.
in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as i1
lustrative and not in a limting sense.
2,859,773,
Erwin ____________ _.-’.-- Sept. 30, 1958
,
Wallace ______________ .__ Nov. 11, 1958
2,977,975
Allen _________ __> ______ __ Apr. 4, 1961
2,997,056
3,007,719
Massey _-.. ___________ _.. Aug. 22, 1961
Sherman _____________ __ Nov. 7, 1961
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