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Патент USA US3095355

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June 25, 1963
_ R- T- JACKSON ETAL
3,995,345
PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING PAPER FROM SYNTHETIC FIBERS
Filed March 22. 1961
PREPARATION
OF
SLURRY OF
'
NYLON FIBERS
PREPARATION OF
SLURRY OF
CELLULOSIC
FIBERS
HEAT TREATMENT
AT IBO°- 300° F
TO STABILIZE
FIBERS
BLENDING AND
DILUTION TO FORM
PULP FURNISH
V
FORMATION OF
PAPER WEB
DRYING OF WEB
INVENTORS
RICHARD T. JACKSON
DONALD G. MAGILL JR.
MW
ATTO
'EY
1.
United States Patent
"ice
Patented June 25, 1963
1
2
These various dii?culties, encompassing effective con
trol of the ?ber length, preparation of a furnish capable of
giving suitable wethang to the web, and drying of the
3,095,345
PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING l’APER
'
FROM SYNTHETIC FIBERS
f
sheet without ripping or~tearing ‘the resultant paper, thus
Richard T. Jackson, Phillipsburg, and Donald G. Magill,
combine to present an impasse to the manufacture of
Jr., Milford, N.J., assignors to Riegel Paper‘ Corpora
paper using nylon and similar synthetic ?bers, such as
tion, New York, N.Y., a corporation ‘of Delaware
‘
'
‘
Vinyon and Orlon, on conventional paper making ma
Filed Mar. 22, 1961, SerQNo. 97,412
22 Claims. (Cl. 162-146)
chinery.
The present application is a continuation-in-part of
of our then copending application Serial Number 601,375, 7
?lediAugust' l", 1956. Both of‘said ‘(applications are nowv
-
“This “invention relates to the manufacture of paper
from synthetic ‘?bers and, more particularly, to the manu
facture“ of ‘synthetic ?ber ‘paper ‘on a'paper making ma
1
~
1
-
‘
the present invention, for we have now developed a proc
ess for the manufacture of nylon and other synthetic ?ber
our‘ cop/ending application Serial No. 770,010, ?led Oc
tober ‘28, 1958, which, in‘turn, was'acontinuation-in-part
abandoned.
‘
Resolution of this impasse has been accomplished in
papers on a conventional paper making machine.
In an
‘advantageous form of "this process a furnish is prepared
froman aqueous slurry of nylon ?bers previously shrunk
15 and dimensionally stabilized. A su?icient quantity of cel
lulosic ?bers, advantageously highly beaten manila hemp,
is blended into the aqueous slurry to give a web formed
therefrom an adequate wet hang. The pulp furnish is
chine,"where the synthetic ?ber is subject to shrinkage
deposited onto a continuously moving screen or cylinder
in the presence of heat. The invention is particularly 20 of a paper making machine and formed into a wet web,
suited‘ to the manufacture of nylon, Vinyon‘and Orlon
the water being removed by suction, drainage and pressing
papers, for example, but we shall discuss it principally,
if necessary. Upon leaving'the couch rolls, a suitable
hereinafter, as applied to the manufacture of nylon paper.
bonding agent for nylon may advantageously be added to
‘ During‘ the developme‘n?of paper possessing increased
the damp sheet prior to passing the paper through the
physical endurance and resistance to degradation, some 25 dryer section. ‘Entering the dryer‘ section, the paper is
attentionv has been ‘directed towards the feasibility of
rapidly dried without substantial shrinkage, since the nylon
manufacturing paper from the newer synthetic ?bers in
?bers have previouslylundergone stress relaxation or pre
an attempt to impart the unique functional properties of
shrinkage.
,
’
‘these ?bers to paper. "Paper manufactured from nylon,
i The stress relaxation of nylon, Vinyon and Orlon is
for example, thus should be expected to possess the very 30 accompanied by shrinking, and renders the ?ber ‘dimen
features,‘ such as fold ‘and ?ex endurance, abrasion rc
sionally stable and impervious to further substantial
sifstance‘, electrical properties and resistance to chemicals
changes upon the application of temperatures which are
‘and microorganisms, which characterize the nylon‘ ?ber.
not appreciably greater'than' the temperature at which the
Although nylon and other synthetic ?bers have been
?ber has been dimensionably stabilized. We have found
.tinconporated into several laboratory handsheets, the manu 35 that when the aqueous slurry of heat shrinkable ?bers,
facture of such papers ‘on ‘paper makingun-achinery has
such as nylon, Vinyon and Orion, is heated to a tempera
created a number of 'di?iculties'. "Inasmuch-"as'standard
ture sufficiently high to effect stress relaxation of the ?ber,
paper making machinery‘is designed for use with cellulosic
the resultant heat-‘treated slurry may be used in the prep~
pulp, these di?’iculties' may be ascribed to ‘the chemical
faration of a furnish and processed on a paper making ma
40
and physical nature of ?ber.
chine without substantial shrinkage of the Wet web in
Several of these difficulties occur in the preparation of ~
the dryer section. Alternatively, the ?ber may be an
a pulp furnish. Due to the hydrophobic nature. of the
neal‘ed, or preshrunk,’ prior to the preparation of the
synthetic ?ber, the formation of" an 'aqueousslurry' of
‘aqueous slurry thereof, thus‘ precluding shrinkage or slip
such ?bers requires either copious quantities of water
page of the wet web in the dryer section as the nylon paper
45
or theuse of a dispersing agent." ‘Beating of nylon fibers,
is dried.
'
for example, is ine?ective in controlling the ?ber length,
Nylon paper, for example, produced by the process of
for there is a‘ tendency for the nylon to rope and inter
our invention‘contains substantially only nylon ?bers in
twine in the rolls of the beater; continued‘ beating for
timately interlaced and co-mingled with a small quantity of
7 extended periods 'of time renders the ?ber too-short to be
cellulosic ?bers, advantageously highly beaten hemp or
vserviceable in paper making. Hence, the pulp furnish 50 cotton ?bers, particularly highly beaten manila hemp as
insofar as ?ber length is concerned must be prepared by
previously suggested. The addition of a nylon bonding
other methods than‘ beating, a beater being employed as
agent 'to the wet web gives the resultant paper increased
a convenient means only for wetting out the ?bers.
strength and fold endurance. Although the ?ber length
Upon forming a wet web ‘from a furnish of nylon ?bers,
of the nylon in the paper may be varied, we have found
.for example, it was observed ‘that the sheets had virtually 55 that an exceptionally strong sheet may be prepared from
no wet hang, and could not be processed through a paper
making machine. Only upon the addition of- a quantity
‘of a cellulosic ?ber blended into the nylon furnish was
it found that su?icient wet hang could be attained. The
‘ nylon ?bers having a length of 1A: to % inch.
A simpli?ed ?ow diagram of the process is shown in
the drawing.
'
‘
'
' In accordance with the process ‘of the invention, syn
most persistent di?iculty encountered in the manufacture 60 thetic ?ber is‘cut to a predetermined length. Although
of nylon and like papers occurs during‘ drying of the wet
the preparing ‘of an aqueous slurry ‘of the ?ber is facili
Web. 'Even though the furnish contains a (suitable quan
tated by ‘short'?bers, we have found that a ?ber length
tity of cellulosic ?ber to give the satisfactory minimum
of about % to '% inch is particularly advantageous in
wet jhang‘to the wet-Web, passing ‘the damp sheet over
the steam dryers persistently ‘tears the ‘sheet papar-t.
65 forming a furnish for processing in- a paper making ma
chin‘e.~ Care must be taken during the cutting of the
3,095,345
synthetic ?bers to avoid fusing of the cut strands as
the cutting knives dull and become heated, for these
fused strands may not be broken apart and thus result
in poor paper machine formation. Neither beating nor
use of a Jordan machine is capable of separating the fused
4
differences in wet hang of various nylon-rope and nylon
rag blends:
TABLE 1
Wet Hang of Nylon-Rope and Nylon-Rag Sheets
?bers resulting from over-heating of the cutting knives.
Dispersion of the cleanly out ?bers to form a uniform
Pereent Floc
Nylon-Hemp 1— Nylon-Cotton 1
Wet Tensile
Wet; Tensile
(Lbs/Inch of
Width)
aqueous slurry requires copius quantities of water, due to
the hydrophobic nature of synthetic ?bers such as nylon.
However, the addition of 2 to 4 percent, based on the 10
weight of the total ?ber content, of a guar gum, such as
OPM-C Lycoid sizing, manufactured by the Stein-Hall
Company, advantageously facilitates the dispersion of
nylon ?bers in water. In this manner, slurries containing
from 3 to 4 percent by weight of nylon ?bers may be
(Lbs.)
1
1
0
0
2
3
5
6
1 Basic weight-70 pounds per 3000 it?
In the preparation of the furnish, an aqueous slurry of
nylon ?bers is mixed and blended with the cellulosic ?ber
To preshrink the nylon or other heat-shrinkable ?bers
previously beaten to a false freeness, and the resultant
at this state, the aqueous slurry is heated to a temperature
mixture diluted to a proper consistency. We have found
su?iciently high to dimensionally stabilize the ?bers.
that a consistency of 0.5 percent by weight of the furnish
Thus, heating the aqueous slurry to a temperature of 20 will result in an easily controllable furnish which deposits
about 250° to 300° F. causes nylon ?bers to become stress
readily onto the continuously moving wire of a paper
relaxed. Although stress relaxation of the ?ber is ac
making machine to form the wet web. The damp or wet
companied by shrinkage, there is no appreciable change
sheet may advantageously be saturated as by being passed
in the tensile strength of the dimensionally stabilized ?ber.
through a solution or dispersion of a bonding agent to
25
After undergoing stress relaxation, the nylon ?bers retain
strengthen the sheet ‘and bond the ?bers prior to drying.
their shape at all temperatures under the temperature at
Many bonding ‘agents may be applied to the damp sheet,
readily prepared.
which preshrinkage occurred. Alternatively, the synthetic
?ber may be dimensionally stabilized prior to forming an
and include phenoilc resins, polyamide resins, inorganic
salts (CaBR2 and ZnBr2, for example), latex and other
compounds.
A bonding agent may alternatively be ap
soon after melt-spinning is suf?cient to preshrink and 30 plied following drying of the web and presently we believe
dimensionally stabilize the annealed ?ber. In both cases,
this may give the most advantageous results. A satis
however, the furnish deposited onto a continuously mov
factory bonding agent for dry web saturation is a nylon
aqueous slurry, and annealing nylon ?ber, for example,
ing wire of a paper making machine must contain dimen
resin solution such as, for example, a solution of Zytel
sionally stabilized synthetic ?bers to avoid excessive
No. 61 in alcohol e.g., a 10 percent solution in ethanol,
85
shrinkage and tearing of the wet web in the dryer section.
Zytel No. 61 being a nylon resin manufactured by E. I.
Where a nylon ?ber slurry is heated to 250°~300° F;,
du Pont de Nemours and Company, it being understood,
prior to forming a web on conventional paper making
of course, that reference is made to Zytel No. 61 as manu
machinery, substantially no shrinkage of the web occurs,
factured on the date of ?ling of this application. The
since the temperature to which the web is subjected in
40 following table indicates the difference in tensile strength
the dryer section does not exceed the stabilization tem
of a treated and untreated sheet, both containing vary
perature. However, while it is usually more convenient
ing amounts of highly beaten manila hemp as a binder:
to pre-treat or stabilize nylon ?bers ‘after forming the
TABLE III
slurry, certain practical problems may be occasioned by
the fact that a pressure vessel is required to raise the tem
Tensile Strength of Nylon Paper 1
perature of an aqueous slurry to 250° or 300° F. Ac 45
cordingly, for most industrial operations the advantages
of the invention are realized by heating the aqueous slurry,
including nylon ?bers, to a temperature of not substan
tially less than 180° F., and advantageously between 180°
Untreated Nylon Treated Nylon
Percent Manila Hemp
Sheet—Tensile
Sheet 2——Tensile
Inch oi Width)
Inch oi Width)
Strength (Lbs./
Strength (Lbs./
and 190° F. Such treatment can be carried out in any
open pulping vessel and affords sut?cient dimensional
stabilization of the ?bers to permit of the successful manu
facture of nylon paper on conventional paper making
machines. Thus, although the temperatures to which
the web is subjected in the dryer section may be somewhat
higher than the stabilization temperatures, the differen
tial is not of a magnitude such as to result in excessive
1 Steam dried.
2 Treatment—saturation of 70 pound/3000 it.2 nylon sheet with a 10
percent solution of Zytel N 0. 61 in ethanol.
shrinkage of the web.
Drying of both the saturated and the untreated sheet
Because of its chemical and physical composition,
nylon and certain other synthetic ?bers will not bond 60 occurs without excessive shrinkage, primarily due to the
fact that the nylon ?bers have previously been stress re
similarly to cellulose, and consequently do not possess
laxed before preparation of the pulp furnish. Prior to
the wet hang of natural ?bers. Complete absence of wet
the use of preshrunk ?bers in the furnish, the wet web
hang renders it impossible to process a 100 percent nylon
sheet, for example, over ‘a paper making machine; hence 65 persistently tore apart in the dryer section due to exces
sive shrinkage of the ?bers. In some instances, even the
a previously prepared cellulosic ?ber must be blended into
use of infrared dryers, specially mounted between the
the furnish to give the wet web su?icient wet hang. After
saturating bath couch roll and the dryer section, failed
extensively testing a variety of blends, we have found that
to avert this tearing when the paper was under tension.
a blend of 5 percent of highly beaten manila hemp and
The use of preshrunk nylon, however, precludes further
95 percent of nylon ?ber gives a most advantageous bal
substantial shrinkage in the dryer section, and results in
ance of properties for the manufacture of nylon paper.
a nylon paper having exceptionally high fold endurance
Other hemp ?bers as well as cotton ?bers may also be
and tear strength.
As an alternative, however, the preshrinking of the
used in preparing the furnish, but the aforementioned
nylon ?bers may be delayed until drying of the damp
nylon highly beaten manila hemp blend results in a
superior wet hang. The following table illustrates the 75 nylon sheet. By using a festoon dryer, so that no tension
3,095,345
is exerted. on the damp sheet, the damp sheet of nylon
paper may be concurrently dried and shrunk in the festoon
shrinkable synthetic ?ber by heating it to a temperature
of not less than r180° F. nor substantially more than 300°
dryer. Since this alternative process causes the paper to
undergo as high as 15 percent shrinkage in length, it is
obvious that only a lfestoon dryer or drying tunnel may
F. to shrink and dimensionally stabilize it,‘ cutting the
annealed synthetic ?ber to a predetermined length, form;
ing an ‘aqueous slurry of the synthetic ?bers, preparing a
furnish ‘from the aqueous slurry, said furnish having a
be used when preshrinkage of the nylon ?bers is delayed
until after the sheet has been formed.
'
predominant proportion of the synthetic ?bers in relation
The characteristics of the nylon paper produced by the
to the total ?ber content thereof and including at least
process of the invention are summarized in the following
2% by dry weight of cellulosic ?ber, forming a wet web
table, in which sample A is the untreated nylon paper,‘ 10 from the pulp furnish wherein the synthetic ?bers become
while sample B has been saturated with a 10 percent solu
intimately interlaced, removing Water from the avet web‘
tion of Zytel No. 61 in ethanol:
to form a damp sheet of synthetic ?ber paper, saturating
the damp sheet of synthetic ?ber paper With a solution
or dispersion of a bonding agent of a character to bond
TABLE III
Characteristics of Nylon Paper
Sample A
15
Sample B
the interlaced synthetic ?bers, and drying ‘the resultant
synthetic ?ber paper by applying heat thereto.
‘ 3. A substantially continuous process for manufactur
ing synthetic ?ber paper which comprises forming an
Weight in pounds per 3,000 it.2 ______________ _-
25. 5
40. 5
Guage in inches X 10-3 ____________ _; ________ __
7. 5
8.0
3. 4
6. 1
aqueous slurry of heat-shrinkable synthetic ?bers subject
Apparent Density (Lbs/3,000 it. one mil in
thickness) _________________________________ __
and
to shrinkage
below 300°
whenF.;
exposed
said ?bers
to temperatures
having a predetermined
above 180°
length, heating the aqueous slurry to a temperature of not
Porous paper porosity (Seconds to pass 100 cc.
of air through 0.25 sq. in. of paper area under
in?uence of 5 oz. cylinder in Gurley densom
eter) ___________ __'_ ________________________ __
Mullen in pounds/in.2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
0. 3
less than 1180'0 F. nor substantially more than 300° F.
0. 3
_ _ _ __
7
120
Tear Strength (gm.) _________________________ __
20
200
to shrink and dimensionally stabilize the synthetic ?bers,
25 preparing a furnish from the heat-treated aqueous slurry,
said furnish having a predominant proportion of the syn
thetic ?bers in relation to the total ?ber content thereof
'I‘ensélte
)Strength (pounds per inch of sample
W1 11 :
Lengthwise ________________ __
Transverse _________________ __
2. 5
2. 0
26. 5
23. 2
and including at least 2% by dry weight of cellulosic
?ber, forming a wet web from the pulp furnish wherein
It should be understood that the invention is not neces
the ?bers become intimately interlaced, removing water
sarily limited to the making of papers incorporating nylon
from the Wet web to form a damp sheet of synthetic ?ber
paper, and'drying the paper by applying heat thereto. ‘
as the heat-shrinkable synthetic ?ber. By way of ‘further
example, the principles‘ of the invention are applicable
i I 4. A substantially continuous process for manufactur
equally Well to the manufacture of papers in which Vin
yon forms a high-percentage constituent, as the heat
ing nylon paper which comprises forming an aqueous
slurry of heat-shrinkable nylon ?bers having a predeter
mined length, heating the aqueous slurry‘ to a temperature
shrinkable synthetic ?ber. Vinyon, like nylon, shrinks
when passed over the paper machine dryer, tollowing con
of not less than 180° F. nor substantially ‘more than
300° F. to shrink and dimensionally stabilize the nylon
ventional procedures. However, by ?rst heating the Vin
yon ?ber to a temperature beyond its shrinkage tempera
ture and then forming the paper web therefrom, the re
sidual shrinkage, if any, of the treated ?bers is su?‘iciently
small to obviate the problem, otherwise encountered, of
the web breakage in passage through the dryer section.
In the making of papers, in accordance with the inven
tion, in which Vinyon ?bers are a highpercentage con
?bers, preparing a pulp furnish from ‘the heat-treated
aqueous slurry, said furnish having a predominant pro
portion of the synthetic ?bers in relation to the'total ?ber
content thereof and including at least 2% by dry Weight
of cellulosic ?ber, forming a wet web from the pulp
furnish‘ wherein the nylon ?bers become intimately inter
stituent, the Vinyon ?bers are subjected to annealing at ,.
a temperature of at least about 140° F., but advantageously
not above about 30° F. At the lower temperature limit
of about 140° F., substantial shrinkage of the Vinyon
?bers will take place, such that ‘any further shrinkage in
the dryer will not be troublesome.
The foregoing is intended to be illustrative of the in
vention, thefull scope of which is de?ned by the appended
claims.
We claim:
1. A substantially continuous process for man-utactur- .
ing paper from heat-shrinkable synthetic ?bers subject to
shrinkage when exposed to temperatures above 180° F.
and below 300° P. which comprises ‘annealing the heat
shrinkable synthetic ?ber by heating it to a temperature
of not less than 180° F. nor substantially more‘ than 300°
F. to shrink and dimensionally stabilize it, cutting the ‘an
nealed synthetic ?ber to a predetermined length, forming
‘an ‘aqueous slurry of the synthetic ?bers, preparing a
furnish ‘from the aqueous slurry, said iurnish having a
predominant proportion of the synthetic ?bers in relation .
laced, removing water from the wet web'to form a sheet
‘of 'nylon paper, saturating the sheet of nylon paper with
a solution or dispersion of a bonding agent of a charac
ter to bond the interlaced nylon ?bers, and dry-ing the
‘ paper by applying heat thereto.
5. A substantially continuous process for manufactur
ing nylon paper which comprises annealing heat-shrink
able nylon ?ber by heating it to a temperature of not less
than 180° F. nor substantially more than 300° F; to
shrink and dimensionally stabilize it, cutting the annealed
nylon ?ber to a predetermined length, forming ‘an aqueous
slurry of the nylon ?bers, preparing a furnish from the
aqueous slurry, said furnish having a predominant pro
portion of the synthetic ?bers in relation to the‘total ?ber
content thereof and including at least 2% by dryQweight
of cellulosic ?ber, forming a wet web from the furnish
00 wherein
the nylon ?bers become intimately interlaced, re
moving water from the wet web to form a‘ damp sheet
of nylon paper, and drying the nylon paper by applying
heat thereto.
6. A substantially continuous process for manufactur
ing nylon paper which comprises annealing heat-shrink
to the total ?ber'content thereof, and including at least
able nylon ?ber by heating it to a temperature of not less
2% by dryvweight of cellulose ?ber, forming a wet web
than 180° F. nor substantially more than 300° F. to
‘from the furnish wherein the synthetic ?bers become in
shrink and dimensionally stabilize it, cutting the annealed
timately interlaced, removing water from the wet Web to
form 1a damp sheet of synthetic ?ber paper, and drying 70 nylon ?ber to a’predetermined length, forming an aqueous
the synthetic ?ber paper by applying heat thereto.
slurry of the nylon ?bers, preparing a furnish from the
1 2. A substantially continuous process [for manufactur
aqueous slurry, said furnish having a predominant pro
ing paper from heat-shrinkable synthetic ?bers subject to
portion of the synthetic ?bers in relation to the total ?ber
shrinkage when exposed to temperatures above 180° F.
content thereof and including at least_2% by dry weight
and below 300° P. which comprises annealing the‘ heat 75 of cellulosic ?ber, forming a wet web from the furnish
3,095,345
‘Z
wherein the nylon ?bers become intimately interlaced,
removing water from the wet web to form a damp sheet
of nylon paper, saturating the sheet of nylon paper with
a solution or dispersion of a bonding agent of a character
to bond the interlaced nylon ?bers, and drying the paper
by applying heat thereto.
8
for the synthetic ?ber to bond the interlaced ?bers, and
drying the paper by applying heat thereto.
11. In a process for the manufacture of nylon paper,
the method of preparing the furnish which comprises
forming an aqueous slurry of heat-shrinkable nylon ?bers
having a predetermined length, heating the aqueous slurry
to a temperature of not less than 180° F. nor substantially
7. A substantially continuous process for manufactur
more than 300° F. to shrink and dimensionally stablize the
ing synthetic ?ber paper which comprises forming an
nylon ?bers, and blending a suf?cient quantity of cellulosic
aqueous slurry of heat-shrinkable synthetic ?bers sub
ject to shrinkage when exposed to temperatures of about 10 ?bers with the aqueous slurry to form a furnish, said
furnish having a predominant proportion of the syn
180° F. to 190° F.; said ?bers having a length of 1/8 to
thetic
?bers in relation to the total ?ber content thereof
1% inch, heating the aqueous slurry to a temperature of
and including at least 2% by dry weight of cellulosic
about 180° F. to 190° F., thereby shrinking and dimen
?ber.
sionally stabilizing the ?bers, preparing a furnish from
12. In a process for the manufacture of nylon paper,
the heat-treated aqueous slurry, said furnish having a pre 15
the method of preparing the furnish which comprises
dominant proportion of the synthetic ?bers in relation to
forming an aqueous slurry of heat-shrinkable nylon ?bers
the total ?ber content thereof and including at least 2%
having a length of about Ms to % inch, heating the aqueous
by dry weight of cellulosic ?ber, forming a wet web from
slurry to a temperature of about 180° to 190° F, thereby
the furnish wherein the ?bers become intimately inter
laced, removing water from the wet web to form a damp 20 shrinking and dimensionally stabilizing the nylon ?bers,
and blending a suf?cient quantity of cellulosic ?bers into
sheet of synthetic paper, and drying the paper by applying
heat thereto.
8. A substantially continuous process for manufactur
the aqueous slurry so that the cellulosic ?ber comprises
at least 2 percent by weight of the total ?ber content, the
aqueous slurry so that it comprises at least about 2 per
peratures above 180° F. and below 300° F. said ?bers
having a length of about ‘A; to % inch, heating the aqueous
blended slurry having a predominant proportion of the
ing nylon paper which comprises forming an aqueous
slurry of heat-shrinkable nylon ?bers having a length of 25 synthetic ?bers in relation to the total ?ber content
thereof.
1A; to % inch, heating the aqueous slurry to a tempera
' 13. In a process for the manufacture of synthetic ?ber
ture of about 180° to 190° F., thereby shrinking and
paper, the method of preparing the ‘furnish which com
dimensionally stabilizing the nylon ?bers, preparing a fur
prises forming an aqueous slurry of heat~shrinkable syn
nish from the heat-treated aqueous slurry by blending a
thetic ?bers subject to shrinkage when exposed to tem
su?‘icient quantity of highly beaten manila hemp with the
cent by weight of the total ?ber content thereof, said
furnish having a predominant proportion of the syn
slurry to a temperature of not less than 180° F. nor sub
stantially more than 300° F. to shrink and dimensionally
thetic ?bers in relation to the total ?ber content thereof,
forming a wet web from the furnish wherein the nylon 35 stabilize the synthetic ?bers, and blending a suf?cient
the wet web to form a damp sheet of nylon paper, and
quantity of cellulosic ?ber into the aqueous slurry so that
the cellulosic ?ber comprises at least 2 percent by weight
the aqueous slurry so that it comprises at least about 2
F. nor substantially more than 300° F. to shrink and di
?bers become intimately interlaced, removing water from
of the total ?ber content, the blended slurry having a pre
drying the nylon paper by applying heat thereto.
dominant proportion of the synthetic ?bers in relation
9. A substantially continuous process for manufactur
ing nylon paper which comprises forming an aqueous 40 to the total ?ber content thereof.
14. In a process for the manufacture of synthetic ?ber
slurry of heat-shrinkable nylon ?bers having a length of
paper using heat-shrinkable synthetic ?bers subject to
1/s to Vs inch, heating the aqueous slurry to a tempera
shrinkage when exposed to temperatures above 180° F.
ture of about 180° to 190° F., thereby shrinking and
and below 300° F., the method of preparing the furnish
dimensionally stabilizing the nylon ?bers, preparing a
furnish from the heat-treated aqueous slurry by blending 45 which comprises annealing the heat-shrinkable synthetic
?ber by heating it to a temperature of not less than 180°
a suf?cient quantity of highly beaten cellulosic ?ber with
mensionally stabilize it, cutting the annealed ?ber to a
length of about 1A; to % inch, forming an aqueous slurry
thetic ?bers in relation to the total ?ber content thereof, 50 of the synthetic ?bers, and blending ‘a su?icient quantity
of highly beaten cellulosic ?bers into the aqueous slurry
forming a wet web from the furnish wherein the nylon
so that the last mentioned ?bers comprise at least 2 per
?bers become intimately interlaced, removing water from
cent by weight of the total ?ber content, the blended
the wet web to form a damp sheet of nylon paper, saturat
slurry having a predominant proportion of the synthetic
ing the damp sheet of nylon paper with a bonding agent
to bond the interlaced nylon ?bers, and drying the re 55 ?bers in relation to the total ?ber content thereof.
15. In a process for the manufacture of nylon paper,
sultant nylon paper by applying heat thereto.
the method of preparing the furnish which comprises an
10. A substantially continuous process for manufactur
nealing heat-shrinkable nylon ?ber by heating it to a
ing synthetic ?ber paper which comprises annealing a
temperature of not less than 180° F. nor substantially
heat-shrinkable synthetic ?ber of a type which is subject
to shrinkage when exposed to temperatures above 180° F. 60 more than 300° F. to shrink and dimensionally stabilize
it, cutting the annealed ?ber to a predetermined length,
and below 300° F. by heating it to a temperature of not
forming an aqueous slurry of the nylon ?bers, and blend
less than 180° F. nor substantially more than 300° F. to
percent by weight of the total ?ber content thereof, said
furnish having a predominant proportion of the syn
shrink and dimensionally stabilize it, cutting the annealed
ing a su?icient quantity of highly beaten manila hemp
with the aqueous slurry to ‘form a furnish, said furnish
?ber to a length of about 1A; to % inch, forming an aque
ous slurry of the ?bers, preparing a furnish from the 65 having a predominant proportion of the nylon ?bers in
relation to the total ?ber content thereof and including at
aqueous slurry by blending a sufficient quantity of highly
least 2% by dry weight of cellulosic ?ber.
beaten cellulosic ?ber with the aqueous slurry so that the
16. A substantially continuous process for manufactur
cellulosic ?ber comprises at least about 2 percent by
ing nylon paper which comprises forming an aqueous
weight of the total ?ber content, said furnish having a
predominant proportion of the synthetic ?bers in relation 70 slurry of heat-shrinkable nylon ?bers having a length of
Ms to % inch, heating the aqueous slurry to about 250°
to the total ?ber content thereof, forming a wet web from
to 300° F ., thereby shrinking and dimensionally stabilizing
the furnish wherein the synthetic and cellulosic ?bers be
the nylon ?bers, preparing a furnish from the heat-treated
come intimately interlaced, removing water from the wet
aqueous slurry by blending a su?icient quantity of highly
web to form a sheet of paper, saturating the sheet of
paper with a solution or dispersion of a bonding agent 75 beaten manila hemp with the aqueous slurry so that it
3,095,345
10
comprises at least about 2 percent by weight of the total
?ber content thereof, said furnish having a predominant
proportion of the synthetic ?bers in relation to the total
facture of paper using heat-shrinkable, synthetic ?ber
?ber content thereof, forming a wet web from the furnish
perature and wherein the paper is formed into a con
wherein the nylon ?bers become intimately interlaced,
removing water from the wet web to form a damp sheet
19. A substantially continuous process for the manu~
subject to shrinkage when heated to a predetermined tem
tinuous web and dried continuously by the application
thereto of heat at ‘a temperature above said predeter
of nylon paper, and drying the nylon paper by applying
mined temperature, which comprises forming an aqueous
heat thereto.
slurry of the synthetic ?bers, heating the slurry to a tem
17. A substantially continuous process for manufactur
perature above said predetermined temperature to e?ect
ing nylon paper which comprises forming 'an aqueous 10 stress relaxation and to cause at least partial shrinkage
slurry of heat-shrinkable nylon ?bers having a length of
of the synthetic ?bers in said slurry, preparing a furnish
Ms to % inch, heating the aqueous slurry to about 250°
from the ‘heat-treated slurry by blending a su?icient quan
to 300° F., thereby shrinking and dimensionally stabiliz
tity of highly beaten cellulosic ?ber with the slurry so that
ing the nylon ?bers, preparing a ‘furnish from the heat
it comprises at least about 2% by dry weight of the total
treated aqueous slurry by blending a sui?cient quantity of 15 ?ber content thereof, said furnish having a predominant
highly beaten cellulosic ?ber with the aqueous slurry so
proportion of the synthetic ‘?bers in relation to the total
that it comprises at least about 2 percent by weight of the
?ber content thereof, forming a web of synthetic ?ber
total ?ber content thereof, said furnish having a pre
paper, and drying the resultant sheet by applying heat
dominant proportion of the synthetic ?bers in relation to
thereto at a temperature above the predetermined tempera
the total ?ber content thereof, ‘forming a wet web from 20 ture but not substantially above the temperature to which
the furnish wherein the nylon ?bers become intimately
said slurry is heated.
interlaced, removing water from the wet web to form a
20. The method of claim 19, in which said heat-shrink
damp sheet of nylon paper, saturating the damp sheet of
able ?ber is Orlon.
nylon paper with a bonding agent to» bond the inter
21. The method of claim 19, in which said heat-shrink
laced nylon ?bers, and drying the resultant nylon paper 25 able ?ber is Vinyon.
by applying heat thereto.
22. The method of claim 21, in which the aqueous
18. In a process for the manufacture of nylon paper,
slurry of Vinyon ?bers is heated to a temperature of at
the method of preparing the furnish which comprises
least about 140° F. but not substantially above 300° F.
forming an aqueous slurry of heat-shrinkable nylon ?bers
having a length of about 1A; to % inch, heating the aque 30
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
ous slurry to about 250° to 300° F, thereby shrinking and
UNITED STATES PATENTS
dimensionally stabilizing the nylon ?bers, and blending
2,336,797
Maxwell _____________ .__ Dec. 14, 1943
a su?icient quantity of cellulosic ?bers into the aqueous
2,357,392
Francis ______________ __. Sept. 5, 1944
slurry so that the cellulosic ?ber comprises at least 2 per
Hermanson ____________ __ Feb. 7, 1950
cent by weight of the total ?ber content, the blended 35 2,496,665
slurry having a predominant proportion of the synthetic
?bers in relation to the total ‘fiber content thereof.
2,526,125
Francis ______________ __ Oct. 17, 1950
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