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Патент USA US3095349

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June 25, 1963
w. G. CRAIG
3,095,339
ASPHALT ROOFING ELEMENT
Filed March 25, 1958
INVENTOR.
WILLIS G. CRAIG
AT TORNEYS
United States Patent ,0
3,095,339
1
1
Patented June 25, 1963
2
inches wide. This size is ideal for use in preparing new
3,095,339
roof surfaces and also is quite applicable in repairing worn
ASPHALT ROOFING ELEMENT
Willis G. Craig, Willoughby, Ohio, assignor to The Lubri
zol Corporation, Wickliife, Ohio, a corporation of
roo?ng surfaces. In some cases a worn roof surface, how
ever, ‘may have sufficiently wide cracks in its surface as
to require the use of a wider ?rst strip and in some severe
cases a strip 12 inches in width will be most useful.
The second strip, an asphalt-impermeable strip, nar
rower than the ?rst, asphalt-bonded strip, must have a
Ohio
Filed Mar. 25, 1958, Ser. No. 723,903
4 Claims. (Cl. 154-51)
This invention relates as indicated to a roo?ng element.
tensile strength less than that of the asphalt-bonded strip.
More particularly it‘relates to an asphaltic roofing ele
The reason for this limitation upon the strength of the
ment which is useful in prolonging the life of a built-up
second strip is associated with its function in distributing
roof surface. It is useful not only in the preparation of
the stresses on the upper ?rst strip (occasioned by the
new roof surfaces, but also in the repair of old, worn roof
shifting of the supporting slabs of the roof surface) about
surfaces.
a wider area than that immediately over the joints between
The roof surfaces of many buildings, particularly com
these supporting slabs.
mercial and industrial buildings, consist of ?at slabs of
To illustrate the invention, an asphalt-impermeable strip
concrete, metal, wood, etc. as the principal supporting
about 2 inches in width is placed along the joint between
structure. These supporting slabs are covered in most
abutting concrete slaps of a roof surface and centered
instances with asphalt-saturated felts to give the roo?ng
thereon. Immediately above this 2-incl1 wide strip there
a uniform protective coating. The asphalt-saturated felt 20 is placed a 4-inch wide strip of a porous alphalt-bonded
serves not only to seal the joints between the abutting
glass ?brous mat. This second, asphaltic mat is centered
concrete slabs, but also to eliminate the crevices of these
atop the lower, narrower strip so as to overlap on each
joints and to provide a smooth surface which will prevent
side of this narrower strip. Then the overlapping edges of
the collection of water from rain and snow.
the upper strip are anchored to the supporting concrete
As the supporting slabs are not fastened either to each 25 slabs by mopping a clay asphalt emulsion on to the surface
of this upper strip. The asphalt-emulsion impregn-ates the
other or to their supporting understructure, but merely
rest in their positions, it is ‘apparent that they will shift
pores of this upper strip making contact with the concrete
their positions from time to time with any shifting of the
slabs underneath the overlapping edges and dries to leave
building structure which they cover. It is apparent fur
an effective seal between the concrete and the overlapping
therrnore that such shifting of these supporting slabs will 30 portions of the asphalt~bonded glass mat.
not be uniform, but that some will shift more than others.
The second, ?exible, narrower strip, being asphalt
Such motion of the slabs will place a considerable stress
imperrneable, prevents attachment of the center portion
upon that portion of the asphaltic layer immediately above
of the upper strip corresponding to the area of the under
the joints between any pair of slabs, This stress inevitably
neath strip to the supporting roof structure. Because of
results in the rupture of the asphaltic surface immediately 35 this and also because it is weaker in terms of tensile
above these joints with the result that protection from
strength than the upper ?rst strip it allows the stresses
caused by any shifting of the abutting supporting slabs
the elements ofweather is no longer provided by the as
phaltic layer.
I
to be distributed throughout the upper asphaltic strip
It is an object of the present invention to provide an im
‘about an area defined by the width of the lower, asphalt
proved asphaltic roof surface.
40
impermeable strip.
‘Another object of the present invention is to provide a
The invention may be illustrated further by reference to
the ?gurwof the drawing. FIGURE 1 is a top View of
the combination of strips placed over the joint of two
abutting panels of a roof surface. The uppermost strip
Other objects of the invention will become apparent
45 is de?ned by 5, 6, 7 and 8. The narrower, asphalt-im
from the following description thereof.
roo?ng element which serves as an effective seal of cracks
in a roof surface.
An effective means has been discovered whereby an as
. permeable strip which lies immediately beneath the wider
phaltic surface can be strengthened along the lines of
joints between supporting slabs of the surface, Which con
sists of a roo?ng element comprising in combination a
strip and directly over the joint between the abutting
panels is de?ned by the numbers 1, 2, 3‘ and 4. The abut
with chopped nylon strands, cot-ton, jute, Orlon, etc. and
asphalt-impermeable strip is tissue paper which has been
ting panels are 9‘ and 10. FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional
?rst strip of porous, asphalt-bonded ?brous mat 4 to 12 50 view of the same application in which the width of the
inches wide, and centered longitudinally thereunder and . upper, asphaltic strip is represented by 13‘ and 14- and the
width of the lower asphalt-impermeable strip is indicated
in facewise contact therewith a second, asphalt-imperme
by 11 and 12. The abutting panels are 15 and 16.
able strip narrower than said ?rst strip and held in place
by the surface tack of said ?rst strip, said second strip
An important consideration in the selection of materials
being characterized by a tensile strength less than that of 55 that can serve as the lower, narrower asphalt-impermeable
said ?rst strip and an adhesion to asphalt less than the co
strip- is that this material must be one which is free to move
hesion of asphalt.
either with respect to the supporting roof surface itself or
The porous asphalt-bonded ?brous mat is preferably a
with respect to the upper ‘asphaltic strip. It is apparent
glass ?brous mat, and a particularly suitable asphalt
that this condition must exist if the stresses caused by the
bonded glass ?brous mat is described in U.S. 2,811,769. 60 movement of the supporting slabs are to be distributed
Such a mat may be prepared by spraying hot discrete
about an area wider that that of the joint being covered.
asphalt particles upon a water-felted mat of chopped
In some special circumstances this narrower, asphalt-im
glass strands. A mat prepared in this manner is char
permeable strip may be such that it adheres neither to the
acterized by its great strength and light weight, and also
supporting roof structure nor to the covering asphaltic
by its relatively high concentration of asphalt with re 65 mat. Ordinarily, however, this narrower strip will be ad
spect to its glass content. Other asphalt-bonded mats
herent to one of these surface, and more usually this nar
may also 'be used with success; thus an asphalt-bonded
rower strip will adhere to the covering asphaltic strip.
Saran ?ber mat is useful, so is an asphaltic mat prepared
A particularly suitable material for use as this narrower
many other synthetic ?bers can be used in the prepara 70 coated on one side with a thin ?lm of polyethylene. The
tion of mats for the purposes of this invention.
polyethylene ?lm serves to prevent adhesion of the strip
Ordinarily this ?rst porous strip should be about 4
to the asphalt of old, worn roof surfaces, and also to pre
3,095,339
3
vent the combined strips from sticking to itself when it is
rolled for storage purposes. Other materials which have
been used with success as the asphalt-impermeable strip
with respect to each other, must be capable of elongation.
Likewise of course the anchoring substance (the residue
include tissue paper alone (for use on new roof surfaces),
Saran (a copolymer of 95% vinylidene chloride and 5%
should also have this property. For the purposes of this
invention it is necessary that this upper, asphaltic strip,
vinyl chloride), aluminum foil, cellophane, and 20-pound
when anchored to a roof surface, be characterized by an
from the clay asphalt emulsion of the above illustration)
elongation of at least 10% before rupture.
Other modes of applying the principle of the invention
may be employed, change being made as regards the de
between abutting surfaces. These include polyvinyl alco 10 tails described, provided the features stated in any of the
following claims or the equivalent of such be employed.
hol, polyvinyl chloride, various vinyl chloride copolymers,
I therefore particularly point out and distinctly claim
polyvinyl acetate, GRS-type copolymers and the like.
kraft paper.
Still other materials which have been used successfully
include synthetic resins which are painted over the joint
The use of such materials as this narrower, underlying
strip illustrates the situation in which this strip adheres to
the supporting roof structure, but is free to move with re
spect to the upper asphaltic strip. In this situation the
asphalt-impermeable strip is suf?ciently ?exible to move
with any movement of the abutting slabs of the roof.
Being non-adherent with the asphaltic strip above, this
movement does not transmit any stresses to the asphaltic
strip.
With respect to the situation in which the asphalt-im
permeable strip adheres to the upper asphaltic strip, but
does not adhere to the supporting roof structure, any
movement of the abutting slabs of this roof does not
transmit stresses to either of the strips which overlie the
slabs because the narrower, asphalt-impermeable strip
is independent of any such motion.
As mentioned earlier the lower, asphalt-impermeable
as my invention:
1. A roo?ng clement comprising in combination a ?rst
strip of porous, tacky asphalt-bonded ?brous mat 4 to 12
inches wide, and centered longitudinally thereunder and
held in facewise contact therewith by the surface tack of
said ?rst strip, a second, asphalt-impermeable strip nar
rower than said ?rst strip, said second strip being charac
terized by ‘a tensile strength less than that of said ?rst
strip and an adhesion to asphalt less than the cohesion
of asphalt.
2. The roo?ng element of claim 1 characterized fur
ther in that the ?rst strip of porous, asphalt-bonded
?brous mat is an asphalt-bonded glass ?brous mat.
3. The roo?ng element of claim 1 characterized fur
ther in that the ?rst strip of porous, asphalt-bonded ?brous
mat is an asphalt-bonded mat of chopped glass ?ber
strands.
4. The roo?ng element of claim 1 characterized fur
strip must have a tensile strength less than that of the 30
ther in that the second, asphalt-impermeable strip is a
upper, asphaltic strip. If this is not the case the lower strip
synthetic resin.
will act to reinforce the upper strip and any stresses im
posed upon the system will cause the upper strip to rupture
along the lines which correspond to the edges of the lower
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
“reinforcing” strip. It is apparent therefore that the lower
strip must have a suf?ciently low tensile strength that it
does not act to reinforce the upper strip.
The lower, asphaltic-impermeable strip should also be
characterized by ‘an adhesion to asphalt less than the co
hesion of asphalt. This property enables the lower strip 40
to become detached from the upper asphaltie strip or an
asphaltic roof surface when stresses are applied to the
system. A speci?c illustration of the invention is as fol
lows: A 2-inch wide strip of polyethylene-coated tissue
paper is placed (polyethylene side face down) atop the
joint formed by abutting concrete slabs of a new roof.
Immediately on top of this strip there is placed a 4-inch
wide strip- of an asphalt-bonded, glass ?brous mat
(prepared as in US. 2,811,769) such that a 1-inch selvage
overlies each edge of the lower strip. An aqueous clay 50
asphalt emulsion containing 48% asphalt and 2% clay is
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,227,520‘
1,637,480
1,642,282
A-ngier ______________ __ May 22, 1917
Gage ________________ __ Aug. 2, 1927
Weiss ______________ __ Sept. 13, 1927
1,694,523
1,751,327
2,078,049
2,133,183
2,314,523
2,315,851
2,550,465
White ______________ __ Dec. 11,
Haire _______________ __ Mar. 18,
Benedict _____________ __ Apr. 20,
Baird ________________ __ Oct. 11,
\Speer _______________ __ Mar. 23,
Goldman _____________ __ Apr. 6,
Gorski ______________ __ Apr. 24,
2,624,683
Bezman ______________ __ Jan. 6,
2,811,769
2,863,405
2,962,405
Craig ________________ __ Nov. 5,
Lei'brook _____________ __ Dec. 9,
Mortland ____________ __ Nov. 29,
1928
1930
1937
1938
1943
1943
1951
1953
1957
1958
1960
mopped on to the top layer until the pores thereof are
OTHER REFERENCES
thoroughly saturated. When the emulsion has dried the
overall roof then may be surfaced by any of the methods
well known in the art.
It is apparent that the upper, asphaltic strip, being an
chored to separate supporting slabs which are free to move
Engineering News Record, Feb. 17, 1938, page 272.
American Roofer, December 1946, pages 12, 13, and
25-27, inclusive.
Addex publication RP. 75-28pa by Labco of Cleveland
6, Ohio, pages 1 and 2, Jan. 15, 1957.
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