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Патент USA US3095487

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June 25, 1963
D. J. LESLIE
3,095,477
SYSTEM FOR RECORDING AND REPRODUCING
ELECTRIC ORGAN MUSIC
Filed Jan. 12, 1959
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INVENTOR.
,DOMQLD (I Leszxs
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United States Patent Of Free:
1
3,095,477
‘Patented June 25, 1963
2
Referring to the drawings:
3,095,477
SYSTEM FOR RECORDING AND REPRODUCING
ELECTRIC ORGAN MUSIC
Donald J. Leslie, 313 S. Fair Oaks Ave., Pasadena, Calif.
Filed Jan. 12, 1959, Ser. No. 786,151
15 Claims. (Cl. 179--1)
> FIGURES i1 and 2 are diagrammatic views illustrating,
respectively, recording and reproducing apparatus in ac
cordance with one form of the present invention;
FIGS. 3 and 4 are diagrammatic views illustrating, re
spectively, recording and reproducing apparatus in ac
cordance with a second form of the present invention;
FIGS. 5 and 6 are diagrammatic views illustrating,
This invention relates to a system for recording and
reproducing music played on an electric organ.
respectively, recording and reproducing apparatus in ac
In order that music of this character be pleasing to 10 cordance with a third form of the present invention;
the ear, it has been common to produce a vibrato or
FIGS. 7 and 8 are vdiagraimnatic views illustrating, re
pitch tremolo therewith. This tremolo is effective when
the pitch of any note is alternately raised and lowered
spectively, recording and reproducing apparatus in ac
cordance with a fourth ‘form of the present invention; and
about six or eight times a second.
FIGS. 9 and 10 are diagrammatic views- illustrating,
When a record is made of such organ music in which 15 respectively, recording and reproducing apparatus in ac
pitch tremolo is present, a mere playing of the record
cordance with a ?fth form of the present invention.
does not properly simulate the “greatness” of organ music.
In reproducing recorded electronic organ music, a sen
It is one of the objects of this invention to make it
sation of realism or‘ actual presence of the artist is created
possible to record and reproduce organ music in such
by the use of a speaker that is substantially identical to
manner that the illusion of original organ music is pre 20 the one normally'used 'withthe organ in question. But
served, and pitch tremolo eifects created. By recording
many such speaker structures‘ incorporate movable de
vices for adding tremolo acoustically. The tremolo‘ can
be recorded by using a microphone; but a sensation of
the original wave forms are preserved without any acous
presence cannot be created in this manner. Instead, the
tical effects‘ or limitations being imposed. The record 25 movable devices of the speaker must reproduce the opera
thus made is of a straight character that is not generally
tions occurring during recording if realism is ‘to be creTa-ted.
the electrical impulses directly from the electric or elec
tronic organ console before they are released as sound,
useful when played through ordinary sound systems.
Since an acoustic tremulant, such as a rotating horn-type
Thus, the organ speaker used for reproduction must be
actuated in the identical manner that it would have been
if the organist were present. The speaker structure is
?t of this treatment is applied at the time the record 30 actuated in two distinct ways:-?rst of all, electrical im
is. played; and if the recording is carefully made without
pulses corresponding to sound are applied to transducers;
distortion or noise, it becomes impossible to distinguish
secondly, signals or energization are applied to apparatus
whether the selection is being played by an organist or
that operates the acoustic tremulant apparatus.
speaker system‘, imparts perspective and realism, the bene
whether a‘ record is being used as the source of music. In
' The velectrical impulses corresponding to sound can, of
eifect, the electrical impulses that represent the music are 35 course, be directlyrecorded and used later to drive trans~
intercepted and merely delayed before they become sound,
ducers of the speaker structure. The recording of im
and as no microphones are used in the system, the usual
pulses is‘ done directly so that no acoustic qualities pre
acoustical problems are not present; for instance, a
maturely modify the impulses. The on-oif control or
famous organist could make a special recording of the
energization of the physically rotating acoustic tremulant
character described, and this recording could be played
apparatus can also, be recorded, at least in a form ap
at a distant point, the results being the same as though
the organist were actually playing an organ at the said
distant point.
>
g
- Normally the acoustic tremulant (for'reality) is con
propriate for recording.
‘
FIGS. 1 and 2 diagrammatize an elementary system for
accomplishing the foregoing result. The organ console 1
has an output connected both to a recorder 2 and a moni~
trolled by an on-o?” switch on the organ console, whereby 45 toring speaker 3. l The monitoring speaker 3 includes ap
the rotary horn speaker is at times operative, and at
other times inoperative, depending upon the desired inter
pretive effects. Another object of this invention is to
incorporate signal means whereby on-olfoperation of the
rotary horn speaker is faithfully reproduced.
I In some organ systems, acoustic tremulant is added
separately to different tones.
For example, trem-ulant
paratus for producing tremulant acoustically, as by rota
tion of a sound channel. It is preferably identical to a
speaker to be used in reproduction. The recorder 2
50 makes a record of the impulses produced by organ 1 and
applied to the monitoring speaker 3 and- not what the
speaker 3 produces.
The organist also controls the periods of operation of
the acoustic tremulant apparatus incorporated
the
may separately be controlled, as by ‘different tabs, for
string tones,rreed tones,retc. This is provided, in essence, 55 speaker structure 3. A switch 4, usually attached at the
by a plurality of separate‘ electrical-acoustic channels.
organ console 1, serves as a means ‘for controlling the
Other organ systems may incorporate numerous electrical
ac'ou’stic channels for reasons other than acoustic tremu
lant. An object of this invention is to provide a simple
system ‘for faithfully recording‘ and reproducing multiple
channel organv music.
'
tremulant. A control line 5 extends to the speaker; the
line 5 may carry a control impulse, as forv example to a
power relay, or it may carry the energization current for
the apparatus. The switch 4 is manipulated in accord
ance with the interpretive effects intended to be provided
This invention possesses many other advantages, and
by the organist.
‘
’
has other objects ‘which may be made more clearly ap
In order to make use of the single recording ‘channel
parent from a consideration of several embodiments of
of the recorder 2 for purposes of recording both the musi
the invention. For this purpose, there are shown a few 65 cal actuation and the tremulant actuation, an inaudible
forms _in_ the drawings accompanying and forming part of
the present speci?cation. These forms will now be de
scribed in detail, illustrating the general principles of the
signal generator 6 is used which, for example, produces
. a signal beyond the range of ‘audibility. This generator
provides an output signal applied to the recorder 2 when~
invention; ‘but it is to be understood that this detailed
ever the tremoloswitch 4 is in one of its. two positions.
description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, since 70 For‘ this purpose, a switch 4a between the generator 6 and
the scope of the invention is best de?ned by the appended
the recorder 2 is provided that is closed Whenever the
claims.
tremolo switch 4 is closed, and opened whenever the
’
3,095,477
3
tremolo switch 4 is opened. A. lead 7 extends from the
signal generator 6 to the switch 4a, and a lead 8 extends
4
tremulant is added at the appropriate time. The second
output, as at the lead 26, is applied directly to the trans
ducer 21; and the remaining output 27 is applied to the
other transducer 22. In this instance ‘as in the previous
corded, since it is inaudible, does not interfere with the
form, the entire speaker 3a is actuated in precisely the
signals corresponding to musical tones.
same manner as if by an organ console.
In FIG. Zthere is illustrated a reproducing system op
In FIGS. 7 and 8 an organ console I, an inaudible sig
erated by the record produced as previously described.
nal generator 6 and a single-channel recorder 2 are illus
The reproducer 9 has an output indicated by a connection
trated. In the present example, the tremolo switch 4b
10‘ directly driving the electrical-acoustic transducers of
the speaker structure 3. Furthermore, a device 11, by 10 merely switches the output from the organ console 1 be
tween two speaker structures 30 and 31, one of which in
the aid of a connection 12 to the output of the reproducer
corporates continuously operable devices for acoustically
9, senses the existence or non-existence ‘of the inaudible
‘from the switch 4a to the rec-order 2.
The signal re
signal or, in essence, whether ‘acoustic tremulant is in
tended or not. The sensing device 11 has an output 13
whichv operates a control 14 which, in turn, drives or con
trols the speaker structure 3 in precisely the same man
adding tremulant, and the other of which contains no
acoustic apparatus at ‘all. The switch 4a establishes a
connection between the recording machine 2 and the in
audible signal generator 6 when the tremolo switch 411
is in one position, in this example in a position corre
ner that the speaker 3 is normally controlled by the trem
sponding to ‘application of acoustic tremulant. The sig
olo switch 4.
nal from the console 1 is applied directly to the re
- Accordingly, the speaker 3, when used for reproduc»
tion, is actuated in precisely ‘the same manner as if an 20 corder 2.
The reproducing system in FIG; 8 for the recording
organconsole instead of the reproducer 9 were used. It
system of FIG. 7 incorporates an inaudible signal sensing
is impossible to tell by ear that an organist is not present.
device 11. It is connected to the reproducer 9 by ‘a lead
In the form illustrated in FIGS. 3 ‘and 4, identical parts
12. The sensing device 11 has an output which controls
are provided with similar reference characters. In the
present. instance, a recorder 15 is provided that has two 25 a relay 32. The relay, in turn, moves a switch 28 be»
tween alternate contacting positions. In one position the
separate recording channels. The recorder may be of the
switch 28 transmits signals from the reproducer 9 to one
magnetic tape type having two heads cooperable with
of the speakers 30, and in the other position to the op
spaced 'bands of the tape. The signal corresponding to
posite speaker 81. Accordingly, the recording and re-‘
the existence and non-existence of acoustic tremulant is
producing system faithfully reproduces the organ music.
recorded on a separate channel. Hence, the signal need
‘In FIGS. 9 and 10 there is illustrated a multiple-chan
not be in the inaudible range since it is isolated in its own
nel organ console 35. A speaker structure 3b includes
recording channel. In this instance, the tremolo switch 4
four di?erent speaker assemblies 36, 37, 38 and 39
controls a signal generator 6a in essentially the same man
labelled, respectively, “strings,” “reeds,” “tibia” and
.ner as in the previous form. A lead 16, however, from
the signal generator 6a and controlled by the tremolo 35 “pedal” by way of example, and cooperating with im
pulses corresponding to such tones.
‘
switch 4 is applied to a separate channel in the recorder
The speaker assemblies 36, 37 and 38 may each incor
15.
porate rotary apparatus for acoustically adding tremulant
‘In FIG. 4 a reproducer 17 has, of course, two output
to the sounds and in different manners appropriate to the
channels. ‘One of them, which corresponds to the trem
olo on-o? signal, is applied to the sensing device 11, and 40 tones reproduced by the speaker assemblies 36, 37 and 38.
In the present example, the speaker assembly 36 incor
by the aid of the control device 14, the acoustic tremulant
porates four separate speakers, as does the speaker as
of the speaker 3 is appropriately provided. The other
sembly 37. The assemblies 38 and 39‘ may contain. one‘
output from the reproducer 17 is applied directly to .the
or more speakers in parallel. The impulses correspond
transducers of speaker structure 3, and it, of course, car
ried the signals corresponding to musical tones.
45 ing to different tones may be segregated among the chan
nels for purposes of eliminating certain “beat effects” and
In the form illustrated in FIG. 5, an organ console 18
as described, for example, in my copending application
provides two separate electrical outputs indicated by the
Serial No. 500,5 68,'?led April 11, 1955, and entitled Elec
leads 19 and 20. Separate transducer structures 21 and
tric Organ Speaker System.
22 of a speaker 3a are driven by the respective outputs 19
The organ console 35 is illustrated :as having a multiple
and 20. Acoustic tremulant is added only to the musical 50
channel output cable 40, the conductors of which are ap->
tones produced by the transducer 21, the control lead 5
propriately connected to the speaker assemblies 36, 37,
extending only to this transducer.
38 and 39. Three separate tremolo switches 41, 42 and
The segregation of output impulses for selective appli
43 are provided for the respective speakers assemblies 36,
cation of acoustic tremolo is described, for example, in
my copending application Serial No. 590,629, ?led June 55 37 and 38. By closing the switch 41, for example, tremo
lant is added acoustically to the string tones. The switches
11, v1956, now’ abandoned, and entitled Speaker System
41, 42 and 43 are manipulated by the organist in a man
for Adding Tremolo. A tremolo switch 4, identical to the
previous switch, has ‘a control lead 5 which controls only I ner deemed appropriate ?or interpretive e?ects.
The entire speaker structure 3b is, in this instance, actu
the speaker structure 21. Associated with the tremolo
switch is the signal generator 6a. The speaker 3a is actu 60 ated by thirteen channels or information. Thus, there
are ten separate musical channels for actuation’ of the
ated in three manners: ?rst, by an output at 19 from the
transducers, and there are three leads 44, 45 and 46 ‘for
organ console I in which acoustic tremulant may be
controlling the apparatus for‘ acoustically adding tremu
added; second, by an output at 20 in which tremul‘a-nt is
lant. This information is recorded in the present ex-~
in this example never added; and third, by control lead 5
for operating the acoustic tremulant. To accommodate 65 ample by an elevenchannel recorder 47.
A cable 48 applies the signal ‘from the ten musical
this information, a three-channel recorder 23 is utilized.
channels to ten of the channels of the recorder 47. The
The signal generator 6a may be in the audible range. Ac
eleventh channel or the recorder is used ‘for. the three‘
cordingly, it is applied to one of the three channels of the
tremulant controls. When the tremolo switch 41, for
recorder 23. The outputs ‘from the connections 19 and
20 are respectively applied to the remaining channels‘ of 70 example, is operated, a signal of one characteristic fre
quency, say 100 cycles per second, is applied'to‘this
the three~channel recorder 23.
tremolo channel and by the ‘aid of a lead 49. If, how
For purposes of reproduction and as illustrated in FIG.
ever, the tremolo switch 42~is operated, a second char
6, a three-channel reproducer 24 is provided. One out
acteristic frequency is applied to the tremolo channel of
put, as at 25, is applied to a signal sensing device 11. An
the recorder 47, in this example 500 cycles per second.
output operating a control device 14 is provided so that
3,095,477
G
Similarly, if the tremolo switch 43‘ is operated, a third
characteristic frequency, as for example at 3000 cycles per
second, is applied .to the eleventh channel of the recorder
47 via the lead 49. This is accomplished by the provision
of three signal generators 50‘, 51 and 52 and switches 53,
54 and 55 respectively associated with the tremolo switches
41, 42 and 43. The switches 53, 54 and 55 connect re
spectively to their signal generators 50, 51 and 52 and to
the common lead 49.
~
for causing operation of the acoustic apparatus of the
reproducer in accordance with said signal impulses of said
record; and means cooperable with the record for apply
ing- said musical impulses of said record to said reproducer.
5. The process of recording the music of an electronic
instrument which produces sound only by the aid of a
speaker system including acoustic apparatus for imparting
tremulant, which comprises: producing, by the aid of the
instrument, electrical impulses corresponding to musical
For purposes of reproduction, a reproducer 56 (FIG. 10 tones that are free of acoustic effects, and independently
10) is provided. The reproducer 56 of course has eleven
of the production of audible sound; intercepting the im
pulses so produced at a stage in advance of the speaker
output channels, ten of which are used to transmit sig
system and recording the impulses on a record; controlling
nals to the ten channels of the speaker 3b. The other
the operation of the acoustic apparatus; producing an in
channel has an ‘output lead 57 which is split by band-pass
?lters 58, 59 and 60 to three leads 61, 62 and 63. If a 15 audible signal in accordance with the operation of said
acoustic apparatus; and recording said signal on said rec
signal of 100 cycles per second exists at the output lead
ord in a channel common at least to some of said impulses.
57, it is passed only to the lead 61. Similarly, if a signal
6. The process of recording the music of an electronic
of 500 cycles per second exists, it is passed only to the
instrument which produces sound only by the aid of a
lead 62. And if a signal of 3000 cycles per second is
present, it is passed only to the lead 63.
20 speaker system including acoustic apparatus for impart
Sensing devices 64, 65 and 66 respectively appropri
ately control the speaker assemblies 36, 37 and 38 of the
speaker structure 3b, the devices cooperating with the
respective leads 61, 62 and 63.. Whatever acoustic tremu
ing tremulant, which comprises: producing, by the aid of
the ‘instrument, electrical impulses corresponding to
musical tones that are free of acoustic effects, and inde
pendently of the production of audible sound; intercepting
lant is used by the organist is ,rfa‘ithtully vreproduced by 25 the impulses so produced at ‘a stage in advance of the
the system described herein.
The inventor claims:
'.
,
1. The process of recording the music of an electronic
instrument which produces sound only by the aid of a
speaker system and recording the impulses on one channel
of a two-channel record; controlling the operation of the
acoustic apparatus; producing a signal in accordance with
the operation of said acoustic apparatus; and recording the
speaker system including acoustic apparatus for impart 30 signal on the other channel of said record.
7. The process of recording the music of an electronic
ing tremulant, which comprises: producing, by the aid
of the instrument, electrical impulses corresponding to
musical tones that are free of acoustic effects, and inde
organ having a plurality of separate electrical outputs, and
a corresponding plurality of electrical-acoustic channels
with at least one of which there is provided means for
the impulses s0 produced at a stage in advance of the 35 adding tremulant acoustically, which comprises recording
on a multiple-channel record the electrical impulses pro
speaker system and recording the impulses ‘on a record;
duced at said outputs respectively ‘and prior to their trans
controlling the operation of the acoustic apparatus; pro
lation into sound; and recording on said record a signal
ducing a signal in ‘accordance with the operation of said
indicative of the operation of a corresponding acoustic
acoustic apparatus; and recording the signal on said rec
40 tremulant apparatus.
ord.
8. The process of reproducing the music of an electronic
2. The process of reproducing the music of an elec
organ having a plurality of separate outputs for electrical~
tronic instrument which produces sound only by the aid
acoustic channels with at least one of which there is pro
of a speaker system including acoustic apparatus for im
vided means for adding tremulant acoustically, which com
parting tremulant, which comprises: reproducing by the
aid of a reproducer and a record, impulses produced by 45 prises: producing, by a multiple-channel reproducer and a
record, a plurality of separate electrical outputs corre
the instrument corresponding to musical tones, which
sponding to the outputs of said organ prior to their trans
impulses are free of acoustic eifects, the said impulses hav
pendently of the production of audible sound; intercepting
ing been produced independently of the production of
lation into sound; transmitting said outputs respectively
to separate electrical-acoustic channels of a speaker system‘
audible sound, and upon which record is also recorded
a signal corresponding to the operation or non-operation 50 having means for adding tremulant acoustically in co
operation With at least one of the channels; sensing a signal
of said acoustic apparatus; applying the impulses to a
recorded on said record which is indicative of desired
speaker having acoustic apparatus for imparting tremu
operation of said means; and controlling said means in
lant; and controlling the acoustic apparatus -by the aid of
accordance with said signal and by the aid of said sensing
said signal.
means.
3. In apparatus for recording music by the aid of elec 55
9. The process of recording music of an electronic organ
trical impulses generated by an electronic organ having
having a pair of transducers, one of which incorporates
acoustic apparatus for adding tremulant, and having
means for acoustically adding tremulant, which comprises:
switch means for changing the mode of operation of said
selectively switching the output of the organ between said,
acoustic apparatus in accordance with the desires of the
organist, the combination with said switch means of: a 60 transducers; recording on a record the output of said
organ before its translation into sound; and recording on
recorder connected to the organ for receiving and record
ing said impulses free of acoustical e?ects; and means
operatively associated With said switch means for apply
said record a signal corresponding to the switching of the
output between said transducers.
10. The process of reproducing music of an electronic
ing signal impulses to the recorder for recording thereby in
organ
from a record that includes impulses produced by
accordance with a change in the mode of operation of said 65
the
organ
prior to the translation of said impulses into
apparatus whereby said signal impulses may later be
sound and a signal corresponding to the switching of organ
detected in conjunction with reproducing means, to control
output between transducers, one of which incorporates
acoustic apparatus for imparting tremulant thereby to re
means
for acoustically adding tremulant, which comprises:
create the entire output of the organ.
producing ‘an output from said record by the aid of a re
4. In apparatus for reproducing music of an electronic 70 producer; detecting said signal =from said output; and
organ having acoustic apparatus for adding tremulant: a
switching the output between two transducers in accord
record of musical impulses devoid of acoustical e?ects, and
ance with said signal, one of the transducers incorporating
of signal impulses corresponding to a change in operation
means for acoustically adding tremulant.
of said apparatus; a reproducer having acoustic apparatus
11. The process of recording the music of an electronic
for adding tremulant; means cooperable with the record 75 organ having a plurality of separate electrical outputs, a
3,095,477
7
8
corresponding plurality of electrical-acoustic channels, and
acoustically: a selectively movable controller for each
a plurality of separate means for adding tremulant acous
of said means; a signal generator for each of said means;
and a switch coupled to each controller for corresponding
tically in cooperation with at least some of the channels,
which comprises: recording on a multiple-channel record
the electrical impulses produced at said outputs prior to
their translation into sound; generating signi?cantly differ
ent signals corresponding to the number of said means;
and transmitting said signals to a channel of said record
for recording in accordance with the operation of said
separate means.
12. The process of reproducing the music of an elec
tronic organ having a plurality ‘of separate outputs ‘for elec
trical-acoustic channels and a plurality of separate means
‘for adding tremulant acoustically in cooperation with some
of the channels, which comprises: producing by a mul
tiple~channe1 reproducer, a plurality of separate electrical
outputs; connecting said outputs respectively to separate
electrical-acoustic channels of a speaker system having a
plurality of separate means for adding tremulant acousti
cally in cooperation with some of the channels; deriving
recorded signi?cantly different signals indicative of the
operation of said means; and respectively controlling-said
means in accordance with said signals and by the aid of
sensing means responsive to said signals.
13. For use in recording the music of an electronic
organ having means for producing tremulant acoustically:
a signal generator; a selectively movable controller for
controlling said means; and a switch coupled to said con
troller for correspondingly controlling said signal gener
ator.
14. For use in recording the music of an electronic or
gan having a plurality of means \for producing tremulant
ly controlling said signal generators.
15?. The process of recording and re-creating the music
of an electronic instrument which produces sound only
by the aid of a speaker system including ‘acoustic appa
ratus ‘for imparting tremulant, which comprises: produc- ,
ling, by the aid of the instrument, electrical impulses cor
to musical tones that are free of acoustic ef
1,0. responding
fects, and independently of the production of audible
sound; intercepting the impulses so produced at a stage
in advance of the speaker system and recording the im
pulses on a record; reproducing the recorded impulses;
and driving a speaker system including acoustic apparatus
for imparting tremulant, by the aid of the impulses repro
duced whereby the entire output of the instrument is re
alistically re-created.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,724,191
2,285,132
2,373,560
2,541,051
2,627,555
2,811,588
2,841,654
vGoldsmith ___________ __ Aug. 13, 1929
Weathers ___________ __ June 2, 1942
Hanert ____ ___ ________ _'_ Apr. 10, 1945.
Hanert ______________ __ Feb. 13, 1951
Luberoff ____________ __ Feb. 3, 1953
Julie ________________ __ Oct. 29, 1957
Athey et a1. ___________ __ July 1, 1958
OTHER REFERENCES
“Electronic Organ Uses,” Electronics,v July 1955; pp.
116,117,118.
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