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Патент USA US3095646

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July 2, 1963
J. G. RUCKELSHAUS
3,095,636
MASS PRODUCTION OF‘ RESISTORS
Filed July 17, 1959
FIG. 2
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FIG. lv
27
280
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28b
4...........
FIGS
32
FIG. 4
FIG. 8
,33
U
/s2
INVENTOR.
0
FIG.5
JOHN G. RUCKELSHAUS
FIG?
HIS ATTORN EY
Unite
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build
atent
1
.
31,095,636
Patented July 2, 1963
2
apparent from the following detailed description, taken
in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
enemas
MASS PRODUCTION 0F RESISTORS
John G. Ruckelshaus, 110 Pomeroy Road, Madison, NJ.
Filed July 17, 1959, Ser. No. 827,937
3 Claims. (c1. 29-15562)
FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a preferred assembly
showing tubular or cylindrical dielectric members used
and treated in accordance with my invention;
This invention relates to a method of making resistors,
and more particularly relates to the mass production of
showing ‘an enlarged detail of the embodiment illustrated
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken on line 2-2 of FIG. 1
therein;
?lm resistors at a relatively low cost.
FIG. 3 is a sectional View showing the assembly of jigs
This is a continuation in part of my copending appli 10 mounted in a vacuum chamber;
cation, Serial No. 292,367, ?led June 7, 1952 now U.S.
*FIG. 4 is a top plan view of another modi?cation show
Patent No. 2,917,814 dated December 22, 11959.
ing the ?at type of resist-or.
In my above noted applications, I have indicated vari
FIG. 5 is a face view partly broken away of a portion
ous methods and techniques of preparing resistors of vari
of the assembly shown in FIG. 4;
ous types of which relates to a method of making a single 15
FIG. 6 is a top plan detail view of FIG. 5.
resistor, by utilizing a vacuum apparatus and inserting
FIG. 7 is a vertical face view showing modi?ed resistor
a tube or plate into the center of said vacuum apparatus,
outgassing the vacuum chamber and contents evacuating
plates and holder; and
FIG. 8 is a top plan view of FIG. 7.
‘and passing a ?lament proximate the surface of the tube
Referring now to the drawings in which similar refer
or plate to be coated and producing a vacuum in the 20 ence numerals denote like parts throughout, it will be
chamber of the apparatus and ?nally heating the ?lament
noted according to my invention that I provide two types
to such an extent that the metal forming the ?lament
evaporates or sublimates and passes on to the proximate
surface of the tube or plate. In connection with the pres
ent invention as disclosed herein, it is intended to manu 25
made of any dielectric material, glazed or unglazed, such
as glass, porcelain, Alundum and the like ceramic mate
.facture the above noted resistor on a large scale or on
a mass production basis so as to reduce the cost of the
mated.
individual resistors produced.
of resistors, ?rst a tubular or cylindrical type, and sec
ondly a ?at or plate type of resistor. Said members are
rial on to which a metal ?lm can be evaporated or subli
Referring speci?cally to FIGS‘. 1, 2 and 3, it will be
With the above and other features in View, it is an
noted that in treating cylindrical members to form a resis
object of the present invention .to provide a method of 30 tor, there is provided a ?xture 10 having a plurality of
making resistors on a mass production basis at a relatively
supporting members or rods 11, such as of stainless steel
low or economic cost.
or similar material. Said members are equispaced
One other object of the present invention is to provide
around a common center and are adapted at both ends
a method of making metal ?lm resistors wherein blanks
may be made in bulk, and the individual resultant resis
tors may be adjusted to the required values as desired.
A further object of the present invention is to provide
thereof to be retained by removable top and bottom mica
plates 12 and 13 respectively as shown in FIG. 11, thereby
forming a support frame. The purpose of said upright
support rods 11 is to accommodate tubes or cylinders 14
resistor units made on a mass production basis, each of
which are laid end to end in tandem within the area
said units being stable and having a lower temperature
de?ned by the rods 11 between the mica plates 12 and
coe?icient of resistance than previously used resistors of 40 13. Each of said tubes 14 is kept separate and apart
deposited carbon ?lm types.
Still another object of the present invention is to pro
vide a simple, low cost precision metal type ?lm resistor
units made on a large scale basis.
from each other by individual intermediate spacer mem
bers 15 to provide spaces 16 and to permit any occluded
or other gases to escape from the interior of the tubes
Still another object of the present invention is to pro
vide a method of coating a non-conducting member, with
14 during the outgassing and ?nal heating and vacuum
operations.‘ Said spacers comprise annuli with spacer
pins on the top and ‘bottom thereof vertically disposed
a ?lm of conductive material on a mass production basis,
so that there is su?icient space between each tube to allow
the thickness of the coating depending on the desired
free removal of the outgas.
electrical resistance, and then sealing the ends of each of
Each of the tubes 14- is provided with end terminals of
50
the individual units and connecting the ends with con
a highly conductive metal such as platinum or silver at
ductors.
least on the interior ends thereof preparatory to their
A more speci?c object of the present invention is to
use in the present process.
provide a method of making a metal ?lm resistor in quan
The individual tubes and spacers when arranged in
tity and on mass production basis wherein dielectric
tandem as shown between the three support rods 11 to
members are inserted in a large ‘bell jar, said members
form the arrangement as shown in FIG. 1, are then pro~
being mounted on jigs or ?xtures and a metal electro
vided with a ?lament 17 which extends axially thru the
conductor ?lament is run through the jar and adjacent
tubes and spacers. Said ?lament is composed of pure
the members, the members and ?lament and ?xtures are
alloy metals such as Nichrome or similar alloy so that
outgassed, and the ?lament is heated While the jar is under
when it is heated in vacuo at high temperatures and low
Ehigh vacuum so that a met-allized surface is obtained in
pressures it sublimates onto the proximate surface of
each of the resistor units preparatory to ?nal treatment.
the tubes. Said ?lament 17 is adapted to pass through
Another speci?c object of the present invention is to
the stacks and has its upper end 18 connected to a con
provide a method of treating dielectric members under
ductor support 19 having a vertical conductor support arm
conditions of high vacuum and at a high temperature in 65 20 which is ?xed to the base 21 of vacuum chamber ap
the presence of at least one metal electroconductive ?la
ment whereby the ?lament is heated and vaporized and
the resultant vapors pass on to the adjacent dielectric
members to coat the same, and then subjecting the product
to further regulatory treatment to form a resistor of de
sired temperature coe?icient.
Other objects and features of my invention will become
paratus 22. The top and bottom mica piece or sheet 12 or
13 is readily placed over the rods 11 and held there in
position by means of suitable washer members 23. The
resultant assembly is then placed into vacuum chamber
70 22. The ?lament 17 is then connected to a source of vari
able electrical power, not shown. It is to be noted that
the ?lament extending through the center of ‘the tubes
aosaeae
'2
ii
is secured at the support 19 so as to prevent sagging of
the ?lament when it is subjected to heat and high elec
covers 3b and 31, such as mica, as indicated With respect
to the embodiments shown in FIGS. 1 and 3.
in embodiment shown in N68. 7 ‘and 8, it will be
noted that each ?xture plate 32 is provided extensions or
pins 33 so as to hold each plate 32 individually on the
2.9
trical ‘current. Upon passing current through said ?la
ment, it evaporates or sublimates from the ?lament onto
the interior wall of the cylinders or tubes.
Once the assembled unit has been placed in the vacuum
plate 34 without requiring spacers.
Said resistor plates
chamber 22a of apparatus 22 the air is removed from
32 are notched at spaced intervals 35 to perm-it mounting
the chamber and a vacuum of at least 10*5 mm. of Hg
on the pins 313 of plate 34.
The operation in connection with the preparation of
is created in the vacuum chamber. It is intended to out
gas the materials present in the assembled unit. The 10 ‘flat resistor plates is the same as the operation described
herein above with respect to the tubular resistors. It is
?laments 17 are then heated to a temperature under sub‘
to be noted that the end portion of either the flat or tubu
limation temperature to outgas the interior of the appa
lar members can be precovered or coated by means of
ratus 22 and the contents. The bell jar is also heated
electrical conductors and adapted for immediate use after
externally to further permit outgassing within said vac
the internal portion of the tube or one of the ?at surfaces
uum chamber.
of the plate has been coated and already resistance de
After the outgassing operation is completed, the ?la
termined. In the modi?cations shown in FIGS. 4 to 8 the
ment is then heated to a sublimation temperature where
?xtures may be hinged or connected together so as to
the alloy from the ?lament deposits on the inner wall of
obtain a polygonal section, in which case, there is also
the tubes and the metallic ?red terminals in each cylin~
provided a central ?lament 36 besides auxiliary ?laments
der. The ?lament is heated for a period of 5 minutes to 5
37 all supported at the top‘ thereof and connected to a
hours at a temperature of 150° C. to 450° C. It is to be
common source of electrical current.
~
noted that the length of time the ?lament is heated to the
From the foregoing description, taken in connection
subliming temperature determines the amount of the de
with the accompanying drawings, it will be noted that,
posit on the tubes and the resistance value of the resultant
by my invention, 1 provide a resistor having a ?lm of
product. The longer the heating the lower the resistance
nickel-chrome alloy deposited on the inner Wall of a
of the ?nal unit.
glazed or unglazed ceramic, glass or similar type of tube
After this operation has been completed, the tubes
on which a metal terminal material has been baked or
within the Whole ?xture are removed from the bell jar
otherwise deposited at each end. Furthermore, there is
and ‘heat treated at an elevated temperature anywhere
from 120 to 200 degrees C. in air for a period of ‘at least 30 provided a ceramic tube in which grooves have been out
either in the form of a helix having metal terminals de
0.55 hour to stabilize them.
posited at each end of the tube, and a metallic ?lm is
The tubes are then removed from the assembly and are
deposited on the inside of the tube so as to form a re
then sorted in an autoebridge and then individually ad
sistance path between the metal terminals. The metal
justed by either ‘grinding the tops of the threads if the
tube is internally threaded before sublimation or by grind~ 35 ?lm may be removed from the inside diameter of the
grooves or threads so as to form threads of resistance
ing, milling, cutting or otherwise forming a helical re
material paths between the metal terminals in the second,
sistance path on the inner wall ofythe tube if its well is
said removal being dependent upon the amount of re
smooth to a desired resistance value. The tubes are then
capped and coated vby either spraying molding or dipping
sistance desired or needed, but approximately the same
in a resin so as to produce a highly sealed resistance unit 40 amount of material will always be removed from all
forming a ?nished product. It can readily be seen from
parts.
While preferred embodiments of my invention have
the foregoing that many tubular members can be strung
been illustrated and described, it is to be understood that
onto one ?xture, and said ?lament 17 heated or lighted
modi?cations as to form, arrangement of parts and use
can be vremoved from the apparatus 22 and terminals at 45 of materials may be made without departing from the
tached, thus economically forming ‘a stable metal ?lm re
spirit and scope of the invention as claimed herein.
so as to create several resistors at a time. These resistors
sister of extremely low temperature co-e?icient of resist
I claim:
.
l. A method of making metal ?lm resistors compris
ing arranging a plurality of dielectric material selected
a casting material, in order to seal the resistance element.
Furthermore, the ends of the cylinder are initially pro 50 from the group consisting of glazed material, Alundurn,
vided with end terminals baked thereon, namely on the
porcelain, glass or the like, having internally threaded
inside, the ends and the outside so that an end cap can
cylindrical shape, arranging said units in tandem, pro
be readily added thereon. By manufacturing a resistor
viding spacers, between each of the units arranged in
ance. In present type of tubes the ends can be ?lled with
of this type, care must be taken to produce a resistance
tandem, assembling said units while in tandem as a whole
?lm that is stable and one that has a low temperature co 55 and arranging the same in an evacuating chamber, sub
efficient of resistance.
jecting the assembled whole to the action of outgassing,
With regard to the modi?cation shown in FIGS. 4 to 6,
then subjecting the assembled whole to the action of
it will be noted that there is shown an assembly for batch
vacuum in said chamber in a range from 10-3 to 10-"7
process operation in which ?at plate resistors can be
mm. of Hg, sublimating onto the exposed surface of said
made. Flat plates 24 of dielectric material ‘are mounted 60 dielectric material in the vacuum chamber an alloy vma
on a ?xture 25 which ?xtures may be arranged in any
suitable manner in bell jar 22. The ?xture 25 consists
terial from a coaxial ?lament of incandescent alloy ma
terial, selected from the group consisting of chromium,
copper and nickel for a period of 5 minutes to 5 hours at
portions 27 and 23 forming channels 28a and 28b to ac 65 a temperature of 150° C. to 450° C. allowing the Vacuum
chamber to cool while the vacuum action therein and
commodate a stack of said plates 24 arranged in tandem.
heating of the ?lament have been discontinued, remov
Said tracks 27 and 28 support the plates 24 so that only
ing the whole unit from the vacuum chamber, and then
one side of said material is exposed to the evaporation
reheating in open air so as to stabilize the unit and grind—
action of the high alloy ?lament. It is to be noted that
the plates 24 are kept separate and apart from each other 70 ing the lands to increase resistance to a predetermined
value.
by means of spacer members 29 so as to permit outgassing
2. A method of making metal ?lm resistors on a mass
of the interior of the vacuum chamber and of the dielec
of a back plate 26 having internally‘ bent opposed end
production basis comprising arranging a plurality of units
tric resistor plate material during the preliminary opera
of insulated dielectric material having metallic terminals r.
tion. The top and bottom portions of the ?xtures in
FIGS. 4 to 6 are also provided, with insulating material 75 ?red onto each end of said material, arranging said ma-.
5
3,095,636
6
terial in tandem, forming intermediate spaced ‘areas be
an interior surface of each blank being exposed to the
coating action of ‘an electroconducting ?lament of an
alloy material selected from the group consisting of
copper, nickel and chromium extending adjacent the
inner face of each blank,
tween each of said uni-ts of material, supporting the ar
rangement of each unit ‘of said material, whereby they re
main in consecutive arrangement relatively to each other,
passing an alloy ?lament along the length adjacent the
proximate surface of each of said units, placing the re—
sultant assembly of said units and the ?lament in a vacuum
placing the resultant assembly in an evacuating cham
ber,
chamber, connecting said ?lament to a source of variable
electrical power, securing said ?lament to prevent sagging
of the same when heated, removing the air ‘from the 10
vacuum chamber in a range from 101*3 to 10-7 mm. Hg
ture of the ?lament so as to outgas said ?lament and the
the unit at elevated temperature in air to stabilize said
25
resistance of each of the units by abrasion to obtain a
desired ohmic value for the individual unit; and ?nally
capping the units and coating the same.
3. A method ‘of making metallic ?lm resistors com 30
blanks made of a material selected from the group con
sisting of glass, porcelain and Alundum, in a supporting
?xture arranged in cylindrical array,
gas the same at said vacuum,
continuing to apply a vacuum to said chamber to
reduce the same to a high vacuum,
units and the gas in the chamber, heating the ?lament by 15
passing electric current therethrough to a point su?iciently
high to sublimate the components ‘of the ?lament where
by the components of the ?lament pass from the ?lament
onto the proximate surface of each of said units, obtain
ing the desired amount of deposit of alloy metals on the 20
units, discontinuing the vacuum operation in the cham
ber, allowing the contents of the chamber to cool, re
moving the contents of the chamber, ‘and heat treating
prising assembling a plurality of superimposed spaced
'
passing an electric current through the ?lament, while
and then heating the ?lament [and the units in the vacuum
chamber to a temperature under the sublimation tempera
units, sorting said units, checking and automatically in~
dicating the resistance value thereof, while adjusting the
‘
evacuating the chamber to at least 10*5 mm. Hg,
heating the assembly to a temperature sutlicient to out
the magnitude of the current passing through the ?la
ment being sufficient to cause the metal of the ?la
ment to sublime onto the adjacent surface of the
blanks, and
?nally discontinuing the current in the ?lament.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
929,017
Reynard _____________ __ July 27, 1909
1,859,112
2,403,199‘
2,411,715
2,416,347
2,453,801
2,469,100
2,586,752
Silberstein ___________ __ May 117,
Swope ________________ __ July 2,
Dimmick _____________ __ Nov. 26,
Rector _______________ __ Feb. 25,
Mattern _____________ __ Nov. '16,
Andrus _______________ __ May 3,
Weber et a1 ___________ __ Feb. 19,
1932
1946
1946
1947
1948
1949
1952
2,792,620
2,917,814
Koring ______________ __ May 21, 1957
Ruckelshaus __________ __ Dec. 22, 1959
2,962,393
Ruckelshaus _________ __ Nov. 29, 1960
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