close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US3096056

код для вставки
July 2,1963
3,096,046
D. E. KENDALL, JR., ETAL
REMOTE CONTROL OF ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed NOV. 14, 1958
18 Sheets-Sheet l
/4
H/
’3424425
ì
/f
W "////
wf wf i’m
O
<` f1"
|
H;
"
f
????" *
*M*
Hw *y*w“ V ‘Ñ «f ‘W »
`
à
nà
- «A
/0/
_Tî_
_
„/ / ///,/
/// - / /Í
¿f4
343
O
INVENTORS
ßeZvzhEÍ/ï’erzcíall Jn,
BY
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR., ETAI.
3,095,046
REMOTE CONTROL 0F ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
18 Sheets-Sheet 2
Nw
ATTORNEYÃ
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR., ETAL
3,096,046
REMOTE CONTROL OF ROBOT AIRCRAFT
BY
ATTORNEYS
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR., E'rAl.
3,096,046
REMOTE CONTROL OF' ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
18 Sheets-Sheet 4
INVENTORS
Delw‘n ¿Kendal Z, Jn;
Robert CIMa c1? «Eoberz‘ I?. Wêllac/f
BY
221% www
ATTORNEYS
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR., ETAL
3,096,046
REMOTE CONTROL OF ROBOT AIRORAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
18 SheetS-Sheet 5
ATTORNEX;
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALI., JR., ETAL
3,096,046
REMOTE CONTROL OF ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
18 Sheets-Sheet 6
INVENTORS
Delvz'n E'. Kendall Jr.,
Ro?er? CMac/î’ MÍoberl‘ j?. Wel Zacl
BY
a@ #WW
ATTORNEYS
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR., ETAL
3,096,046
REMOTE CONTROL OF ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
1B Sheets-Sheet '7
BY
f
¿ya
„
ATrORNEYS
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALI., JR., ETAL.
3,096,046
REMOTE: CONTROL, 0F ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed NOV. 14, 1958
BMK,
\JRSTl
ENQ
18 Sheets-Sheet 8
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR., ETAL
3,095,046
REMOTE CONTROL 0F ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 195B
18 Sheets-Sheet 9
496
Z Éä,/46
„l #tra
COLLECTIVE
RIGHT
TURN
,fil/¿_Q
L:
/54
1
/5'3
fag: |
.1
LK, | /65
o-r
/9¥
IMHULJMUJÜZA
MISSIOMENG.
L'.
1
SHUTDowN
mtv. i
v¥93 K_,ml
/58
l
/92
í
C7' 10
/gf
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR.. ETAL
3,096,046
REMOTE CONTROL OF ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
18 Sheets-Sheet 10
mè
@im
MQmY
INVENTORS
Delvin ¿Kendall Jr.,
ATTORNEYS
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALI., JR., ETAL
3,096,045
REMOTE CONTROL OR ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed NOV. 14, 1958
18 Sheets-Sheet 11
BY
/ i;
¿ya
.
ATTORNEYJ
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR., ETAI.
3,096,046
REMOTE CONTROL OF ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
18 Sheets-Sheet 13
39m .
mgm.
INVENTORS
à
„Delf/zin ¿Een cía/ZZ Jr.,
Robert ¿Maclíœßoberz‘ Ä Wf'ZZoc/í
BY
¿www
ATTORNEYS
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR., ETAL
3,095,046
REMOTE OONTROIJ OF ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
18 Sheets-«Sheet 14
¿_1|
É»à@
»Kxhä.MNM.
«à @tuRQ_
L Ix|
«ow
ATTORNEYS
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR., ETAL
3,096,046
REMOTE CONTROL OF ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
18 Sheets-Sheet 15
ì
BY
ATTORNEYS
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR.. ETAI.
3,096,046
REMOTE CONTROL OF‘ ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
18 Sheets-Sheet 16
INVENTORS
4”
DeZw‘nEKendall Jn,
EoÃe/‘Z ¿'.Macïyßoßer?ß Wallach’
BY
M1’- ¿Wem
ATTORNEYS
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALL, JR., ETAl.
3,096,046
REMOTE CONTROL OR ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
18 Sheets-Sheet 17
INVENToRs
ßelvz'zz Efferm’all c/ì‘.,
ATTORNEYS
July 2, 1963
D. E. KENDALI., JR., ETAL
3,095,046
REMOTE CONTROL OF ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Filed Nov. 14, 1958
ÈÄÈ
18 Sheets-Sheet 18
«ë
QN*
ATTORNEYSI
United States Patent Oiiìce
l
3,096,046
Patented July 2, 1963
2
ceived and decoded into North-South and East-West sig
3,096,046
nais having magnitudes which are proportional, respective
ly, to the North-South and East-West signals produced
REMOTE CONTROL OF ROBOT AIRCRAFT
Delvin E. Kendall, Jr., West Hartford, Robert C. Mack,
Warehouse Point, and Robert R. Wellock, Newington,
Conn., assignors to Kamari Aircraft Corporation, a cor
poration of Connecticut
at the remote location.
The North-South and East-West signals thus produced
in the robot helicopter are combined into a resultant sig
nal having an orientation in the »desired compass direction
Filed Nov. 14, 1958, Ser. No. 773,964
(i.e., corresponding to the orientation of the vector sum
49 Claims. (Cl. 244-1713)
at the remote location) and a magnitude proportional to
This invention relates to remote control of robot air l0 the desired air speed. This resultant signal is then re
craft and, more particularly, is directed to the problem
solved into electrical signals representing fuselage pitch
of providing a workable and practicable remote control
angle and `roll angle commands, and these electrical sig
system for a robot rotary wing aircraft, such as a robot
nais are then converted into mechanical flight control
helicopter, whereby the robot may perform missions which
movements which cause the robot helicopter to move in
would be impractical, hazardous, or impossible to perform 15 the commanded compass direction and at the commanded
with a piloted helicopter.
air speed, the latter, of course, also being dependent on
While remote control systems for fixed wing aircraft
wind conditions. Furthermore, such remote control can be
are known, such systems are not readily adaptable to con
effected whether the helicopter is flying at a relatively high
trol of rotary wing aircraft because of the inherent differ
airspeed or is being operated in the hover mode.
ences in the modes of operation of the two types of air 20
Other signals which may be produced at the remote
craft. Thus, quite apart from the fact that control of
control location include laltitude (collective pitch control)
forward, or moving, flight of a rotary wing aircraft is rela
signals, a signal for assuming remote control of the robot
tively more complicated than control of forward flight of
helicopter, left or right turn signals, a heading hold sig
nal, mission or engine shutdown signals, and a signal to
cause the robot helicopter to fly on memorized commands.
no counterpart in the operation of fixed wing aircraft.
These other signals, when produced, are included in the
Controls necessary to operate a helicopter, for example,
composite signal transmitted to the helicopter and de
in the hover mode are multiple and interrelated as is
coded into component signals corresponding to the re
brought out more fully hereinafter. Consequently, to be
spective signals produced at the remote control location.
fully satisfactory for the purpose intended, a remote con 30 The decoded signals are then converted into the necessary
trol system for a rotary wing aircraft, such as a robot
mechanical control movements, where required, for ex
a fixed wing aircraft, a rotary wing aircraft, such as a
helicopter, may be operated :in a hover Inode which has `
helicopter, must be capable of commanding the robot
helicopter to perform moving flight as desired, and yet
also be able to command operation in the hover mode
ecuting the commands involved.
A preferred embodiment of apparatus according to the
present invention comprises two basic parts. One part is
the remote control station, and the other part is control ap
with essentially the same reliability as if a pilot were pres
ent in the helicopter. The present invention provides
paratus carried by the robot helicopter which receives and
such a system and, to our knowledge, is the first work
able and practicable remote control system for a robot
executes commands issued from the remote control sta
helicopter.
It is therefore 'an object of the present invention to pro
vide new and improved methods and apparatus for re
mote control of robot aircraft.
tion.
40
The remote control station includes a remote controller
which, in a preferred mechanical embodiment, comprises
a tripod mounted casing having a table surface from
which a control stick for controlling heading "and air
It is another object of the present invention to provide
speed projects centrally upwardly. A rotatable ring mem
such methods and apparatus whereby an operator of the
45 ber is mounted on the table surface for controlling collec
system can exercise complete remote control of a robot
aircraft from takeoff to landing.
It is another object of the present invention to provide
such methods and apparatus whereby the robot aircraft
can be commanded to perform long distance flights on 50
previously memorized commands.
It is another object of the present invention to provide
such methods and apparatus whereby `a robot rotary wing
aircraft may be operated in the hover mode.
It is another object of the present invention to provide 55
tive pitch in order to control the altitude of the robot
helicopter. The flight direction and air speed commands
of the remote operator originate at the heading-air speed
control stick.
By orienting a reference side of the remote
controller to magnetic North, a spatial correspondence
exists between the azimuth in which the control stick is de
flected and the direction in which the robot helicopter will
ily. When the control stick is deflected, it can actuate
two potentiometers, one located along a North-South axis,
and the other located along an East-West axis, so that
such apparatus which includes an `improved ground con
North-South and East-West electrical signal components
troller for commanding the direction and speed of the
of the desired compass direction of flight are produced.
robot aircraft.
Rotation of the collective ring actuates a collective poten
It is another object of the present invention to provide
tiometer to produce an electrical signal proportional to
such apparatus which includes means for achieving pre 60 the desired change in altitude.
cision hover of a robot rotary wing aircraft under control
The remote controller also includes sub-carrier oscil
of a ground handler.
lators which are frequency modulated by the proportional
Briefly described, a preferred practice of the present in
North-South, East-West, and collective potentiometer out
vention, for remotely controlling a robot helicopter, com
puts. The modulated sub-carrier frequencies are fed to
prises producing, at a remote control location, North
a command transmitter and frequency modulate the car
South and East-West signals having a vector sum oriented
rier wave of the transmitter. Other signal producing
in the compass direction in which it is desired to have
>means in the remote controller also frequency modulate
the robot helicopter fly and a magnitude proportional to
one of the sub-carrier oscillators so that these other sig
the »desired air speed. These North-South and East-West
nals may be included in the composite signal transmitted
signals are transmitted, as a composite signal which may
by the command transmitter to the robot helicopter.
include other component signals as described hereinafter, 70
The control apparatus carried by the robot helicopter
to the robot helicopter where the composite signal is re
includes a receiver for receiving the transmitted com
3,096,046
3
4
dicated as being controlled from the remote control sta
posite signal, and decoders for decoding the composite
signal into component parts. Electrical components con
tion;
nected to decoders reproduce the North-South and East
West component signals and combine them into a resultant
magnetic ñux signal having a compass orientation corre
spending to that in which the ground control stick was
delle‘cted, and a magnitude proportional to the amount
embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is an electrical circuit diagram of the potentiom
eters shown in FIG. 2;
by which the ground control stick was deilected away
from vertical. An electrical resolver `apparatus resolves
control switching circuitry shown in block form in FIG. 2;
the resultant magnetic ñux signal into electrical signals
representing the required pitch and roll commands. These
electrical signals are fed to associated servo-mechanisms
which convert the electrical signals into mechanical flight
control movements which bring the robot helicopter onto
the commanded heading and cause it to ily at the corn
manded air speed.
Electrical components connected to the collective de
FIG. 2 is a block diagram of mechanical and electrical
components of a ground control station according to an
FIG. 4 is an electrical circuit diagram of memory
FIG. 5 is a top view of a portion of a ground con
troller according to an embodiment of the present in
vention;
FIG. 6 is an elevational view, partly in section, of the
controller shown in FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a bottom view of the controller shown in
FIG. 5;
FIG. 8 is a block diagram of electrical and mechanical
coder produce electrical signals representing the com
manded collective pitch correction. These signals are
components forming part of the control `apparatus carried
by the robot helicopter according to an embodiment of the
electrical signals into mechanical collective pitch con
trol movements. Other signals produced at the remote
forming part of the control apparatus shown in FIG. 8;
fed to an associated servo-mechanism which converts the 20 present invention;
FIG. 9 is an electrical circuit diagram of a decoder
control location are decoded and fed to a switch func
FIG. l() is an electrical circuit diagram of the switch
ing functions system shown in PIG. 8;
tions system which includes a plurality of relays, each
FIG. l1 is an electrical circuit diagram, partly in block
responsive to a particular signal. Through electrical 25
form, of the collective (altitude) channel shown in
components associated therewith, these relays »cause con
FIG. 8;
nections to be made in the electrical circuitry of the con
FIG. 12 is an electrical circuit diagram, partly in block
trol apparatus carried by the robot helicopter so that,
form, of the collective control computer and servo-mecha
where necessary, the electrical signals representing par
ticular commands are executed as mechanical control 30 nism shown in FIG. 11;
FIG. 13 is an electrical circuit diagram showing, in
movements.
greater
detail, how the output shaft of the servo-mecha
Other components of the control apparatus carried by
nism shown in FIG. l2 is actuated.
the robot helicopter include means for automatically main
FIG. 14 is an electrical circuit diagram, partly in block
taining a predetermined altitude, means for stabilizing the
direction of Hight of the robot helicopter, means for regu- l t form, of the pitch and roll channels shown` in FIG. 8;
FIG. l5 is a detail view showing North-South and
lating engine speed of the robot helicopter, and means to
East-West windings forming a part of a resolver com
remember the last commanded heading and air speed
ponent of the circuitry of FIG. 14;
whereby the robot helicopter may be put on memory and
FIG. 16 is another detail view showing helicopter ori
will ñy in the last commanded direction and at the last
40 ented windings forming another part of said resolver com
commanded air speed.
ponent of the circuitry shown in FIG. 14;
A precision hover, or halter, apparatus, attached to
FIG. 17 is `an electrical circuit diagram, partly in block
the robot helicopter, is an auxiliary control apparatus
adapted to be manipulated by a ground handler so as to
maneuver the helicopter very accurately when it is hover
ing slightly above the ground surface.
Essentially, the
apparatus slaves the helicopter to the position of the grip,
held by the handler, located at the bottom of the halter.
A preferred mechanical arrangement of the precision
hover, or halter, apparatus comprises a telescoping tube
which is mounted at the top by la bearing mechanism car
ried by the helicopter which gives the tube freedom «to
swing fore and aft `and laterally. Synchro-mechanisms
at the halter mount, operating in connection with the ver
tical gyroscope forming a part of the control apparatus
for the robot helicopter, apply signals to the robot pitch
and stabilization components whenever the halter is moved
away from a vertical attitude.
form, of the directional, or yaw, control channel shown
in FIG. 8;
FIG. 18 is an electrical circuit diagram, partly in block
form, of the engine speed control channel shown in
FIG. 8;
FIGS. 19A and 19B are, collectively, an elevational
view, partly in section, ‘of a precision hover, or halter,
apparatus according to an embodiment of the present i11
vention;
FIG. 20 is a plan view of the mounting structure, and
electrical components associated therewith, for the pre
cision hover apparatus shown in FIGS. 19A and 19E;
FIG. 21 is a sectional view, taken on line 21-21 of
FIG. 19A;
FIG. 22 is a sectional view taken on line 22-«22 of
FIG. 19B;
The lengthwise telescoping action of the halter is in~
FIG. 23 is an end view of the handle assembly shown
strumented to provide a “tight altitude contro-l” in which
the helicopter automatically maintains a fixed height above 60 in FIG. 19B;
FIG. 24 is an electrical circuit diagram, partly in block
the halter grip. The grip itself contains a switch by which
form, of the precision hover pitch control system;
the handler connects the halter into the automatic con
FIG. 25 is an electrical circuit diagram of the precis
trol system, overriding any remote commands present.
ion hover collective control system; and
Signals from the halter grip and mount are fed to a halter
FIG. 26 is an electrical circuit diagram of the switch
computer which is part of the control apparatus carried
ing system of the precision hover, or halter, apparatus.
by the robot helicopter, and the signals are modified for
Referring to the drawings, FIG. l shows a rotary
stabilization and then used to actuate pitch, roll, collec
wing aircraft, designated generally by the reference nu
tive, and heading control mechanisms as required.
meral 10, under control of signals being sent from a
Other objects and advantages of the present invention
ground control station designated generally by the refer
will become more apparent from the following detailed
ence numeral 11. A precision hover, or halter, appara
description taken in conjunction with the attached draw
tus, designated generally by the reference numeral 12,
ings, in which:
is shown as being carried by the rotary wing aircraft 10.
FIG. 1 shows components of a remote control station
The electrical and mechanical components carried by the
according to the present invention, and a robot helicopter
rotary wing aircraft l0 which receive and execute the
(with a precision hover apparatus attached thereto) in
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
4 762 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа