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Патент USA US3096083

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July 2, 1963.
F. HOMOLA Em
3,096,073
OSCILLATION SUPPRESSING ARRANGEMENT FOR TURBINES
Filed Jan. 23, 1961
6 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTORS
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July 2, 1963
F. HOMOLA ETAL
3,096,073
OSCILLATION SUPPRESSING ARRANGEMENT FOR TURBINES
Filed Jan. 23. 1961
s Sheets-Sheet 2
I
IN VEN TORS
W gm
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July 2, 1963
F. HOMOLA ETAL
3,096,073
OSCILLATION SUPPRESSING ARRANGEMENT FOR TURBINES
Filed Jan. 23, 1961
6 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVEN TOR
BY
July 2, 1963
F. HOMOLA ETAL
3,096,073
OSCILLATION SUPFRESSING ARRANGEMENT FOR TURBINES
Filed Jan. 25, 1961
6 Sheets-Sheet 4
Fig.9
Fig. 10
W
July 2, 1963
F. HOMOLA ETAL
3,096,073
OSCILLATION SUPFRESSING ARRANGEMENT FOR TURBINES
Filed Jan. 23, 1961
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
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July 2, 1963
F. HOMOLA EI‘AL
3,096,073
OSCILLATION SUPPRESSING ARRANGEMENT FOR TURBINES
Filed Jan. 23, 1961
6 Sheets-Sheet 6
IF
IN VEN TO“
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3,09%,9‘73
United States Patent O? ice
Patented July 2, 1963
1
2
a gaseous ?uid acting on the rotor vanes of a turbine
3,096,973
of the above described type during a revolution;
FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating excitation forces accord
OSClLLATIGN SWPRESSENG ARRANGEMENT
FOR
INES
Friedrich Homola and Arnold Witt, Gberursel, Taunus,
ing to a Fourier analysis of a series of harmonic oscil
lations;
Germany, 'assignors to Klockuer-Hurnboldt-Deutz,
Cologne, Germany
FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating the ‘frequencies of
harmonic oscillations depending on the rotary speed of
Filed Jan. 23, 1961, §er. No. 54,345
18 Claims. (Cl. 253-39)
the rotor vanes;
FIG. 4 is a diagram corresponding to a part of the
The present invention relates to an oscillation suppres 10 diagram of FIG. 1 and illustrating a step-wise reduction
sing arrangement for turbines which is advantageously
of dynamic force at the ends of the admission zone;
applied to radial ?ow turbines and axial ?ow turbines.
FIG. 5 is a digram corresponding to a part of the dia
The present invention is concerned with turbines of
gram of FIG. 1 and illustrating a gradual reduction of the
the type in which the ?uid is admitted into the passages
dynamic force at the ends of the admission zone;
of the rotor along an admission zone. When the rotor 15
FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view through an
vanes enter the admission zone, the dynamic force of the
axial ?ow turbine in accordance with one embodiment of
gaseous ?uid acts fully on a rotor vane entering the
the present invention in which the height of the admission
admission zone, while no force at all acts on the rotor
zone is step-wise reduced at the ends of the admission
vanes directly before entering the admission zone, and
zone;
directly after leaving the admission zero. The sudden 20
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional View corresponding to FIG.
impact of the ?uid, as well as the sudden termination of
6 but illustrating a modi?ed embodiment of the present
such impact on the rotor vmes, will cause oscillations in
invention;
the rotor vanes which may result in breaking of the vanes
FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view corresponding to FIG.
if oscillations at the resonance frequency occur.
6 but illustrating another embodiment of the present in
It is the object of the present invention to overcome 25 vention in which the cross section of the admission zone
this disadvantage of known turbines, and to provide an
oscillation suppressing arrangement by which resonance
oscillations, and harmonic oscillations are completely,
or at least partly, suppressed.
Another object of the present invention is to reduce
A further object of the present invention is to reduce
is gradually reduced at the ends of the admission zone;
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary schematic developed view of
the admission zone of a radial ?ow turbine according to
the present invention in which the cross section of the
admission zone is step-wise reduced at the ends of the
admission zone;
FIG. 10 is a developed view corresponding to FIG. 9
but illustrating a modi?ed construction for 'stepJWise re
at the ends of the admission zone for the ?uid, the cross
ducing a cross section of the adrnisison zone at the ends
the dynamic force acting on the rotor vane when the same
enters or leaves the admission zone.
section of the admission zone so that a smaller amount of 35 of the same;
?uid impinges the rotor vanes at the ends of the admis
sion zone that at the center thereof.
FIG. 11 is a fragmentary developed view of the ad
mission zone of a radial ?ow turbine according to the
present invention in which the cross section of the admis
7
With these objects in view, the present invention re
lates to a turbine which has guide passage means in the
sion zone is gradually and continuously reduced at the
housing thereof ‘for guiding a ?uid into rotor passages 40 ends of the admission zone;
‘formed between the rotor vanes. The guide passage
FIG. 12 is an elevation, partly in section along line
means de?ne an admission zone through which ?uid is ad
12-12 in FIG. 13, of an axial ?ow turbine according to
mitted to the rotor passages, and which is passed by suc
the present invention;
cessive rotor passages during rotation of the rotor vane
FIG. 13 is a fragmentary .axial ‘sectional view of the‘
means.
45 turbine illustrated in FIG. 12;
FIG. 14 is a fragmentary developed view showing a
In accordance with the present invention, the guide
part of the turbine of FIGS. 12 and 13 on an enlarged
passage means are constructed and arranged so that ?uid
flows into each rotor passage entering and leaving the ad
scale and in section along a circle having the radius R;
mission zone through a smaller cross section than when
FIG. 15 is an axial sectional view of a radial flow
‘
FIG. 16 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 16-16
the respective rotor passage is located in said admission 50 turbine according to the present invention;
zone. 'In this manner, oscillations of the rotor vanes are
in FIG. 15; and
at least partly suppressed. The reduced cross section and
FIG. 17 is a plan View, partly in section on line 17—17f
its shape and area is selected so that a Fourier analysis
in FIG. 16, illustrating the turbine of FIGS. 15 and 16.
of the oscillation excitation of the rotor vanes is free of
Referring now to the drawings, and more particularly
at least one speci?c harmonic oscillation which occurs 55
in FIG. 1, in known turbines, the force of the gaseous
when ?uid is admitted through the entire cross section
?uid P is shown as a function of the angle through which 7
of a rotor passage and which may excite the rotor vanes
the turbine rotor turns.‘ The force rises from zero to a
to resonance oscillations. Several harmonic oscillations
certain value at which it remains until it'again drops to
occurring when ?uid is admitted through the entire cross
zero at the end of the admission zone, and remains at zero
60
section of a rotor passage, and which may cause rotor
value until the rotor has turned through 360°, whereupon '
vane oscillations within a certain range of rotor speeds
the same cycle is repeated.
may be at least partly suppressed.
The novel features which are considered as character~
istic for the invention are set forth in particular in the
appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as
Since any non-harmonic periodic function can be di—
vided into a plurality of sinusoid oscillations of the mth
65 according to Fourier wherein m is ‘an integer and repre
to its construction and its method of operation, together
with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be
best understood from the following description of spe
ci?c embodiments when read in connection with the ac 70
companying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating the dynamic force of
sents the order of the excitation force, resonance occurs at
a number of revolutions ml. in accordance with the follow
ing equation:
n:
r
f(r60 rev. per min.
m
wherein n, is the resonance frequency, and f0 is the natural
frequency in cycles per second. A Fourier analysis will
3,096,073
3
.
a
result in a resonance spectrum as shown in FIG. 2 where
line.
The are of the admission control means extends
gas force P. The integers along the abscissa re resent the
orders In of the excitation. The resonance diagram of
through the ‘angle A¢ through a fraction of the angle e54,
which is almost 180° in the embodiment of FIG. 6. The
angle mp, 452 is about 30°. The ‘full excitation force acts
between the angles qbz and ¢3. In a conventional turbine,
FIG. 3 shows the function of the natural frequency f0
over the rotary speed of the rotor represented by revolu
the admission zone would extend through the angle 0:.
In the embodiment of FIG. 6, the height h of the admis~
the ordinates represent the periodic excitation force Am
which is equal to the exciting force divided by the dynamic
tions per minute n.
Since the lines representing the
sion zone is reduced by the admission control means 1
and 2 along the angles 13¢.
harmonic frequencies for different values of m intersect
the graph f0, it is evident that, if the turbine is to be
operated within a fairly great range of rotary speeds, it is
The embodiment of FIG. 7 is similar to the embodi
ment of FIG. 6, and also obtains a step-Wise reduction
not possible to avoid rotary ‘speeds at which resonance
oscillations will occur in the rotor vanes. The danger
of damage to the rotor vanes due to resonance frequency
sion zone. However, the strip-shaped admission control
of the excitation force ‘at the ends of the arcuate admis
means in is located within the admission zone 3a, while
oscillations is particularly great in the upper range of 15 at the other end of the admission zone, two strip-shaped
admission control means 2a and 2b are provided which
rotary speed, since not only the static stress of the vanes
extend along the circular outer boundary lines of. the
due to the action of the centrifugal force, but also the
admission zone.
‘
oscillation stress vincreases since the dynamic gas force
in the embodiment of FIG. 8, the gas force is grad
becomes greater as the rotary speed is increased. '
It has been proposed to reduce the dangerous oscil 20 ually increased and reduced at the ends of the admission
zone which is achieved by tapering admission control
lations of the rotor vanes by wires passing incircumferen
tial direction through several rotor vanes so that due to
means 1c and 20 which are bounded by arcuate lines
and extend through angles A<p, respectively, which are
the friction caused by the centrifugal force ‘between the
Wires and the surfaces of the bores in the vanes, the ampli
about 60". In. a conventional arrangement, the admis
tude of the oscillations of the vanes is reduced. However, 25 sion zone would extend‘ between the angles p1 and 903,
such wires pass through the passages in which the gaseous
be equal to a md be bounded by two circles, and two
?uid ?ows, and consequently cause undesirable losses due
radial lines.
'
to the occurrence of turbulence.
'
FIGS. 9 to 11 illustrate in developed views the admis
In ‘accordance with the present invention, undesired
sion zones of radial ?ow turbines. In the embodiment
stress in the rotor vanes caused by oscillations is eliminat 30 of FIG. 9, admission control means 4 and 5 are provided
ed by designing ‘and shaping the cross section of the pas
at the ends of the arcuate admission zon'e de?ned by a
sage in the housing through which the ?uid is guided
stator passage so that the admission zone 6 has the shape
into the rotor in such a manner that the ?uid ?ows into
and cross section indicated by the hatched area. The
‘each rotor passage passing the admission zone only
excitation force will be smaller at the ends of the ad
through a part of the cross section of the rotor passage, 35 mission zone than at the center of the admission zone
when the same enters or leaves the admission zone. Ad
mission control means are provided ‘for this purpose and
are located in the proximity of the rotor passages, and
preferably directly adjacent the inlet portions of the rotor
since the height of ‘the cross section through which ?uid
?ows into each rotor passage'is reduced at the ends of
the admission zone.
1:16.10 shows an embodiment similar to the embodi
passages. The admission control means effect a step-wise 40 ment of FIG. 9, the di?’erence being that the strip-shaped
reduction of the force P along-an angle A45 not only in
the ?rst part of the admission zone but‘also in the last
part of the admission zone, as indicated in the diagram
of FIG. 4.
In accordance with another modi?cation of '
the present invention, the cross section of the ‘admission
zone is gradually increased along an angle Aqb, and ‘
ggain gradually reduced along an angle A¢ as shownrin
1G. 5.
'
V
admission control means 4a is located in the center of'
the admission zone at one end of the same, whereas two.
admission control means 5a and 5b are provided [at the
other end of the admission‘ zone spaced from each other
in axial direction of the turbine.
’
1
FIG. 11 illustrates another embodiment of a radial
?ow turbine according to the present invention in» which
the admission control means 4c and 5c taper from the
ends ‘of the’ admission zone towards the center of the
In a turbine which is not provided with the improve
ment of the present invention, the admission zone extends 50 same and are boundedby arc'uate lines, one of which‘
between the angle ¢1=0 and an angle ¢3=ac, and the
extends along a circle, and the other of which extends’
force of the gaseous ?uid would rise at the anglejqbl from
along a threeadimensional curve.
This arrangement re
zero to a maximum, andrwou'ld drop at the angle a from
sults in .a gradual increaseand decreaseof the excitation the maximum to zero. In the ‘arrangement of the present
force at ‘the beginning and end of the admission zone '6. ,
invention as shown in FIG. 4, the gas force will ?rst have ~55
Referring now to FIGS. 12 to 14 which illustrate a "
a lower valueand then ‘be increased to maximum value,
practical embodiment of an axial ?ow turbine according
and at the end of the, admission zone, the gas force will i
to the present invention, the spiral casing 7 includes two
?rst be reduced to an intermediate value, and then drop
inlet means 8 and 9 through which the ?uid ?ows into a
to zero. In the embodiment of theinvention illustrated in
pair of guide passage means having part-circular outlets
FIG. 5, the gas force willjgradu'ally increase to maximum
extending substantially through‘ the angles [3 and 'y and
.value and then again gradually drop to zero. a A Fourier 60 being provided with stationary guide vanes 10 through
‘analysis of the excitation forces voccur-ing in the arrange
ment of the present invention proves that detrimental
harmonics causing resonance oscillations in the rotor
which the ?uid ?ows into the rotor passages defined by
the rotor vanes 11'.
~
In accordance with the invention, the two admission
vanes as explained with reference to FIGS. 1 to 3, are
zones formed by the outlets of the two guide passages
either completely eliminated or at least partly suppressed. ,65 overlap since the guide passages respectively include: ad
FIGS. '6, 7 and 8 illustrate the construction‘of the ‘ad
mission control means of the present invention as applied
‘ to an axial ?ow turbine. _In the embodiment of FIG; 6,
mission control’ passage portions 13 andv 14.. The ?rst
guide passage means which extends through 'the angle ,5
has a control passage portion 13, extending through the
the admission control means .1 and 2 are respectively 70 angle A'y into the admission zone de?ned by the other
located’ at the ends of the admission zone 3-so that only
guide passage along the angle 7. The other ‘guide pas '
the hatched area is open for the ?ow of the ?uid ‘from the
sage means has a control passage portion 14 extending
guide passage in the housing'intov the passages formed by
through the angle AB into the admission-zone which ex
tends along the angle )8. The radial extension of the .
the rotor vanes. The admission control meansrare strip
shaped and'are boundedby concentric circles and a radial 75 admission control passage portions 13 and’ 14 is, smaller
3,096,073
than the radial length of the guide vanes 10 and then‘ the
radial extension of the main portions of the guide pas
sage means so that the rotor vanes 11 are not subjected
to the full impact of the ?uid, and are not completely
relieved of the impact of the ?uid when passing into and
out of the two admission zones.
6
zone, said smaller cross sections having such a ratio to
the cross section at the center of said admission zone that
a Fourier analysis of the oscillation excitation of said
rotor vane means by the dynamic gas force based on the
resonance oscillation frequency of said rotor vane means
is at least partly free of at least one harmonic oscillation
Referring now to FIGS. l5, l6 and 17 which show a
occurring when ?uid is admitted through the entire cross
radial ?ow turbine .according to the present invention,
section of a rotor passage whereby oscillations of said
the spiral housing 15 has two inlet means 16 and 17,
rotor vane means are at least partly suppressed.
which lead into two guide passages through which the 10
3. In a turbine, in combination, rotor vane means
?uid is supplied along part-circular admission zones to
forming rotor passages; and guide passage means for
the rotor vanes 20 of a rotor 19 which is mounted on a
shaft 18 and has an axial outlet means 22.
guiding a ?uid into said rotor passages and de?ning an
arcuate ?uid admission zone passed by successive rotor
The two admission zones extend respectively through
passages during rotation of said rotor vane means and
the angles 6, 6 shown to be 180°, and each guide passage 15 extending along an arc, said guide passage means includ
means has an admission control passage portion 23 and
ing admission control means located at the ends of said
24, respectively which extends through an angle A6, A5
arcuate admission zone and extending at either end
into the respective other admission control zones.
through an angle which is a selected ?raction of said arc
It will be understood that each of the elements de
and providing a reduced height ‘for said arcuate admis
scribed above, or two or more together, may also ?nd a
sion zone at the ends thereof so that ?uid ?ows into each
useful application in other types of turbines differing
rotor passage entering and leaving said admission zone
from the types described above.
through a smaller cross section than when the respective
While the invention has been illustrated and described
rotor passage is located in the central part of said ad
as embodied in an arrangement for suppressing oscilla
mission zone, said fraction being selected in accordance
tions of the rotor vanes in turbines in which admission of 25 with the resonance ‘oscillation frequency of said rotor
?uid into the rotor passages takes place over an angle
vane means so that a Fourier analysis of the oscillation
of less than 360°, it is not intended to be limited to the
excitation of said rotor vane means by the dynamic gas
details shown, since various modi?cations and structural
force based on said resonance oscillation frequency is at
changes may be made without departing in any way from
least partly free of at least ‘one harmonic oscillation oc
the spirit of the present invention.
curring when ?uid is admitted through the entire cross
Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully
reveal the gist of the present invention that others can
section of a rotor passage.
4. In a turbine, in combination, rotor vane means
by applying current knowledge readily adapt it for vari
forming rotor passages; and guide passage means for
guiding a ?uid into said rotor passages and de?ning an
ous applications Without omitting features that, from the
standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essential charac 35 arcuate ?uid admission zone passed by successive rotor
passages during rotation of said rotor vane means and
teristics of the generic or speci?c aspects of this inven—
extending along an arc, said guide passage means includ
ing stepped admission control means located at the ends
of said arcuate admission zone and extending at either
40 end through an angle which is a selected fraction of said
What is claimed as new ‘and desired to be secured by
are and providing a stepwise reduced height for said arou
Letters Patent is:
tion and, therefore, such adaptations should and are in
tended to be comprehended within the meaning and range
of equivalence of the following claims.
1. In a turbine, in combination, rotor vane means
forming rotor passages and moving along a path; and
guide passage means for guiding a ?uid into said rotor
passages and de?ning a ?uid admission zone extending
along said path so that said admission zone is passed by
successive rotor passages during rotation of said rotor
vane means, said guide passage means being constructed
and arranged so that ?uid ?ows into each rotor passage
ate admission zone at the ends thereof so that ?uid ?ows
into each rotor passage entering and leaving said admis
sion zone through a smaller cross section than when the
respective rotor passage is located in the central part of
said admission zone, said fraction being selected in ac
cordance with the resonance oscillation frequency ‘of said
rotor vane means so that a Fourier analysis of the oscil
lation excitation {of said rotor vane means by the dynamic
50 gas force based on said resonance oscillation frequency
at least at one end of said admission zone through a
is at least partly free of at least one harmonic oscillation
smaller cross section than when the respective rotor pas
occurring when ?uid is admitted through the entire cross
sage is located in the adjacent part of said admission
section of a rotor passage.
zone, said smaller cross section having such a ratio to
the cross section at the center of said admission zone
5. In a turbine, in combination, rotor vane means
55
that a Fourier analysis of the oscillation excitation of said
forming rotor passages; and guide passage means for
rotor vane means by the dynamic gas force based on the
guiding a ?uid into said rotor passages and de?ning an
resonance oscillation frequency of said rotor vane means
arcuate ?uid admission zone passed by successive rotor
is at least partly free of at least one harmonic oscilla
passages during rotation of said rotor vane means and
tion occurring when ?uid is admitted through the entire 60 extending along an are, said guide passage means in
cross section of a rotor passage whereby oscillations of
cluding gradually tapering admission control means lo
said rotor vane means are at least partly suppressed.
2. In a turbine, in combination, rotor vane means
forming rotor passages and moving along a path; and
cated at the ends of said arcuate admission zone and ex
tending at either end through an angle which is a selected
fraction of said are and providing a gradually and con
guide passage means for guiding a ?uid into said rotor
65 tinuously reduced height for said arcuate admission zone
passages and de?ning a ?uid admission zone extending
at the ends thereof so that ?uid ?ows into each rotor pas
along said path so that said admission zone is passed by
sage entering and leaving said admission zone through a
successive rotor passages during rotation of said rotor
smaller cross section than when the respective rotor pas~ ’
vane means, said guide passage means including admis
sage is located in the central part of said admission zone,
sion control means extending along said path and pro 70 said fraction being selected in accordance with the reso
viding a reduced transverse extension ‘for said admission
nance oscillation frequency of said rotor vane means so
zone at the ends thereof so that ?uid ?ows into each
that a Fourier analysis of the oscillation excitation of
rotor passage at each end of said admission zone through
said rotor vane means by the dynamic gas force based
a smaller cross section than when the respective rotor
on said resonance oscillation frequency is at least partly
passage is located in the central part of said admission 75 free of at least one harmonic oscillation occurring when
3,696,073
?uid is admitted through the entire cross section of a
rotor passage.
is at least partly vfree of at least’ one harmonic oscillation
occurring when ?uid is admitted through the entire cross
section of a rotor passage.
9. In a radial turbine, in combination, rotor vane
7
6. In an axial turbine, in combination, rotor vane
means forming rotor passages; and guide passage means
means forming rotor passages; and guide passage means
for guiding ar?uid into said rotor passages’ and de?ning
for guiding a ?uid into said rotor passages and de?ning
an arcuate ?uid admission zone passed by successive rotor
an arcuate ?uid admission zone passed by successive
passages during rotation of said rotor vane means and
rotor passages during rotation of said rotor vane means
extending along an arc, said guide passage means includ
and extending along an arc, said guide passage means in
ing admission control means located at the ends of said
arcuate admission zone and extending at either end 10 cluding admission control means located at the ends of
said arcuate admission zone and extending at either end
through an angle which is a selected fraction of said arc
through an angle which, is a selected fraction of said are
and providing a stepwise reduced height for said arcuate
and providing a continuously and, gradually reduced
admission zone at the ends thereof, said admission con
height for said arcuate admission zone at the ends there
trol means having the shape of an arcuate strip bounded
by parts of concentric circles and by radii of said circles 15 of, said admission control means gradually tapering
away from the ends and toward the center of said ad
so'that ?uid ?ows into each rotor passage entering and
mission zone and being bounded by two arcuate lines so
leaving said admission zone through a smaller cross sec—
that ?uid ?ows into each rotor passage entering and leav
tion than when the respective rotor‘passage is located in
ing said admission zone through a smaller cross section
the central part of said admission zone, said fraction be
ing selected in accordance with the resonance oscillation 20 than when the respective rotor passage is located in the
frequency of ,said rotor vane means, so that a Fourier
central part of said admission zone, said (fraction being
analysis of the oscillation excitation of’ said rotor vane
means by the dynamic gas force based on said resonance
oscillation ‘frequency is at least partly ‘free of at least one
selected in accordance with the resonance oscillation fre
quency of said‘ rotor vane means so that a Fourier
analysis of the y‘oscillation excitation of said rotor vane
harmonic oscillation occurring when ?uid is admitted 25 means by the dynamic gas force based on saidresonance
oscillation trequency is at least partly free of at least one
through the entire cross section of a rotor passage.
7. In an axial turbine, in combination, rotor vane
means forming rotor passages; and guide passage means a
harmonic oscillation occurring when ?uid is admitted
of, said admission control means gradually tapering away
arcuate admission zone at the ends thereof over a se
dynamic gas force based on said resonance oscillation
frequency is at least partly free of'at least one harmonic '
monic oscillation occurring when ?uid is admitted 1
through the entire cross section of a'rotor passage or so
through the entire cross section of a rotor passage.
10. In ‘a turbine, in combination, rotor vane means‘
for guiding a ?uid into said rotor passages and de?ning
an arcuate ?uid admission zone passed by successive 30 forming rotor passages; and guide passage means to!‘
guiding .a ?uid into said rotor passages and de?ning an
rotor passages during rotation of said rotor vane means
arcuate ?uid ‘admission zone passed by successive rotor
and extending along an are, said guide passage means in
pass-ages during rotation of said rotor vane means and
cluding admission control means located at the ends of
extending along ‘an are through a selected angle, said
said arcuate admission zone and extending at either end
through an angle which is'a selected fraction of said are 35 guide passage means including admission control means
disposed in the proximity of said rotor vane means and
and providing a continuously and gradually reduced
rotor passages and providing a reduced height for said
height for said arcuate admission zone at the ends there- ,
lected ‘angle so that ?uid ?ows into each rotor passage
f-rom'the ends and toward the center of said admission
zone and being bounded by two arcuate lines so that ?uid 40 entering and leaving said admission zone through a
smaller cross section than when the respective rotor
?ows into each rotor passage entering and leaving said
passage is "located in the central part of said admission
admission zone through a smallertcross section than when
zone, said ‘angle being selected in accordance
the
the respective rotor passage is located in the central part
resonance oscillation irequency of said rotor vane means
of said admission zone, said fraction being selected in
accordance with the resonance oscillation frequency of 45 so that a Fourier analysis of the oscillation excitation of
said rotor vane means by the dynamic gas force based
said rotor vane means so that a Fourier analysis of the
oscillation excitation .of said rotor vane means by the
on said resonance oscillation ?requency is .free of a har- '
oscillation occurring when ?uid is admitted through the 50 that several harmonic oscillations occurring when?uid
entire cross section of a rotor passage.
,
'
8. In a radial turbine, in combination, rotor vane’
means forming rotor passages; and guide passage means
is admitted through the entire cross section of a- rotor
passage are at least partly suppressed.
11. A, turbine as set forth
'
claim 10 wherein said
for guiding a ?uid into said rotor passagesrand de?ning
admission controlmeans have a stepped shape ror‘step
an arcuate ?uid admission zone passed by successive 55 Wise altering ‘the cross section of said admission zone.
rotor passages during rotation of said rotor vane means
12. A turbine as set forth in claim 10 wherein said
and extending along an are, said guide passage means in
admission control means vhave ia tapering shape for grad
cluding admission control means located at the ends of
ually ‘and continuously altering the cross‘ section of-saiid'
said arcuate admission zone and extending at either end
through an angle which is a selected vfraction of said are 60 admission zone.
13. In an axial' turbine, in ‘combination, rotor vane
and providing a stepwisereduced height for said arcuate
means
‘forming rotor passages; and iguidepassage means
admission zone at the ends thereof, said admission con
trol means having the shape of an arcuate strip bounded
by parts of parallel circles located in-parallel planes, and
' by parallel lines extending perpendicular to said planes
and in axial direction of the turbine so that ?uid ?ows
into each rotor passage’ entering and leaving said admis
for guiding a ?uid into said rotor passages and de?ning
an arcuate ?uid admission zone passed by successive rotor
passage during rotation of said rotor vane means and ex
tending along an are, said guide passage means including ’
‘admission control means located at the ends of said 'alrcu-p
, sion zone through a smaller cross section than when the
ate admission zone and extending at either endlthrough >
cordance with‘ the resonance oscillation'frequency of said
sion zone at the ends thereo?one of said admission con
trol means having the shape ‘of-ran arcuate strip bounded '
respective rotor passage is located in the central part 70 an angle which is a selected traction of said are andproé
v'idin-g a stepwise reduced height for saidyarenate admis
of said'admission' zone, said traction being selected in ac- .
rotor vane means so that a Fourier analysis of the oscil
by parts of concentric circles and by radii of said circles
gas force based on said resonance oscillation frequency 75 and the other admission controlzmeans comprising two 1
lation excitation of said rotor vane means by the dynamic
3,096,073
arcuate strips bounded by concentric circles and by radii
of said circles so that ?uid ?ows into each rotor passage
entering and leaving said admission zone through ‘a
smaller cross section than when the respective rotor pas
sage is located in the central part of said admission zone,
said fraction being selected in accordance with the res
10
mission zones extending along said path so that said ad
mission zones are passed by successive rotor passages
during rotation of said rotor, each of said guide passage
means including admission control passage portions lo
cated at the ends ‘of said admission zone of the respec—
tive other guide passage means and having in 1a direction
onance oscillation frequency of said rotor vane means so
transverse to said path a smaller transverse extension than
that ‘a Fourier analysis of the oscillation excitation of said
the central portion of said guide passage means for re
rotor vane means by the dynamic gas force based on
ducing the transverse extension of said admission zone at
said resonance ‘oscillation frequency is at least partly free l0 said ends thereof so that ?uid flows from each guide pas
of at least :one harmonic oscillation occurring when ?uid
sage means into each rotor passage at said ends of each
is admitted through the entire cross section of a rotor
admission zone through a smaller cross section than when
passage.
the respective rotor passage is located in ‘the central part
14. ‘in a radial turbine, in combination, rotor vane
of each admission zone, said admission control passage
means forming rotor passages; and guide passage means 15 extending through ‘an angle selected in accordance with
for guiding a ?uid into said rotor passages and de?ning
the resonance oscillation frequency of said rotor vane
an arcuate ?uid admission zone passed by successive rotor
means so that a Fourier analysis of the oscillation excita
passages during rotation of said rotor vane means and
tion of said rotor vane means by the dynamic gas force
extending along an arc through a selected angle, said
based on said resonance oscillation frequency is at least
guide passage means including admission control means 20 partly free of at least one harmonic oscillation occurring
located ‘at the ends of said iarcuate admission zone ‘and
when fluid is admitted through the entire cross section
extending at either end through an angle which is a se
of a rotor passage.
lected fraction of ‘said arc and providing a stepwise re
17. ‘In an axial ?ow turbine, in combination, a rotor
duced height for said arcuate admission zone [at the ends
having rotor vane means forming rotor passages, said
, thereof, one or" said admission control means having the 25 rotor passages moving along a circular path during rc
shape of an arcuate strip bounded by parts of parallel
circles located in parallel planes, and vby parallel lines
extending perpendicular to said planes and in axial direc
tion of the turbine and the other admission control
means comprising two arcuate strips hounded by circles
tation of said rotor; a pair of guide passage means for
guiding a ?uid into said rotor passages and de?ning a
pair of ?uid admission zones extending along said path
so that said admission zones are passed by successive
rotor passages during rotation of said rotor, each of said
guide passage means including admission control passage
u-lar to said planes so that ?uid ?ows into each rotor
portions located at the ends ~of said admission zone of the
passage entering and leaving said admission zone through
respective other guide passage means, each said control
ia smaller ‘cross section than when the respective rotor
passage portion having in a direction transverse to said
passage is located in the central
of said admission 35
path a smaller transverse extension than the cenu‘al por
zone, said fraction being selected in accordance with the
tion of said guide passage means, each control passage
resonance oscillation ?requency of said rotor vane means
portion having an outlet bounded by parts of concentric
so that a Fourier analysis of the oscillation excitation of
circles spaced a radial distance smaller than the radial ex
said rotor vane means by the dynamic gas force based on
said resonance oscillation frequency is at least partly 40 tension of said admission zone so that ?uid flows from
each guide passage means into each rotor passage at
free of ‘at least one harmonic oscillation occurring when
said ends of each admission zone through a smaller cross
fluid is admitted through the entire cross section of a
rotor passage.
section than when the respective rotor passage is located
in the central part of each ‘admission zone, each ‘admis
15. In a turbine, in combination, a rot-or having rotor
vane means forming rotor passages, said rotor passages 45 sion control passage extending through an angle selected
moving along a circular path during rotation of said rotor;
in accordance with the resonance oscillation frequency of
located in par?lel planes ‘and by parallel lines perpendic
and guide passage means for guiding 1a ?uid into said
rotor passages and de?ning at least one ?uid admission
zone extending along said path so that said admission
said rotor vane meansv so that a Fourier analysis of the
‘oscillation excitation of said rotor vane means by the dy
namic gas force based on said resonance oscillation fre
zone is passed by successive rotor pas-sages during rota 50 quency is at least partly ‘free of at least one harmonic
tion 'of said rotor, said guide passage means including
oscillation ‘occurring when ?uid is admitted through the
admission control passage portions located at the ends of
entire cross section of a rotor passage.
said admission zone and having in a direction transverse
18. In a radial flow turbine, in combination, a rotor
to said path a smaller transverse extension than the cen 55 having rotor vane means forming rotor passages, said
tral portion of said guide passage means for reducing the
rotor passages moving along a circular path during rota
transverse extension of said admission zone at said ends
thereof so that ?uid flows into each rotor passage at
said ends of said ‘admission zone through a smaller cross
tion of said rotor; and a pair of guide passage means for
guiding a ?uid into said rotor passages and de?ning a pair
of ?uid admission zones extending ‘along said path so
section than when the respective rotor passage is located 60 that said admission zones are passed by successive rotor
in the central part of said admission zone, said admis
passages during rotation of said rotor, each of said guide
sion control passage extending through an angle selected
passage means including admission control passage
in accordance with the resonance ‘oscillation frequency of
portions located at the ends of said admission zone of
said rotor vane means so that a vFourier analysis of the
‘oscillation excitation of said rotor vane means by the
dynamic gas force based ‘on said resonance oscillation
frequency is at least partly free of at least one harmonic
the respective other guide passage means, each said con
trol passage portion having in ‘a direction transverse to
said path a smaller transverse extension than the central
portion of said guide passage means, said control passage
oscillation occurring when ?uid is admitted through the
portion having an outlet bounded by parts of parallel
70 circles‘ spaced an axial distance smaller than the axial ex
entire cross section of a rotor passage.
16. In a turbine, in combination, a rotor having rotor
tension of said admission zone so that ?uid ?ows from
each guide passage means into each rotor passage at said
moving along a circular path during rotation of said rotor;
ends of each admission zone ‘through a smaller cross
and a pair of guide passage means for guiding a ?uid
section than when the respective rotor passage is located
into said rotor passages and de?ning a pair of ?uid ad 75 in the central part of each admission zone, each admis
vane means forming rotor passages, said rotor passages
12
sion control passage extending through an angle selected
in accordance with the resonance oscillation frequency of
said rotor vane means so that ‘a Fourier analysis of the
oscillation excitation ‘of said rotor vane means by the dy
namic gas force based on said resonance oscillation tire
quency is at least partly free vof at least one harmonic
oscillation occurring when fluid is admitted through the
entire cross section of a rotor passage.
References-Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,392,463
Cook et a1. __________ __ Jan. 8, 1946
13,893
Great Britain _________ __ July 5, 1905
Great Bnitain ________ __ May 30, 1944
FOREIGN PATENTS
561,647
~
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