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Патент USA US3096183

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July 2, 1963
Filed Feb. 29. 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
July 2, 1963
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Feb. 29. 1960
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United States Patent 0 ” rice
Patented July 2, 1963
ing 26 adjacent the upper end. The opening 26 is con
nected by a ?exible conduit 28 to a source of cooling
water. The tube 22 is closed at both ends with an outlet
Truman H. Kennedy, Pittsburgh, Pa., assign‘or to United
States Steel Corporation, a corporation of New Jersey
Filed Feb. 29, 1960, Ser. No. 11,538
1 Claim. (Cl. 75-60)
30 adjacent its upper end. The outlet 30 is connected by
means of a ?exible conduit 32 to a drain. Water passes
from the conduit 28 to the space between tubes 18 and
20 to the lower end of the lance'16, returns in the space
between tubes 20 and 22 and is discharged through out
let 30 and conduit 32. A plate 34 is welded to the out
This invention relates to a method and apparatus for
making steel by oxygen blowing and more particularly for 10 side of tube 22 adjacent the outlet 30. An opening 36
is provided through the wall of the vessel 2 and an adapter
making steel in a Bessemer converter in which the charge
38 is welded to the shell of the vessel around the opening
includes molten iron. In the usual Bessemer converter,
36. A ?ange plate 40 having a tube 42 welded thereto
air is delivered through the bottom of the converter. Steel
and studs 44 attached thereto is secured to the adapter 38
has also been produced in a converter by blowing air or
oxygen across the surface of the bath and also by blowing 15 in any desired manner, such as by means of capscrews,
oxygen generally vertically downwardly on the bath. It
is to this latter type of blowing that the present invention
relates. Installations for this type of blowing ordinarily
require the use of exceptionally long lances and compli
cated mechanisms for raising and lowering the lance in 20
and out of the vessel at the start and ?nish of the blow.
The distance between the nozzle and the charge is critical
when introducing oxygen and in prior practice the adjust
with the tube 42 extending inwardly through opening 36
and with the studs 44 extending outwardly. Openings 46
are provided in the plate 34 for receiving the studs 44.
Nuts 48 are threaded on studs 44 on opposite sides of
the plate 34 and hold the lance 16 in adjusted position.
The operation of the converter is as follows:
The extension of the lance 16 into the vessel 2 is ad
justed to that desired by loosening nuts 48 and moving
the plate 34 with the lance 16 thereon to the desired
easily controlled nor determined. The intense heat gen 25 position, after which the nuts 48 are tightened against
plate 34. The position of the end of the lance is deter
erated during the blow also burnt away the end of the
mined by the size of the charge, the oxygen pressure and
lance, thus making adjustment more difficult and also re
various other factors which may change from time to
sulted in frequent failures.
time and may vary from plant to plant. Once positioned
It is therefore an object of my invention to provide a
converter in which the lance is positioned in the side wall 30 the lance remains in adjusted position unless the con
ditions change. The vessel 2 is rotated to the full line
of the vessel with the axis of the lance being substantially
ment of the lance and its relation to the bath was not
vertical during the blow.
Another object is to provide such apparatus in which
the height of the lance above the bath may be adjusted
position shown in FIGURE 5 and the vessel charged
through opening 4. The charge will be of usual type for
this process and in all instances will include molten iron.
35 In addition, scrap and/or other materials may be added.
during the blow.
A further object is to provide a method of making steel
from a charge including molten iron wherein the oxygen
is best utilized without damaging the oxygen lance.
These and other objects will be more apparent after
The vessel 2 is then rotated about its horizontal axis to
the blowing position shown in FIGURE 2. In this posi
tion the axis of the lance 16 is preferably vertical, as
shown, but at ‘any rate is ‘substantially vertical. It is
referring to the following speci?cation and attached draw 4.0 preferred that the axis of the oxygen lance be at an
angle no greater than 15° to the vertical during the blow.
ings, in which:
With the vessel ‘so positioned oxygen is supplied to the
FIGURE 1 is an elevation of the converter;
lance 16 and impinges against the bath. After the
FIGURE 2 is a view, partly in section, showing the
charge ignites it is desirable that the distance between
converter positioned for blowing;
the lance and the bath be increased so that there will
FIGURE 3 is a view taken on the line 1I'lI—III of
be greater diffusion of the oxygen. This is accomplished
by rotating the vessel 2 about its axis. During the blow
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged sectional view of the oxygen
the conditions may be such that it will be desired to
lance; and
change the distance between the lance and the bath for
FIGURE 5 is an elevation, with parts broken away,
50 other reasons. This also may be done by rotating the
showing the converter in two different positions.
vessel 2 about the axis of the trunnion to either raise or
Referring more particularly to the drawings reference
lower the level of the bath. For best results the oxygen
numeral 2 indicates a Bessemer converter having the usual
from the lance should impinge on the middle third of
opening 4 at one end thereof. Vessel 2 is provided with
the bath. The position shown in the drawings is partic
a lining 6. Trunm'ons 8 mount the vessel 2 for move
ment about a generally horizontal axis. The vessel is 55 ularly desirable. After the blow is completed and the
oxygen shut off the vessel 2 is rotated about the axis of
rotated by a motor 10 through gearing 12 connected to
the trunnion to discharge the molten steel therefrom in
trunnion shaft 14. The interior of the vessel is preferably
the usual manner.
shaped as shown ‘with a ?at bottom and is generally cir
While one embodiment of my invention has been shown
cular in cross section. It is a necessary feature of my in
vention that the shape be such that the level of the hot 60 and described, it will be apparent that other adaptations
and modi?cations may be made without departing from
metal in the vessel will vary as the vessel rotates about its
the scope of the following claim.
trunnion axis. This may include many different shapes
I claim:
as will be apparent, but it would not include the shape
The method of making steel from a charge including
where the vessel interior is spherical in that portion con
taining the molten bath. Also, according to my invention 65 molten iron in a vessel mounted for movement about a
generally horizontal axis and having a charging opening
an oxygen lance 16 is provided through the side wall of
at one end and an oxygen lance extending through the
the vessel 2. As best shown in FIGURE 4 the lance 16
wall thereof, which method comprises charging the vessel
includes concentrically mounted tubes 18, 20 and 22 pref
through said opening, rotating said vessel about its axis
erably made of copper. The tube 18 is open at its lower
end and its outer end is connected by a ?exible conduit 70 to raise the level of molten metal, then delivering oxygen
24 to an oxygen source, not shown.
Tube 20 is open
at its lower end, but closed at its upper end with an open
through said lance generally vertically downwardly on the
surface of said bath, continuing ilow of oxygen with the
vessel remaining in its last mentioned position until the
charge ignites, then rotating said vessel to increase the
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1737,57? I
Burrow _______________ __ Sept. 1, 1903
. 784,956
Morat _______________ __ Mar. 14, 1905 10
Kootz et a1 ___________ __ Dec. 24, 1957
Boynton _____________ __ May 12, 1959,
Germany ___- _________ __ May 22, 1958
$1221 3223 ""3113" E23‘ i3’ 13%?
distance between said metal and lance, shutting o? said
oxygen ?ow, and then rotating said vessel to discharge
molten steeltherefmm-
Journal of Metals, pp. 742-753, June 1956.
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