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Патент USA US3096201

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July 2, 1963
Filed June 30, 1960
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United States Patent O??ce
Patented July 2, 1963
plete collapse of said rubber sandwich when the air is
evacuated therefrom. At a suitable place within said
sandwich I insert the painting to be cleaned, conserved,
3,096 194
or restored. I then evacuate the air within the sandwich
and apply su?icient heat to cause impregnation of the
painting by the wax and resin.
Gustav D. Klimann, l5 Weilesley Road, Beverly, Mass.
It is a feature of my invention that a plurality of paint
Filed June 30, 1960, Ser. No. 40,092
ings can be treated in a single operation without increas
10 Claims. (Cl. 1l7—2)
ing the risk of damage to any one painting. It is a further
This invention relates to an apparatus for and a method
feature of my invention that the wax and resin will uni
of conserving and restoring oil paintings and the like;
formly impregnate the painting even at relatively low
and more particularly to an apparatus and method for im
temperature because of the low pressure within the sand
pregnating an oil painting or the like with varying
wich and correspondingly high volatility of the impreg
amounts and kinds of suitable resins and waxes, and for
nating materials. It is a further feature of my invention
incorporating thereto, when desired, new backings of
that the elongated vacuum preservers will prevent sud
appropriate supporting materials, such as canvas, while,
den loss of air pressure in the event of minute air leaks.
and by, subjecting the painting to the in?uence of heat
It is a further feature that the vacuum preservers, which
and substantial vacuum.
are placed upon a Masonite foundation, will distribute the
The chemical make-up of the materials used in artistic
air pressure evenly over the surface of the picture, leaving
paintings, and indeed of the canvas to which the materials
no ridges or marks thereon. It is a still further feature
are applied, is such that in time they become dr‘ , brittle, 20 of my invention that the picture can be quickly cooled in
and dirt-laden and begin to chip and flake. In the past,
the embodiment wherein a tank is employed as the heat—
inexpert attempts to conserve, clean and restore paintings
ing element, simply by flushing cold water therethrough.
in such a condition have often done more harm than
good. irreparable damage has been done to some of the
world’s great masterpieces through the abrasive and dis
torting action of mechanical cleaning devices and through
Thus, I have provided an apparatus for and a method of
conserving and restoring oil paintings and the like which
permit maximum cleaning, conserving, and restoration at
a minimum risk of harm due ‘to accident, uneven pressure,
the chemical action of cleaning agents ill-suited to the
task of removing dirt from painted surfaces. Further
These and other objects and features of my invention
more, even mechanically non-abrasive and chemically mild
will best be understood and appreciated from the follow
cleaning materials and methods often failed in their pur
ing description of two preferred embodiments thereof,
poses because the insides and backings of the paintings un
selected for purposes of illustration, and shown in the
der treatment, which were often in as dirty and decom~
accompanying drawings, in which:
posed a condition as the painted surfaces themselves, were
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the ?rst embodiment as
left untouched.
it appears in actual use, showing a rubber sandwich 8
Improvements involving impregnation of the painting
(with a valve 14} for exhausting the air therefrom) resting
with various cleaning and strengthening materials for both
on a heating table 12;
the painted surface and ‘the backing also left much to be
FIG. 2 is an exploded perspective view of the ?rst
desired, because the pressure necessary to cause impregna
tion was applied by means of a screw press or an iron.
FIG. 3 is a plan view of the heating element employed
Owing to surface irregularities of the iron or press and of
in a second preferred embodiment.
the painting and owing to the relatively small area of the
In the ?rst preferred embodiment of my invention I
iron or press, in many cases, as compared to the area of
employ a heating table 12 with a Masonite top 14 inlaid
the painting, such means of applying pressure were likely
with Nichrome wire ?laments 16 set in 1A5” grooves 18‘,
to cause too great pressure on one part of the surface
45 said ?laments 16 extending in coiled fashion or otherwise
even to the point of crushing it-and little or none on
substantially uniformly over a rectangular area approxi
another part. In addition, such pressing and ironing
mately 60” by 40", and developing total power of about
methods were relatively slow and expensive.
LOGO watts when the lead ends 20 are connected to ordi
It is an object of my invention to remedy the situation
nary house current. Said ?laments 16 can consist a
described above by providing for uniform pressure on and
plurality of separate circuits, conveniently four, each
hence uniform impregnation of the painting under treat
developing about 250 watts.
ment. it is a further object of my invention to facilitate
Centered in horizontal sandwiched relation immedi
the impregnation by means of heat and vacuum. It is a
ately above said heating table 12 1 construct a rubber
further object of my invention to provide an inexpensive
sandwich 8 as follows: First I lay a sheet of pure gum
airtight means which is su?iciently voluminous to prevent 55 rubber 22, measuring 1A;” by 60" by 48". Centered in
rapid loss of vacuum in the event of small leaks and
horizontal sandwiched relation immediately above said
yet strong enough to withstand the evacuation of the air
rubber sheet are the following elements, from bottom to
within the enclosed space. It is a further object of my
top, all measuring 52" by 42": a sheet of Masonite 24,
invention to provide means whereby a plurality of paint
having a thickness of 1A” and laid smooth side up; a
ings can be treated simultaneously without increasing the
60 sheet of semi-absorbent paper, such as kraft brown paper
risk of damage to any one.
26; a sheet of glazed insulation paper 28, glassine type;
In the accomplishment of these and other objects of
and a sheet of wax impregnated paper, such as butcher’s
my invention I employ a heating table with, in one embodi
paper 3!}. (Centered in horizontal sandwiched relation
ment, a Masonite top inlaid with Nichrome wire ?lament,
immediately above said butcher’s paper 30 I place the
and, in another embodiment, a top consisting of a shallow
32 and 32a to be cleaned or restored, face up,
water-carrying tank, suitably ba?‘led, and with an inlet and
without overlapping one another, and within a rectangle
an outlet for the introduction and removal of hot or cold
centered upon said butcher’s paper 30 and measuring 50"
water. In both embodiments, I place an airtight rubber
40". The faces of said paintings 32 and 32a are cov
sandwich on said heating table, consisting of two sheets
ered with wet-strength paper 34 in order to strengthen
of pure gum rubber joined together at and near their pe
and protect said faces during treatment, and the reverse
riphery and enclosing sheets of wax paper, resin-impreg
sides are covered with fresh linen 36 to be bonded to the
nated paper, Masonite boards for stiffness and smooth
old and deteriorated canvas.) Continuing the construc
ness, and elongated vacuum preservers to prevent the com
\ tion of the rubber sandwich 8, ll next center in horizon
tal sandwiched relation immediately above said Wet~
strength paper the following elements, from bottom to
top, all measuring 52" by 42": a sheet of butcher’s pa
per 38; a sheet of glazed insulation paper 40, glassine
type; a sheet of kraft brown paper 42; and a sheet of
Masonite 44, 1A" thick, smooth side down. Above said
Masonite 44 I arrange elongated vacuum preservers 46
and 46a extending in several directions at spaced inter
vals, such as sticks or rods or wood or metal in the shape
reserve vacuum created by these elements Without suffer
ing the disadvantages of extreme unevenness in pressure
across the face of the painting to be restored.
Certain minor variations of, these preferred embodi
ments will be apparent to those skilled in the art. For
instance, the heating means could be other than those
described. Speci?cally, hot-Water pipes could be em
ployed. Alternate means could be used to seal the pe
riphery 24a of the rubber sheet 24 to the periphery 52a
of the rubber sheet 52. The 1/8" grooves 18 could be of
different sizes. Additional Masonite, or a conductor in
or honeycombed fashion. Above said vacuum preservers
of the Masonite such as aluminum, could be used.
46 and ‘tea I place weights 48 at suitable intervals to
Higher or lower temperatures or sandwich sheets of mate
provide additional means for urging said resinous and
rials of differing thermal conductivity could be used for
wax substances 28, 30, 3S, and 49 into close proximity
to said paintings 32 and 32a. Above said weights 48' 15 different lengths of desired treatment time. Therefore, it
is not my purpose to con?ne the invention to the precise
I place a ?exible protector 50, consisting of a heavy sheet
form herein shown but rather to limit it in terms of the
of rubber or similar material. To complete the rubber
appended claims.
of rectangular parallelepipeds and arranged in network
sandwich 8 I place another sheet of pure gum rubber 52,
measuring 60" by 40", in horizontal sandwiched relation
above said protector 5t} containing an exhaust valve it}
to which a vacuum pump may be attached, and in phys
ical contact at and near its periphery 52a with the cor
responding part 22a of the rubber sheet 22. Said sheets
Having thus described and disclosed ,two preferred.
embodiments of my invention, what I claim as new and
desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A- method of conserving, restoring and facilitating
the cleaning of oil paintings and the like comprising the
are held together during treatment of the paintings by 25 steps of; placing a sheet of wet-strength paper over the
painted surface; superimposing successively both above
the weight of the upper sheet and air pressure along, but
and below the painting, a sheet of wax impregnated pa
additional weights 54 may be placed along the periphery
per, a sheet of insulation paper, a sheet of semi-absorbent
of the sandwich to facilitate the forming of an airtight
paper and a substantially rigid panel; placing the mate
seal while the vacuum is being established.
rials thus sandwiched together Within a substantially air
The fresh linen 35 may, of course, be omitted, if it is 30 tight, collapsible ‘container; evacuating the air from with
not desired, to add new backing to the painting.
in said container; raising the temperature ‘within said
In cleaning and restoring a painting, a rubber sand
and subsequently permitting said container to
wich is ?rst constructed (and the painting inserted there
the vacuum created in said container; open
in) as described above and placed upon the heating table
12 as shown in FIG. 1. In the second preferred embodi 35 ing said container and disassembling the said sandwiched
materials and removing the painting and stripping the wet
ment the sandwich is placed instead on the heating table
strength paper therefrom.
56. In either case the air is then evacuated from the
facilitating the
space enclosed by the sandwich 8 through the valve 10.
cleaning of oil paintings and the like as set forth in claim
The vacuum preservers 46 and 46a prevent the complete
1 in which the temperature within said container is raised
collapse of the sandwich 8 and ensure a relatively large
to approximately 200° F. and is maintained for one hour.
space from which the air is evacuated, so that in the
3. A method of conserving, restoring and facilitating
event of minute air leaks the vacuum may neverthless
the cleaning of oil paintings and the like as set forth in
last for several hours. Heat is then applied (by the ?la
claim 1 in which substantially all of the air within said
ments 16 in the ?rst embodiment and by the Water tank
56 in the second), causing melting and/or volatilization
of the waxes and/or resins 2%, 39, 38, and 40 and re
sulting in impregnation under low atmospheric pressure
container is evacuated to cause said container to collapse
upon said sandwiched materials and to exert a pressure
thereon approximating atmospheric pressure.
4. A method of conserving, restoring and facilitating
of the paintings 32 and 32a. In the usual case, the tem
the cleaning of oil paintings and the like as set forth in
perature is maintained at about 200 degrees Fahrenheit
claim 1 in which said sheet of ‘wax impregnated paper com~
for about an hour. The paintings 32 and 32a are allowed 50 prises
a sheet of butcher’s wax paper.
to cool for several hours (or, in the second embodiment,
are cooled rapidly by ?ushing cold water among the
ba?ies 58 of t e tank 56)‘, whereupon they are removed
from the sandwic . The wet-strength paper 34 is peeled
from the painted surfaces, which may then be coated in
the usual manner with suitable plastic or varnish in order
to preserve them.
By employing vacuum in this manner it will be seen
that the air spaces or interstices in the canvas backing of
the painting, as well as the microscopic air spaces in the
painting surface itself are evacuated and thereby permit a
free and unobstmctedgaccess for the Waxes and/or resin
employed in the restoration process. Also it will be un
derstood that the vacuum acts predominantly uniformly
5. A method of conserving, restoring and facilitating
the cleaning of oil paintings and the like as set forth in
claim 1 in which said sheet of semi-absorbent paper com
prises a sheet of kraft brown paper.
6. An apparatus for conserving, restoring, and facilitat
ing the cleaning of oil paintings and the like comprising a
?exible envelope for completely enclosing ‘one or more
paintings; means for substantially evacuating ‘the air from
within said envelope .to cause said envelope to collapse;
means positioned within the said envelope to prevent it
from collapsing entirely whereby a partial vacuum may be
created wtihin the said envelope, said last mentioned means
including at least a rigid panel positioned on each side of
across the face of the sandwich despite the fact that the 65 said painting ‘ etween the said painting ‘and the said
envelope; means for heating said collapsed container;
elongated vacuum preserves 46 and 46a and the weights
means within said envelope for releasing a bonding sub
4:8 are placed above the painting. To be sure these ele~
stance upon the application of heat and in the presence of
ments cause a slight increase of pressure along the line
a partial vacuum, said last mentioned means comprising a
of their contact, but since the force vector of the vacuum
exerted horizontally against these bars does not increase 70 sheet of butcher’s Wax paper positioned at each side of
said painting between said painting and said rigid panels;
the pressure against the canvas, the added force along
and insulation means including a sheet of glassine insula
the lines of contact is not particularly great. Moreover
tion paper and a sheet of semi-absorbent paper positioned
the Masonite element 44 serves substantially to elimi
at each side of said painting between said ibutcher’s wax
nate all adverse aifects of increased pressure along the
lines of contact. In this way I enjoy the bene?ts of extra 75 paper and said rigid panels.
7. An apparatus as de?ned in claim 6 wherein said col-V
lating said rigid panels and said ?rst sheet and said
second sheet vfrom said bonding and impregnating sub
lapsible envelope comprises ‘a ?rst and a second sheet of
pure gum rubber and wherein said envelope is caused to
be airtight by the action of atmospheric pressure upon the
pheriphery of the said ?rst and said second sheets.
stances comprising a sheet of glassine insulation paper and
a sheet of kraft brown paper positioned at each side of
said painting between said butcher’s wax paper and said
8. Apparatus ‘for conserving, restoring, and facilitating
rigid panels, and heating means disposed in said base for
heating said container and its contents.
the cleaning of oil paintings and the like comprising a
base; a ?exible container positioned upon said base, said
9. Apparatus as de?ned in claim 8 wherein said heat
ing means comprise a series of grooves in said base having
a Nichrome wire ?lament laid therein and said ?lament be
ing connected to an external supply of electricity.
10. Apparatus as de?ned in claim 8 in which said heat
ing means comprise a series of heating pipes disposed in
said base and means for passing a heated ?uid through said
?exible container comprising a ?rst and a second sheet of
pure gum rubber each said sheet being substantially co
extensive with said base, said ?rst sheet being positioned
upon and overlying said second sheet; means for substan
tially evacuating the air from between said ?rst sheet and
said second sheet; means for retaining said ?rst sheet and
said second sheet in a spaced apart condition despite the
evacuation of air therefrom comprising a rigid panel 15 pipes.
positioned at each side of the painting to be cleaned and
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
additional members positioned between the said rigid
panels and said ?rst sheet and said second sheet respec
tively whereby said ?rst sheet and said second sheet can
Kern ________________ __ Sept. 26, 1933
not collapse entirely upon said rigid panels; means for 20
releasing suitable bonding and impregnating substances
upon the application of heat in the presence of a partial
vacuum positioned within said container between said
painting and said rigid panels, said last mentioned means
comprising a sheet of butcher’s Wax paper; means for insu
Oliver _______________ __ Mar. 16, 1937
Mees _________________ __ Feb. 3, 1959
Great Britain __________ __ July 5, 1938
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