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Патент USA US3096248

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July 2, 1963
Filed July l5, 1959
ß¿6 E»__. .
United States Patent O "ice
Edwin E. Hays and John G. Swift, Rochester, N.Y., as
siguors to Wallace & Tieruan Inc., a corporation of
Filed Iluly 13, 195€?, Ser. No. 826,825
4 Claims. (Cl. 167-65)
Patented' July 2, i963
of the combination of the above resinates is compared
with the duration of actiony lof their components ad
ministered singly.
The test results were run on guinea pigs, using the
histamine aerosol technique. Calculations of the median
ellective times (ET5D) were made by the method of Litch
field, l. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap., 1949, 97, 399. The
ET50 has been calculated to be the median duration ex
pressed in hours in which the drug wil-l prevent a severe
The invention relates to a synergistic mixture of `anti
histamine co-mpounds and particularly to a mixture of 10 toxic response in 50 percent of the animals when chal
lenged with a lethal concentration of histamine vapor.
antihistamine resinates having advantages in duration and
The gasp response was used by us as the quantal end
uniformity of action over their single compounds and
over other anti-histamine mixtures `or combinations.
It is now known that sulfonic acid cation exchange
resins of proper particle size yand cross linkage will form
The terms “powdered resinate” and “granular resin
ate” used in the drawing refer speciñcally to the above
mentioned sulfonic acid cation exchange adsorption com
pounds, having a particle size of 100-«200l mesh and 2.0-60
ionic adsorption compounds or complexes with basic
-drugs including antihistaminics to delay the onset and
substantially reduce the toxicity of the adsorbed drug.
We carried out a :further investigation to determine
mesh, respectively (U.S. St-andard Screen Series).
It may be noted from the drawing that, when we con
experimentally the prolongation of several antihistaminic 20 sider the ‘low doses of each resinate used, there has been
an unpredictable prolongation of the ET50. The phenyl
drug adsorption compounds and to compare the resin ad
to-loxamine resinate at 45 mgm. per kgm. alone could
sorption compounds of specific antihistaminic compounds.
only be expected to last eight hours, while the chlor
We also investigated combinations or mixtures of various
pheniramine is ineffective at this level by itself. The
antihistamine resin adsorption compounds in an yattempt
to lind a superior combination.
One of the antihistamines with which we did consider
able work was pheny'ltoloxamine in the form of its base,
soluble salts, and resinates. It was found that we could
obtain a medium range, antihistaminic preparation from
25 result of this combination is so pronounced and so pro
longed that i-t is unquestionably »a potentiation effect.
The synergism displayed by the phenyltoloxamine and
chlorpeniramine resinates may either be a quantative po
tentiation of drug effect or a potentiation of the duration
the sulfonic acid adsorption compound 4of phenyltolox 30 of drug action, or both. In either case, the end result is
a combination of increased efficacy and duration without
:amine which had a particle size of approximately 100
:an increased ltoxic liability due to a multiplication of the
mesh to 400 mesh. In the experimental work we used
proportion «of active ldrug in the dosage form.
-a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin sold under the trade
mark XE~69.
This is a water insoluble sulfonated
polymerizate of a polyvinyl aryl compound disclosed
in U.S. Patent No. 2,366,007. The product we used had
a particle size of between approximately 100 to 200 mesh,
`and had a cross linkage with divinyl benzene of -approxi
Our discovery is particularly important for the particu
lar combination of powdered phenyltoloxatnine resinate
with granular chlorpheniramine resinate in that this gives
the best long-acting antihistamine combination known to
us. However, our discovery Iof the synergistic eiîect goes
beyond the mixture of these particular resinates. iIt ap
mately 8-9 percent. rPhe powdered adsorption compound
produced with this resin is sometimes referred to in this 40 plies to »any mixture of phenyltoloxamine and chlor
pheniramine, since any amount, such as `from one percent
speciiication as a powdered phenyltoloxamine resin com
to 99 percent, of chlorpheniramine with the phenyltolox
plex or resinate.
amine is .a synergistic improvement over the single com
We then conceived the idea that it would be highly
pound. The ydrugs may be present as free base, maleate,
advantageous to combine a medium range antihistaminic,
45 chloride, phosphate, or other soluble salt form, or as the
such as the powdered phenyltoloxamine resin complex
resinate, even including, although not preferred, the
with a long range antihistaminic. For long range anti
carboxylic acid cation resin adsorbates.
histaminics we -tried the granular (-20-l-60' mesh beads)
For maximum prolongation with effectiveness, a mix
resin complexes (sulfonic acid type) of several highly
ture of the phenyltoloxamine base, salt or resinate, with
potent antihistaminics.
A particu-lar object of this invention is to extend the 50 a sul'fonic acid cation exchange resin adsorption com
pound of ohlorpheniramine having a particle size such
eiîectiveness of an antihistaminic drug without increas
ing its dose.
that at least 90 percent is retained on -a 40 mesh screen
«is preferred, with a divinyl benzene or like cross linkage
achieve true prolongation using two resinates, a propor 55 of 5 percent to l0 percent. However, improved results
over the soluble salts and base are obtained with any parti
tionately g-reater dose of the granular (large bead resin
cle size and any percent cross linkage of sulfonic acid
ate) had to be used, but in order to keep the total resin
cation exchange adsorption compound, and synergistic
dose (as free base) under 90 mgm. per kgm., the dose
results over the phenyltoloxamine alo-ne are obtained with
of powdered phenylltoloxamine resinate had to be reduced
the chlorpheni-ramine chloride, sulfate, or other soluble
to a point of ineffectiveness.
60 salt, and to a slight extent with the base.
The exception was the mixture of granular size chlor
Instead of using a coarse particle size (+40 mesh)
pheniramine sulfonic acid resinate with the powdered
chlorpheniramine sulfonic acid resin adsorption com
phenyltoloxamine sulfonic acid resinate. This combina
pound of 5 to 10 percent cross linkage to obtain a slow
tion provided complete `and prolonged protection over a
period of 25 to 34 hours tor guinea pigs in the histamine 65 sustained release of the chlorphenirarnine, lwe can use a
tine particle size (~100 to +400) sulfonic acid resin ad
aerosol tests for -the production of experimental asthma
sorption compound having a cross linkage of 10 to 20
in guinea pigs. The mixture in a unit dose of 25 mg. of
percent. In fact, a suitable slow release -chloi‘pheniramine
powdered phenyltoloxamine resinate (as free base) and
sulfcnic acid resin complex can be made by varying the
6 mg. of granular chlorpheniramine resinate (as free
base) produced an effective antiallergic response in 70 particle size and cross linkage of the sulfonic acid cation
exchange resin and hence also of the adsorbate, so that
patients for periods varying between 8 and l2 hours.
the adsorbate will release not more than 50 percent of
In the accompanying drawing, the duration of action
In all cases except one we found that in order to
the enlorpheniramine by one hour contact of the resin
complex lwith .1 N hydrochloric acid, with preferably
of bound chlorpheniramine. Furthermore, various other
well-known pharmaceutical carriers and excipients may
at least 10 percent released in three hours.
be present, or the resinates used by themselves without
The proportions of chlorpheniramine and phenyltolox
additional ingredients. The above compositions may be
a-mine can be varied widely.' A potentiating amount of
used in tablet -form or in capsules.
chlorpheniramine to »give a greater than additive etîect
can be one percent and even lower.
The speci-ño resinates used in the above example were
made by reacting the base drug with the sulfonic acid
However, with
the preferred mixtures of granular chlorpheniramine resin
cation exchange resin disclosed in Example 1 of Patent
No. 2,366,007, except that 7.5 parts of divinyl benzene
ate with powdered phenyltoloxamine resinate formed with
sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, suitable proportions
were used instead of l0 parts. Such a resin is a sul-fonated
polymerizate of a polyvinyl aryl compound, or more
speciñcally a sulfonated polystyrene-divinyl benzene co
of resinate are 10l percent to 60 percent by weight of
chlorpheniramine with 90 percent to 40 percent of phen
yltoloxarnine, a particularly satisfactory composition con
polymer. Of course, as above pointed out, other sulfonic
acid cation exchange resins may be used, such as those
disclosed in United States Patents Nos. 2,204,539; 2,228,
taining about 4.5 parts by weight of phenyltoloxamine
powdered resinate with :one part by weight of chlor
pheniramine granular resinate.
159; and 2,729,607.
The dosage amount `for the above `resinates is [from
While certain embodiments of the invention have been
about .5 to 50 mg. of chlorpheniramine and lfrom 2 to 100
described, many modilications thereof may be made with
mg. of phenyltoloxamine.
out departing from the spirit of the invention; and it
The antihistamine resinates can be readily made by 20 is not wished to be limited to the detailed examples,
mixing the antihistamine base with an aqueous suspen
formulas, and proportions of ingredients herein set forth.
sion of a sullfonic acid cation exchange resin in hydrogen
It is desired to be limited only as required by the ap
form, and stirring for several hours until the reaction is
pended claims.
completed. The reaction is simply that of an acid (the
We claim:
sulfonic acid resin) and a base (the antihistamine), and 25
1. An antihistaminic composition comprising a mix
t-he product is a salt, or resinate, although terms such as
ture of a substance of the group consisting of phenyl
resin complex or resin adsorption compound are some
toloxamine base, soluble salts of phenyltoloxamine, and
times used.
cation exchange resinates of phenyltoloxamine, and a
A suitable resinate contains from about 10 percent `to
substance of the group consisting of chlorpheniramine
25 percent antihistamine base. It may contain less than 30 base, soluble salts of chlorpheniramine, and cation ex
10 percent, but this gives an impractical, high amount of
change resinates of chlorpheniramine, the chlorphenira
unreacted resin. An amount of 25 percent is about satu
mine compound being present with the phenyltoloxalnine
ration for the compound, although more may be present
compound in potentiating amount suñicient to give sub
as ‘free or mechanically adsorbed antihistamine.
stantial increased duration of eiîectiveness to the com
An illustrated `formula of a suitable phenyltoloxamine 35
sulfonic acid cation exchange resinate or complex (a sul
'fonic acid cation exchange resin having a phenyltolox
amine cation adsorbed thereon) is as follows:
2. The composition of claim 1 wherein the chlor
pheniramine compound is present with the phenyltolox
amine compound in from 1 percent to 99 percent of the
mixture of such substances.
3. An antihistaminic composition consisting essen
tially of from 90 percent to 40 percent by weight of
particles of a phenyltoloxamine sulfonic acid cation ex
change resinate having a particle size of at least approxi
mately 100 mesh and a cross linkage of 5 percent to 10
percent, and from 10 to 60 percent of a chlorpheniramine
sulfonic acid cation exchange resinate having a particle
size such that at least 90 percent of the particles are
where A is a resin nucleus of a sulfonic acid cation ex
change resin.
retained on a 40 mesh screen, and a cross linkage of 5
to 10 percent.
The antihistamine compounds are mixed in suitable
proportions and also can :be mixed with various other in
gredients. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are gen
erally present.
An example of a suitable composition is given below:
Example I
ing a particle size and cross linkage such that not lmore
than 50 percent of the chlorpheniramine will be released
on contact with .l N hydrochloric acid for one hour, and
from 90 to 40 percent of particles of a phenyltoloxamine
sulfonic acid cation exchange resinate having a particle
25 mg. phenyltoloxamine base as a phenyltoloxamine sul
‘fonic acid cation exchange resinate or 62.70 mg. resin
ate of 39.9% drug assay.
4. An antihistaminic composition consisting essentially
from 10 to '60 percent by weight of particles of chlor
pheniramine sulfonic acid cation exchange resinate, hav
size and cross linkage such that substantially more of the
phenyltoloxamine will be released by contact with .l N
(Particle size: -100-1-200 60 hydrochloric acid for o-ne hour than the chlorpheniramine
lfrom its resinate.
mesh [U.S. standard screen size], cross linkage 7.5%)
6 rng. chlorpheniramine base as a chlorpheniramine sul
-fonic acid cation exchange rcsinate or 23.05 mg. resin
ate of 26.0% drug assay. (Particle size: -20-1-40
mesh, cross linkage 7.5%)
421.05 mg. dicalcium phosphate
10.0 mg. magnesium stearate
The above `formula is the preferred composition. How
ever, the percent of bound drug as drug lbase can vary 70
widely from partially reacted to fully saturated.
phenyltoloxamine resinate can suitably have from 10 per
cent, and lower, to about 43 percent by Weight of bound
phenyltoloxamine, and the chlorpheniramine resinate can
range from 10 percent, and lower, to about 28 percent 75
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Rosenthal ____________ __ July 2l,
Hill _________________ __ Dec. 22, 1959
Thurmon ____________ __ Dec. 29, 1959
Reese et al. __________ __ Jan. 19, 1960
Swintosky ____________ __ Sept. 6, 1960`
(Other references ou following page)
Keating _____________ _.. June 27, 19161
Nash et al. ___________ __ July 25, 1961
Barry ______________ __ Aug. 15, 1961
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’ -
1961 (date of ñrst use m commerœnMay 9' 1960)'
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