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Патент USA US3096505

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July 2,‘ 1963
H. LEKNOVICH
3,096,495
COAXIAL ELEMENT TURRET
Filed Nov. '7, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR.
HENRY
BY
LEKNOVICH
FM
AGENT
'
July 2, 1963
H. LEKNOVICH
3,096,495
COAXIAL ELEMENT TURRET
Filed NOV.‘ 7. 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
‘ " HENRY LEKNovlcH
AGENT
United States Patent 0
3,096,495
Henry Leknovich, Alhambra, Calif., assignor to Stoddart
Aircraft Radio Co. Inc., Los Angeles, Calif., a corpora
tion of California
Filed Nov. 7, 1960, Ser. No. 67,347
14 Claims. (Cl. 333-81A)
3,096,495
.
we
Patented July 2, 1963
2
1
COAXIAL ELEMENT TURRET
1c
FIG. 1 shows an assembled view of my turrent device,
FIG. 2 shows a view of my turret device with the
retaining ring disconnected and translated, and one of the
coaxial electrical elements removed,
FIG. 3 shows the detail of a scalloped retaining ring
and the coactive inner spider or cradle,
FIG. 4 shows a plain retaining ring and the spider,
_ FIG. 5 shows a garter spring suited to act as a retain
mg ring,
My invention relates to adjustable coaxial element as
FIG. 6 shows a rigid hinged clamp suited to act as a
semblies and particularly to devices of this class of im 10
retaining ring, and
>
proved construction.
FIG. 7 shows a clip type holder for retaining the coaxial
The “Adjustable Coaxial Attenuator‘ Assembly” of
elements.
I. W. Shaw, US. Patent No. 2,643,294, issued June 23,
In FIG. 1 a stationary frame is formed by two end
1953, has enjoyed wide use in the practice of the radio
plates 1 and 2 and three rods 3, 4 and 5. A central shaft
frequency art, particularly in the multi-megacycle ranges
6 and knob 6a translate plate 7 and the whole turrent
of frequency. The “pull-turn-push” manner of changing
structure, represented by elements 8 and 9; through a lost
elements in a coaxial circuit has been a fundamental one.
motion attachment to that structure. Upon knob 6a being
It has been employed for years without modi?cation by
pulled away from the rest of the device, a selected elec
those manufacturing such assemblies according to the
patent.
The patented structure does, however, have one serious
disadvantage. This has been tolerated because of the
numerous advantages it otherwise affords. The disadvan
tage lies in the fact that the whole assembly must be ‘dis
mantled if it is desired to change one or more of the co
axial elements. ‘Since these elements are often resistive
attenuators, which are subject to burn-out by electrical
overload, the repair problem has been a serious one. The
assembly operates by virtue of precise mechanical align
ment and adjustments to insure the highest grade of elec
trical performance. Thus far, an electrical repair has
resulted in the mechanical alignment and adjustment being
destroyed and the need for reestablishment of these me
chanical conditions. In fact, this problem has thus far
20 trical element 9 (typically coaxial in nature) is disengaged
from both connectors 10 and 11 in a successive manner.
The turret structure is then free to be rotated by the
same knob to place any of the other coaxial elements in
circuit, both mechanically and electrically. This is ac
25 complished by pushing the knob back toward the rest’ of
the device as soon as the other desired coaxial element
has been rotated to the connection position. A roller
detent 12 allows the turret to rest only at the connection
position for some one of the coaxial elements.
My retaining ring 14 is shown at one end of the several .
coaxial elements, with one of the fastening holes 15 in the
ring also visible. The hole encompasses the head of a
set screw threaded into the spider to position the ring
thereupon as will be further detailed. Garter spring 16
is shown in a typical position for retaining in an auxiliary
been so severe that these assemblies have been manufac
manner, the several coaxial elements into the spider.
tured one at a time, insofar as assembly is concerned, and
The disk 17, at the other end of each of the coaxial
assembly has been undertaken in each instance only after
elements, has holes to accommodate the several elements
the exact order for the ‘desired resistance values, etc. had
8, 9, etc. The disk is constructed in one piece.
. been received from the customer.
The coaxial elements are constructed such that the de
I have been able to completely remove this disadvantage 40
sired electrical properties are within the outer conductor.
by ‘forming ‘one of the two ‘disk members of the original
While this property is often resistive in nature so that the
invention into a spider or cradle in coaction with one of
whole structure comprises a variable coaxial attenuator,
several types of retaining rings or elements. In atypical
embodiment a spider and a surrounding ring are em
the coaxial elements, or one of them, may include a re
ployed ‘with a plurality of fastenings therebetween. The
parts do not require precise ?tting nor adjustment. Upon
the removal of the fastenings the ring is translated axially
sistive termination to energy entering the assembly at
either connector 10 or connector 11, with the connection
to the opposite connector being an open circuit. Further,
high or low pass ?lter elements may be included in the
coaxial elements, or delay lines.
after which any of the elements may be removed by axial
For frequencies in the kilomegacycle the elements and
translation ‘from'the disk at the other end and then lifting 50
the connectors may be wave-guides, since these may have
free. In certain embodiments I employ a garter spring to
rectangular as well as circular cross-sections. The ele—
retain other of the elements in approximate position so.
ments may also be hydraulic and include check valves
that the whole coaxial element group will not fall out of
having different pressure settings, etc. and ?uids rather
‘place upon the removal of one thereof. ‘
of the group of coaxial elements to beyond the same,
With my improved embodiments the replacement job
can be accomplished in a minute without tools, or at most
with the aid of a screwdriver. Also, in manufacture, the
than electricity be conveyed through connectors 10 and
11.
'
>
In FIG. 2 the coaxial turret has been partially disas
assemblies can be completed and mechanically adjusted,
sembled and a coaxial element, say 9, has been removed.
This has been accomplished by removing the screws from
save for the coaxial elements desired, and these can be
inserted in a fewminutes upon the receipt of an order. 60 holes 15 and translating ring 14 to contact with plate 7.
It will be seen that any of the coaxial elements may then
An object of my invention is to provide an improved
mechanically adjustable electrical assembly.
be translated toward plate 7. This allows any such ele
Another object is to provide an improved assembly in
ment to be freed of the constriction of its hole in disk
which any or all electrical elements may be quickly and
17 and to :be lift-ed free of cradle 18, which may be seen
easily replaced.
'
65 in FIG. 2; The element may then be lifted entirely out
Another object is to provide convenient alterability of
a mechano-electrical assembly at very little additional cost
or complexity.
of the turret assembly against the nominal restraining
force of garter spring 16. In this embodiment the garter
spring is included as a convenience in removing one of
Other objects will become apparent upon reading the
following detailed speci?cation and upon examining the 70 the coaxial elements’ at a time. ‘If it is not employed as
. a deformable retainer around the turret assembly, several
accompanying drawings, in which are set forth by way
of illustration and example certain embodiments of my
invention.
or all of the coaxial elements may fall out of the turret
during the manipulation to remove only a speci?c one.
3,096,495
4
Of course, care in this manipulation will allow the garter
spring to be eliminated.
FIG. 3 shows the details of scalloped ring 14 and
cradle 18 in full-circle view. In the scalloped ring it will
be noted that ‘only a cut 19 separates the ring from the
spider. The spider (or cradle) ‘18 has a rectangular cen
tral hole 20, through which shaft 5 ?ts (being suitably
?atted) so that the spider may be rotated by the shaft.
Ring 14 has a plurality, such as three, of holes 15 drilled
circumference and means to fasten the ring tightly as a
clamp at the point diametrically opposite to the hinge.
The fastening means may take the form of a knurled
head thumbsorew 35 arranged to thread into one end 36
of the ring that is provided with a butting ?ange.
It will be further appreciated that the purpose of my
invention can be accomplished by employing individual
clip-type holders for the cradle end of each coaxial ele
ment, as is shown in FIG. 7. Here the former spider or
radially completely through the ring. In the assembled 10 cradle degenerates into a simple disk 38. It is provided
condition, which is shown, the corresponding number of
circumferentially with as many clips 39 as there are co
?llister-head machine screws 21 are screwed in place in
axial elements to be included in the turret assembly.
tapped radial holes in the spider. The diameter of holes
These are reentrant upon each element and are formed
of spring material so that a suf?cient external force, as
15 are slightly in excess of the diameter of the heads of
screws 21. It will be understood that the outer extent of 15 exerted by one’s ?ngers, is required to dislodge any of
the several holes retaining the coaxial elements is de
termined by the machining operations on the spider and
scalloped ring as an entity. Thus, at 22, the overall diam—
eter of the turret assembly is uniquely determined and
the elements 8, 9, etc. ‘from the turret structure. It will
be understood that in this alternate embodiment a garter
in FIG. 4. Here, ring 25 has the conventional ring (or
“hoop”) shape; having smooth inner and outer circum
equivalents.
spring is not required, since each clip functions with but
one coaxial element. Each clip is preferably held to the
depends for concentricity upon the slight tolerance be 20 central disk 38 by two small drive screws 40, or their
tween the spider and scalloped ring at cut 19. Accord
equivalent.
ingly, a close ?t between the head of screws 21 and holes
While materials of construction are not critical it is
15 is not required, nor even desired according to my in
usual to employ an aluminum alloy for the major parts
vention. The screw heads serve mainly to prevent trans
of my ‘device, save rods and fastenings, which are pref
lation of ring 14 beyond the ends of the coaxial elements 25 erably of stainless steel.
when the turret is in the assembled condition. A me
It will he understood that in FIGS. 1, 2, 3 a removable
chanical relation allowing electrical replacement having
pin may be employed in place of screw 21 in coaction
a wide tolerance of perhaps as much as 1A4" is all that
with hole 15; and similarly in FIG. 4 for screw 26 in co
is involved in restoring a ?t of a very few thousandths of
action with hole 27.
an inch as determined by that of cut 19.
30
Furthermore, a band of high quality rubber may be
An alternate construction of the retaining ring is shown
employed instead of garter springs 16 or 30 or stated
In FIGS. 1 and 2 it will be understood that rod 4 is
ferential surfaces. The inner diameter is such that it lies
directly below rod 3 and so cannot be separately seen.
tangent to each of the coaxial elements, as 8, 9, etc. Be 35 Rods 3, 4 and 5 are disposed at three corners of plates
cause of this tangency relation it is seen that the whole
1 and 2 to provide a stable stationary structure and each
group of coaxial elements will be tightly held in the
are fastened to the plates by screws shown.
spider.
Still other modi?cations may be made in arrangement,
Plural screws are again employed for fastening, but
size, proportions and shape of the illustrative embodi
with heads of slightly different shape. The heads 26 are 40 ments shown without departing from the scope of my
each of more than conventional length, thus extending
invention.
sufficient far radially to engage holes 27 in substantially
Having thus fully described my invention and the man
the same way that former screws 21 engaged holes 15
ner in which it is to be practiced, I claim:
(-FIG. 3).
1. In a mechanism having plural tubular elements,
It will be understood that the actual precise ?ts in a 45
means to support said elements at one end of each
device of this kind are made between the ends of the co
in a circular con?guration,
axial elements, such as 9, and the coaxial connectors 10
a connector at each end of said mechanism,
rotary means to align
and 1-1. For this reason the ?ts of the coaxial elements
in the spider, etc. are purposely made with a slight
a selected said tubular element with said connectors 1
amount of play so that there will not be two parts of the
‘and translational means to effect connection
structure involved in making a ?t that is required to be
of said selected element to said connectors,
precise with respect to only one part thereof.
further means to replaceably support said elements
at the other end of each comprising;
For this reason it will be seen that a simple circum—
an inner support permanently attached to said rotary
ferential tensioning element, such as the garter spring 30
means,
of FIG. 5, will su?ice to retain the coaxial elements to
a single retaining means surrounding all said tubular
spider 18. In this embodiment this spring serves as the
elements and peripherally coactive
main retaining member and also as the auxiliary mem
with only a part of the periphery of each of said tubular
ber to prevent the group of coaxial elements from dis
elements
associating when only one element is to be replaced. A
and with said inner support
slight shoulder on each coaxial element is suf?cient, in 60
to solely replaceably structurally unify
combination with the friction between spring 30 and the
the recited elements subject to rotation.
several elements, to prevent spontaneous translation of
2. In a turret assembly having plural tubular elements,
the spring to the end of the turret when the same is in
use.
Instead of the long coiled spring that constitutes a 65
garter spring, it will be realized that a spring of circum
ferential shape formed from ?at spring material may be
employed; also such a spring of spring wire. The ?at
spring embodiment is of the nature of the trouser guard
70
used by cyclists.
In FIG. 6 another alternate embodiment of the retain
ing ring takes the form of a hinged and rigid retaining
clamp 33. This is formed in essentially a smooth circum~
'ferential ring with a pin hinge 34 at one point in the 75
aligned tubular connectors,
means to rotate said elements as a group
to selectively position one of said elements
in alignment with said connectors,
and means to translate said elements as a group
to connect the selected said element
to said connectors,
means to selectively replace a said element comprising,
a cradle attached to said means~to-rotate
to receive said plural elements,
and removable means circumferentially disposed
around all said plural elements as a group
3,096,495
to retain said plural elements in said cradle,
and by displacement of only said removable means
longitudinally beyond said plural elements
means to rotate said elements
to selectively position one of said elements
in alignment with said connectors,
to allow selective replacement of said plural elements.
and means to translate the said elements
in relation to said connectors to connect
the selected said element to at least one
3. In a cylindrical turret assembly
having plural coaxial elements,
plural aligned coaxial connectors,
of said connectors;
means to selectively replace a said element comprising
inner support means permanently attached to said
means to rotate said elements as a group‘
to selectively position one of said elements
in alignment with said connectors,
10
and means to translate said elements as a group
to connect the selected said element
to said connectors;
means to selectively replace a said element comprising,
a spider attached to said means-to-rotate
15
formed to circumferentially receive said plural elements,
and a single retainer removably circumferentially dis
posed
means-to-rotate
at one end of the group of said elements,
a ring detachably surrounding said inner support means,
and plural radially ‘disposed ‘detachable fastenings coac
tive with said ring
and with said inner support means;
said ring mechanically related to said tubular elements
to allow selective radial removal thereof upon the trans
lation
_
of said ring beyond one end of said elements.
around all of the group of said plural elements
7. In a turret assembly having plural circularly arranged
to retain said plural elements in place upon said spider 20
and by tnanslation of only said retainer away from said
coaxial electrical elements,
spider beyond the ends of
two coaxial connectors aligned
said plural elements
at opposite ends of said electrical elements,
to allow selective replacement of said plural elements.
means to simultaneously rotate all of said electrical
4. In an assembly having plural tubular elements,
elements
‘
plural aligned connectors disposed at ends of said ele
to selectively position one of said electrical elements
in alignment ‘with said connectors, and means to
ments,
simultaneously translate all said electrical elements
means to rotate said element-s
to selectively position one of said elements
and at least one of said connectors
30
in alignment with said connectors,
and means to translate the said elements
in relation to said connectors to connect
the selected said element to at least one
of said connectors;
to connect the selected said electrical element
to both said connectors;
'
means to selectively replace a said electrical element
comprising
means to selectively replace a said element comprising 35
inner support means attached to said means-to-rotate
at one end of the group of said elements,
a ring detachably closely surrounding all said tubular
inner support means permanently attached to said
means-to-rotate
to cradle all of said electrical elements,
a scalloped retaining ring removably closely surrounding
said inner support means,
elements as a group
and plural radially disposed fastenings coac-tive with said 40
and plural radially disposed detachable fastenings co
active with said retaining ring
and with said inner support means;
ring
said retaining ring related to said electrical elements
and with said inner support means;
said ring related to said elements
to allow selective removal thereof upon the translation
of said ring to an end of said elements.
5. In a turret assembly having plural circularly ar
45
to allow selective removal thereof upon ‘the translation
of said retaining ring to one end of said electrical
elements.
8. In an ‘assembly having plural tubular elements, ,
ranged coaxial electrical elements,
coaxial electrical elements,
plural aligned connectors disposed ‘at ends of said
two coaxial connectors aligned
means to rotate said elements to selectively position one
of said elements
in alignment with said connectors, and means to trans
elements,
at opposite ends of saidpelectrical elements,
50
means to simultaneously rotate all said electrical ele
ments
late the said elements
7
to selectively position one of said electrical elements
in alignment with said connectors,
in relation to said connectors to connect the selected
said element
,
and means to translate all said electrical elements
55
and one of said connectors
to connect the selected said electrical element
to both said connectors;
means to selectively replace a said electrical element
comprising
60
inner support means attached to said means-to-rotatc
vto cradle all of said electrical elements,
'
to at least one of said connectors;
means to selectively replace a said element comprising
inner support means attached to said means-to-rotate
at one end of the group of said elements,
‘one spring surrounding all said elements in relation to
said inner
support means such as to retain said elements and upon
deformation
'
a circular ring detachably surrounding sm'd coaxial
of said spring to allow said elements to be selectively
electrical elements,
by radial displacement thereof.
and plural radially disposed detachable fastenings coac 65 9. removed
The means to selectively replace a said tubular ele
tive with.
ment according to claim 8,
said circular ring and with said inner support means;
in which said spring is formed of ?at material,
said ring closely related to said electrical elements
the ?at surf-ace of which presses against all said tubular
to allow selective lateral removal thereof upon only the
elements.
translation
7
70
10. The means to selectively replace a said tubular '
of said ring to an end of said electrical elements.
element according to claim 8,
6. In an assembly of cylindrical shape
having plural tubular elements,
in which said spring is formed of
plural aligned connectors ‘disposed at ends of said
spring wire material having a cross-section of curved
elements,
75
perimeter
.
3,096,495
7
8
and said spring wire presses against all said tubular
13. In an assembly having plural tubular elements,
plural aligned connectors disposed at ends of said ele
ments,
elements.
11. In a turret assembly having plural circularly ar
ranged coaxial electrical elements,
means to rotate said elements
two coaxial connectors aligned
to selectively position one of said elements
at opposite ends of said electrical elements,
in alignment With said connectors,
means to simultaneously rotate all of said electrical
and means to translate the said elements
‘in relation to said connectors to connect
the selected said element to
at least one of said connectors;
elements
to selectively position one of said electrical elements
in alignment with said connectors, and means to
10
simultaneously translate all said electrical elements
means to selectively replace a said element comprising
and one of said connectors
'iriner ‘support means attached to said means-to-rotate
at one end of the group of said elements,
the same plurality of ‘clip means
to connect the selected said electrical element
to both said connectors;
means to selectively replace a said electrical element
as the plurality of said elements,
comprising
said clip means fastened to said support means and
shaped
inner support means attached to said means-to-rotate
to cradle all of said electrical elements
adjacent to one end thereof,
to removably circumferentially retain said elements.
support means
such as to ‘retain said elements and upon deformation
means to simultaneously rotate all said electrical ele
14. In a turret assembly having plural circularly ar
only one elastic garter spring surrounding all said elec 20 ranged coaxial electrical elements,
trical elements
coaxial connectors aligned
in approximate longitudinal alignment with said inner
at opposite ends of said electrical elements,
of said spring to allow said electrical elements
to be selectively removed.
12. In a turret assembly having plural circularly ar
ments
25
ranged coaxial electrical elements,
coaxial connectors aligned
30
at opposite ends of said electrical elements,
means to simultaneously rotate all of said electrical
to selectively position one of said electrical elements
simultaneously translate all said electrical elements
the same plurality of reentrant spring clips
as the plurality of said electrical elements
radially disposed around and attached to said disk and
and one of said connectors a lesser distance
shaped
40
an inner cradle attached to said means-to-rotate
to support said plural electrical elements
adjacent to one end thereof,
a rigid hinged retaining ring having a break in the cir
he. U!
cumference thereof opposite to said hinge,
said ring surrounding all said electrical elements closely
adjacent to said cradle,
and means to detachably fasten said ring at said break
to detachably retain said electrical elements.
means to selectively replace a said electrical element
an inner disk attached to said means-to-rotate
at one end of the group of said electrical elements,
in alignment with said connectors, and means to
comprising
and at least one of said connectors
to connect the selected said electrical element
to said connectors;
comprising
elements
to connect the selected said electrical element
to said connectors;
means to selectively replace a said electrical element
to selectively position one of said electrical elements
in alignment with said connectors, and means to
simultaneously translate all said electrical elements
to removably retain said electrical elements.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,144,229
2,429,401
2,960,263
Mueller ______________ __ June 22, 1915
Davis ________________ __ Oct. 21, 1947
Goddard _____________ __ Nov. 15, 1960
519,435
797,756
Great Britain __________ __ Mar. 27, 1940
Great Britain ___________ __ July 9, 1958
FOREIGN PATENTS
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