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Патент USA US3096645

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July 9, 1963
J. v. soMYK
Filed may 2551959
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July 9, 1.963
Filed May 25. 1959
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United States Patent O ”
fabric may be formed into a seamless covering for a
tubular bladder; and,
John V. Somyk, 705 High St., Central Falls, RJ.
Filed May 25, 1959, Ser. No. 815,394
FIG. 4 is 4a diagrammatic representation of a garment
embodying features of the invention.
FIG. 1 shows a por-tion of a length of knitted fabric
10 having a number of rib wales 12 separated by succes-f
sive wales 14 of plain knit loops. Such fabric may be
produced with selvaged sides and a raw edge of loops
ing salvage, in a manner well known in the art, by
10 Claims. (Cl. 66--175)
This invention is concerned with fabrics formed by
interconnecting loops of yarn and garments fashioned
therefrom. It is particularly concerned with fabrics use
ful for garments worn under pressure, such as anti-G
suits, elasticized clothing, etc., and methods and mech
anism for fabricating them.
The human body is conditioned tothe atmospheric pres
Patented July 9,1963
at top and bottom, as shown at course 16 or with a start
reciprocatory knitting on 'a links-and-links or V-bed
knitting machine or flat bed equipment. It may be
converte-d into a seamless tube, as represented at 18 in
FIG. 2, by drawing -an end of yarn from the first course
sure of `approximately lifteen pounds per square inch ex
perienced at the earth’s surface. For flight into- the less 15 16, or the last course 20, through the loops of both tirst
and last ycourses in the manner shown in FIG. 3, and
dense stratosphere and remote outer space this pressure
thereby producing a joining course 22.
must be substantially maintained
the traveler is to
This technique is also known to those skilled in the
art of knitting. It comprises drawing a needle 24 carry
Two devices are used to maintain an environment of
substantially standard latrnosplneric pressure .about a man 20 ing a loose end 26 of yarn behind adjacent shoulders of
adjacent raw loops of one course, eg., 16, and then mov
traveling in rareûed atmosphere. One is to pressurize
ing over o-ne Wale 'and similarly drawing the end 26 behind
the interior of the vehicle in which he 4is traveling. The
adjacent shoulders of adjacent raw loops of the other
other is to provide him with a pressurized suit. Such
course, e.g. 16. The process is repeated and results in a
suits are also used for pilots and crew of aircraft maneu
vering -at supersonic speeds to protect them against the 25 course 22 of loops, as shown in FIG. 3, which correspond
exactly to the loop structure of the remainder of the
effects of inertia upon their bodies. In such application
fabric. When `the course 22 is Icompleted the end 26 may
these garments are referred to as anti-G suits.
be tied off and fused with the other free end of yarn lead
It has been the practice 'to provide these garments in
from the fabric to »complete the seamless tube such as
the form of a rubber bladder which may be inñated to
the pressure required for protection. For relatively -low 30 18 in FlG. 2.
The invention has discovered that, if a seamless tube
pressure differentials this inflated suit technique is satis
18 produced in this manner is used to encase an inflated
factory. When the pressure difference is significant,
however, itis necessary to contain the pressurized bladder
within a casing -or lcover to prevent it from bursting.
Ordinary Woven cloth has been used as such a cover.
bladder 28, as shown in FIG. 2, the complete assembly
>can be bent with considerably less effort than a similar
35 arrangement having «a covering of either Woven fabric
It satisfies the requirement of containing the bladder,
but has the property of becoming extremely taut under
or the conventional knitted sleeve, with wales running
longitudinally of the itubular bladder 2S, which has
hitherto been used for this purpose.
pressure with the result that the suit becomes rigid and
A protective shield 30 comprised, for example, of a
its wearer loses the power of effective movement of his 40
fabric woven or knitted from a “stretch yarn” such as
limbs, becoming practically helpless. Since knitted fabric
Helanca, may be inserted lbetween the bladder 28 and
has the quality of greater inherent llexibility than woven
the knit covering 13. This shield absorbs some pressure,
cloth, `attempts have been made to form suits from a
prevents the knitted fabric from chaiing against the
combination :of rubber tubes adapted to the shape of the
bladder, and helps to contain it from bulging through the
dilferent limbs and torso of the body and to encase these
open mesh of the knitted loops. Various sizes of loop
tubes in knitted sleeves. Even Ithese structures, however,
structure land types of yarn have produced satisfactory
become rigid ‘and lock once significant pressure is applied
covers 18. One successful combination has been a struc
to the tube-like bladders.
ture of approximately 16 loops per square inch knit with
Accordingly, a primary objective of the present inven
tion is to provide a more satisfactory and less rigid prœ 50 a single end of pound test braided Daeron. Another
protective safeguard against lchaíing of the yarn is to
surized garment, especially an anti-G or space suit, and
immerse it in a solution of ya lubricating substance such
an improved fabric for covering such garments.
as lanolin, silicone, etc.
These and related objectives are accomplished in one
The seamless fabric casing m-ay have a number of rib
embodiment of the invention which features, as an illus
wales 12 inserted in the areas where vbending is to take
trative example, an anti-G or space snit comprised of a 55
plurality of substantially tubular shaped bladder portions
place; or, it may be fabricated by plain Jersey knitting
throughout. If rib wales are used, they may commence
several inches 'away from the joint, on either side, and oc
looped structure run substantially ciroumferentially
cur every few inches at first, then more closely together
around the tube instead yof longitudinally along its length.
until they are less than an inch apart at the joint. This
In one modiñcation of the invention rib wales are inserted
builds into the fabric structural reference lines for bend
at critical locations to define areas where llexibility is de
ing purposes. To laccentuate this effect the fabric is drawn '
sired to `accommodate bending of joints etc.
over »the bladder with the rib wales facing inward so
Other modifications and features of the invention will
that they are tighter 'against it than the surrounding
each covered lby a knitted fabric wherein the wales of the
be apparent from the following description and reference 65 fabric and vthus provide greater restriction and, therefore,
a creasing capability.
to the accompanying drawing, wherein:
FIG. 1 is ,a diagrammatic representation of a portion
of a knitted fabric adapted to cover a tubular bladder after
The invention is not limited to the specific embodi
ments and features shown and described, but is to be
given the scope of the following claims.
the manner of the invention;
What is claimed is:
FIG. 2 is »a represent-ation of a portion of a tubular 70
1. A pressurized garment comprising: a plurality of
bladder covered by a looped fabric;
tubular members each including a tubular bladder; and,
FIG. 3 illustrates diagrammatically how a ilat knitted
a `seamless looped fabric encasing said bladder, the loops
of said fabric being arranged in wales having a longitu
dinal direction circumferential `of said bladder.
2. The invention according to claim 1, and wherein
said looped fabric comprises a knitted structure.
3. The invention according to claim 2, and wherein said
knitted structure includes a y`combination of plain and
rib wales.
4. The «invention according to claim 3, and wherein
said rib wales protrude from the surface of said fabric
fabric having `its component loops arranged in wales
running circumferentially around said bladder.
9. A garment which comprises: an inflatable member
having a plurality of tubular portions; and, a covering
for each of said plurality of portions, said covering com
prising knitted fabric structures having Wales running
circumferentially of said tubular portions.
10. in a garment adapted to provide pressurized protec
tion for a human body a flexible sleeve portion com
pulsing: `a tubular inilatable bladder member; a knitted
inwardly `against said bladder.
covering for said bladder; said covering having a combina
tion of plain and rib knit Wales running oircurnferentially
of said tubular member; said rib knit wales protruding
pandable fabric liner is inserted between said tubular
from said plain knit wales in »the direction of said bladder
members and said looped fabric.
6. A garment which comprises `a plurality of inflatable 15 `thereby providing creases to deline llexible portions in
said bladder when it is inflated into pressurized contact
portions arranged to encase human limbs and a covering
with said covering.
which includes separate seamless knitted sleeves for sep
arate ones of said portions, each of said sleeves having
References Cited in the ille of this patent
a wale structure running in a circumferential direction, 20
said wale structure including one or more rib wales pro
5. The invention according to claim 1, wherein an ex
truding against its respective inllatable portion.
7. A fabric garment having `a plurality of limb covering
sleeves each comprising `a mesh structure with rib wales
protruding from their inside surface, said -rib wales being 25
arranged to lie in a longitudinal direction which is circum--
ferential of their respective sleeves.
8. A pressurized garment which comprises a plurality
of tubular members, each including: a tubular bladder;
a seamless looped fabric encasing said bladder, said 30
Fefel _________________ __ Oct. 4,
Harris _______________ __ Oct. 8,
Hall ________________ __ NOV. 26,
Ford ________________ __ Mar. 11,
Brown _______________ __ Oct. 13,
Stover _______________ __ Dec. 5,
Fullerton et al _________ __ July 9,
Dauphinais ___________ __ `Tuly 3,
Larkin ______________ __ Apr. 16,
Krupp ________________ __ Oct. 4,
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