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Патент USA US3096762

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July 9, 1963
J. M. PELIKAN
3,095,752
IGNITION SYSTEMS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed July 21, 1961
"H1 1
INVENTOR
JOHN M. PELIKAN
BY zwf/délmy
United States Patent 0 "a
,
3,096,752
Patented .luly 9, 19153
2
1
Normally, the magnetic circuit comprised of the stud '13,
3,096,752
IGNITIQN SYSTEMS FOR INTERNAL
CGMBUSTHON ENGINES
John Mathias Pelikan, 2 Yennicock Drive,
Port Washington, N.Y.
Filed July 21, 1961, Ser. No. 125,689
5 (llaims. (Cl. 123-149)
bar 14 and body member 15 is open so that little or no flux
?ows longitudinally through the body member 15 and
through the center of the coil 20. To effect an extremely
rapid build-up in this ?ux path to induce a high potential
across the terminals of the coil 20, a flat bar or disc 23 of
magnetic material is secured on the top of the piston 11,
and as shown in the drawing, this part 23' has sliding
contact with the cylinder side ‘wall material 10. When
This invention relates to ignition systems for internal
combustion engines and more particularly to ignition spark 10 the piston v11 is moved to its topmost position, the block
moves into very close proximity with the ?at bottom sur
generators of the magneto type characterized by extreme
simplicity of design.
face 16 of the body member 15. This action substantially
closes the vair gap at the bottom surface 16 ‘and thus sub
The primary object of the invention is the provision
stantially closes'the magnetic circuit through stud 13, bar
of a spark generative system for ignition purposes in
which the rate of change of the magneto-motive forces 15 14 .and body member 15. As this takes place, there is a
very rapid build-up of total flux in the body member 15
or total flux is intense enough for effecting a spark across
to induce .a high potential in the coil 20 which is applied
a preset gap only during precise intervals in relation to the
to the spark gap through conductor 18 and the point or
pattern of piston movement but in which the rate of
points 19. As soon as the generated potential equals or
a current of su?icient voltage and energy to effect a spark 20 exceeds the break-down voltage of the spark gap, an ig
change is sufficiently rapid during such intervals to‘ induce
of adequate length and intensity for ignition purposes.
This eliminates the need for any timing devices or other
moving parts in the ignition system.
nition spark ‘will appear across this gap. At low piston
speeds, the rate of change of the total ?ux ?owing in the
magnetic circuit will not reach the value required to gen
erate the arcing potential until the piston is substantially
The above object is accomplished, in accordance with
the principles of the present invention, by providing means 25 in its uppermost position and the air gap almost com
pletely eliminated. At ‘higher piston speeds, the required
preferably integrated with the moving piston itself to ef
fect an extremely rapid build-up of a magnetizing force to
a simply contructed yet ei?cient ?ux path from which an
rate of change and total ?ux will be achieved earlier in
the engine cycle whereby a degree of automatic spark
advance will be achieved. The timing may also‘ be con
induction coil may derive accurately timed sharp impulses
of high potential current suitable for energization of the 30 trolled by ‘adjusting the body member 15 upwardly ‘and
outwardly, although it should be understood that if the
ignition spark gap in the engine cylinder.
air gap at the face 16 is appreciably lengthened a higher
The accompanying drawing illustrates physical appara
tus operable in the manner suggested above and for
accomplishing the objects of the invention, and in such
draWing-—~
'
FIGURE 1 is a sectional view of an ignition system
COIéStI‘IlCttECl according to the principles of my invention;
an
FIGURE 2 is a modi?cation of the system of FIG
URE 1.
Referring ?rst to ‘FIGURE 1, reference numeral 10
designates the wall structure of a cylinder of an internal
combustion engine in which is slideably received a piston
piston speed will be required when starting the engine.
It should be particularly noted that since the ?at bot
35 tom surface 16 of the member 15 is of appreciable area
and is parallel to the top surface of the magnetic bridging
member 23’ the reluctance of the magnetic circuit will
decrease very rapidly as the piston approaches the top of
its stroke thereby enabling the required rapid build-up of
40 flux to be achieved. When the engine is on dead center
the time dwell of the piston in its upper position will, of
course, stabilize the flux flow at its maximum intensity
whereby no potential will be generated in the coil 20.
However, :as the piston begins to move downward the
11. The Wall 10 is made of cast iron or other magnetic
lengthening ‘air gap in the magnetic circuit will rapidly
material, and the piston 11 may be of aluminum in ac
cordance with usual practice. Suitably secured to the up 45 decrease the flow of ?ux and ‘another or second spark
will appear at the gap. Normally this secondary spark
per end of cylinder 10 is a head structure 12 which may
is not objectionable ‘and may even be advantageous but.
also be of aluminum.
if desired, it can readily be eliminated by connecting a
Screw-threadably received in a tapped bore formed in
diode in the output circuit of the coil 20‘. Also, While
the Wall structure is a soft iron stud 13 to the top of
an electromagnet (13, 23) is shown in FIGURE 1 to
which is connected ‘a horizontally disposed bar 14 which
18 also made of soft iron to provide a low-reluctance ?ux
provide the magneltomotive force, it should readily be
path for the magnetic circuit of the apparatus. Rigidly
apparent that a permanent magnet may be substituted
therefor to provide the source of magnetic ?ux for the
secured to and depending from the bar 14 is a stud~like
magnetic circuit. In this modi?cation, anyone of the
body member 15 also formed of low-reluctance material
and which is screw-threadably received at its lower end in 55 parts 13, 14 and 15 may in itself *be constructed as a
permanent magnet.
an aperture formed in the head structure 12. Body
In the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGURE
member 15 has a ?at lower end 16 and a passageway or
2, the arrangement and parts are generally similar to the
bore 17 rtherethrough through which extends a cerami
system of FIGURE 1, the principal difference being that
cally insulated conductor 18. The bottom end of the
conductor 18 cooperates with radially inward extending 60 the source of magnetomotive force is in the form of a
permanent magnet carried on top of the piston 11. This
points 19 attached to the inner wall of the bore ‘17 to pro
magnet, designated by reference numeral 33, is preferably
vide a spark gap. This gap is spaced upwardly a slight
of the ceramic type to Withstand the heat of combustion in
distance from ‘the bottom 16 of the body member 15.
the engine and is in the form of a bar, as shown. Again,
Encircling the body member 15 is an induction coil 20
made up of the large number of turns and having one end 65 the cylinder wall structure 10 is of magnet material ‘and
the cylinder head, designated in FIGURE 2 by reference
terminal of its wire connected ‘to the body member 15 as
numeral 12’, is again preferably of some non-magnetic
shown at 21 while the other terminal is connected to the
material such as aluminum. Magnet 33 is centrally dis
conductor 18 as shown at 22. To provide a magne
tomotive force or source of flux a coil 23 is'wou-nd around
posed on piston 11 .and has a flat upper surface which is
the stud 13, and during operation of the apparatus this 70 parallel with the flat bottom surface 16' of the body mem
ber 15’ of the spark plug structure. Again, encircling this
coil is connected to a suitable source of direct current.
3,096,752
4
3
body member is an induction coil 20 one terminal of
which is electrically connected to the body member 15 as
at 21' while the other output terminal is connected to the
conductor 18’ which extends through an opening in the
body member 15' and is insulated from this body member
means establishing a magnetomotive force, and means op
by porcelain insulation 34. Since the bar magnet 33 does
not extend to the side wall of the cylinder, *1 provide in the
upper portion of the combustion chamber a bridging block
circuit to energize the spark gap as the piston approaches
the top of its stroke.
erative upon said piston reaching its top position to sub
stantially close said path and- to apply said force to said
path whereby the rapid build—up of ?ux in the path with
in said coil will generate a high-voltage surge in said
2. An ignition system; for an internal combustion en
gine of the kind having a piston and a cylinder whose side
35 of a suitable nonretentive magnetic material which is
in contact with the magnetic material of the side Wall 10 wall structure is of magnetic material while its head is
structure 10 of the cylinder and which has an end face
of non-magnetic material; a plug having a body member
of magnetic current-conductive material extending through
across which one end face of the magnet 33 is adapted to
pass closely .as the piston approaches the top of a stroke. . said head to an adjusted position wherein its inner end is
Again, the air gap in the magnetic circuit is rapidly and
closely spaced from the top position of said piston, means
efliciently closed by the relative closing movement of the 15 interconnecting said structure and member to establish a
large ?at surfaces 16’ and the top of bar 33.
low-reluctance ?ux path, an induction coil about said path,
The principle of operation of the assembly of FIGURE
an insulated conductor extending through said member
2 is substantially the same as in the embodiment of FIG
and forming at its inner end a spark gap with said mem
URE 1, it being apparent that as the piston 11 and magnet
ber, said coil having its output connected to said member
33 approach the upper end of their stroke the magnetic 20 and conductor, means establishing a magnetomotive force,
and means carried by the upper end of said piston to sub
circuit comprised of the stud 13, bar 14, body member 15',
stantially close said path and to apply said force to said
magnet 33, block 35, and a portion of the cylinder wall,
will be substantially closed. Simultaneously the mag
path whereby the rapid build-up of flux in the path within
netomotive force supplied by the magnet 33 will be
said coil will generate a high-voltage surge to energize
coupled into this circuit so that a rapid build-up of ?ux in 25 the spark gap as the piston approaches the top of its
stroke.
the same will be effected as the piston approaches the
upper end of its stroke. This change of flux density in the
3. An ignition system for an engine having a com_
coil 20 induces a high voltage therein to energize the
bustion chamber and a piston slideable therein compris—
spark gap shown as comprised of the lower end of con
ing a normally open low-reluctance magnetic circuit, an
ductor 1‘8 and the point or points which extend inwardly 30 induction coil encircling said circuit and connected to a
from the annular lower portion of the body member 15’.
‘spark gap within said chamber, means to provide a mag
In either of the disclosed embodiments of the invention
netomotive force, and means operative upon said piston
the coils and conductors which may be otherwise subject
reaching its top position to rapidly and substantially close
to water and moisture damage may be completely en
said magnetic circuit while effectively applying said force
capsulated in a suitable water and moisture-proof ma 35 to said cirrcuit whereby the rapid build-up of ?ux in said
terial so that theoretically the engine can operate under
circuit will induce a high voltage surge in said coil to
water if a suitable air intake and exhaust is provided.
energize the ‘spark gap as the piston approaches the top
It should now be apparent that I have provided an im
of its ‘stroke, said magnetic circuit including a ?at ?xed
proved ignition system for internal combustion engines of
pole face ‘and said operative means comprising a bridging
the magneto type which does not require any moving parts
piece of magnetic material carried by the upper end of
in addition to the conventional piston of the engine, which
the piston and having a ?at pole face parallel with said
is very simple in design and thus inexpensive to construct,
?xed pole face, said faces being so' oriented as to have
and which inherently controls the timing of the spark in
relative movement normal to their planes.
relation to the cycle of movement of the piston. Further,
4. An ignition system for an engine having a combus
the system provides for an automatic spark advance in 45 tion chamber and a piston slideable therein comprising a
relation to the speed of piston travel and therefore in rela
normally open low-reluctance magnetic circuit, an in
tion to the r.p.m. output of the crankshaft of the engine.
duction coil encircling said circuit and connected to a
Also, since the ignition system of the invention does not
spark gap within said chamber, means to provide a mag
require any moving parts on the outside of the combustion
netomotive force, and means operative upon said piston
chamber, the system may be completely encapsulated and 50 reaching its top position to ‘rapidly and substantially close
thus vremain operative under severe water and moisture
said magnetic circuit while effectively applyingsaid force
conditions. In both embodiments of the invention illus
to said circuit whereby the rapid build-up of flux in said
trated, the spark plug assembly may be readily adjusted
circuit will induce a high voltage surge in said coil to ener
inwardly and outwardly of the cylinder to vary the di
vgize the spark gap as the piston approaches the top of its
mension of the ?nal air gap or to regulate the timing as 55 stroke, said chamber being formed of magnetic material
described above. The threaded shanks of the body mem
at least in its side wall and said magnetic circuit being
bers 15 and 15’ of the spark plug structures are sufficiently
connected to said material and including a magnetic cur
long to accommodate the lock nuts shown, and it should
rent-conductive plug extending through the head wall of
be apparent that upon loosing these devices the body
said chamber, said plug having a longitudinal bore there
members 15 and 15’ may be ?nely adjusted inwardly or 60 in for the passage of a ceramically insulated conductor
outwardly, as desired.
forming at its lower end one terminal of said gap, said
Having thus described my invention what I claim is
plug having a ?at bottom surface, and ‘at least an ap
new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
preciable thickness of the top extremity of said piston
being formed of magnetic material having a ?at top sur
1. An ignition system; for an internal combustion en
gine of the kind having a piston and a cylinder whose side 65 face adapted to move into ‘close proximity with the bot
Wall structure is of magnetic material while its head is
tom surface of said plug to thereby substantially close
of non-magnetic material; means extending through said
said magnetic circuit.
head to a position closely adjacent the top portion of said
5. A system according to claim 4 in which said plug is
piston in said cylinder and connected to said ‘structure to
adjustable as to vertical position with respect to the cyl
establish a low reluctance ?ux path, an induction coil en 70 inder to vary the thickness of the air gap between said ?at
circling said path, means including the ?rst mentioned
surfaces.
means .and an insulated conductor leading into the com
bustion space of said cylinder for establishing a high ten—
sion circuit terminating at a spark gap within said space,
said circuit being connected to the output of said coil, 75
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
585,755
Haselwander __________ __ July 6, 1897
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