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Патент USA US3096824

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July 9, 1963
M. J. FORD ETAL
3,096,814
TEMPORARY DOOR
Filed Jan. 9, 1959
ATTORNEYS.
United States PatentO
3,095,814
Patented July 9, 1963
2
1
novel temporary door for grain-carrying freight cars, or
the like, which overcomes the dl?'lCllltlCS and problems
outlined above. Another object is to provide a temporary
door which is effective to transmit the stresses developed
3,096,814
TEMPORARY DOOR
Michael J. Ford, Hartsdale, N.Y., and Barton H. Ford,
()maha, Nebn, assignors, by mesne assignments, of
one-half to International Paper Company, New York,
by grain pressure to the door posts in a manner minimiz
N.Y., a corporation of New York, and one-half to The
ing any rupturing tendency. Still another object is to
Stanley Works, New Britain, Conn, a corporation of
Connecticut
Filed Jan. 9, 1959, Ser. No. 785,858
2 Claims. (Cl. 160—-113)
10
provide a temporary door made up of a generally rec
This invention relates to a temporary door, and, more
particularly, to a temporary door to be installed across the
doorway of a grain-carrying ‘freight car, or similar vehicle.
The problem that has long confronted shippers of grain
tangular panel equipped with horizontally-extending beam
members which are substantially resistant to deformation
or de?ection laterally of the door and which are, there
fore, effective to distribute the stress more uniformly on
the door posts than previously-employed closures. Yet
another object is to provide a temporary door which in
cludes a plurality of bar-like beam members mounted in
is the provision of a temporary door which is strong 15 inwardly-extending, integral ribs developed in the light
weight panel, the beam members being adjacent the outer
enough to Withstand the force of the surging grain yet is
side of the panel which permits the beam members and
lightweight and inexpensive so as to be truly temporary.
ribs to be perforated for the installation of crossties with_
It will be immediately recognized that if the door is fab
out resorting to any panel aperture which might develop
ricated strongly enough so as to be able to withstand, just
into a grain-escape opening.
by itself, the harsh stresses imposed by the grain, it prob
A further object is to provide a novel temporary door
ably -will no longer be considered disposable ‘after a single
use, so that the desired temporary character is lost. Those
Working in this ?eld have long since departed from
ponderous barricades made up of timbers, and the general
for a ‘freight car in which beam members are incorporated
into the panel of the door and are secured to the door
posts in a novel manner and one that substantially reduces
practice now is to make use of a ?exible panel reinforced 25 the number of nails or other securing means necessary.
by horizontally-extending metal straps. These straps are
anchored at their ends in the vertical door posts that help
de?ne the ‘freight car doorway, so that the thrust of the
grain against the door under the numerous jerks, jolts,
start-ups and stops of the freight car is transmitted to
the wooden posts. Often upwards of 140,000 lbs. of grain
are shipped in a car, and the surging of this material tends
to bow the temporary closure outwardly and apply a
rupturing stress to the door posts. Large spikes are em
ployed to secure the straps to the door posts, and these
are driven into the post at an angle to make the strap ends
secure, even under the heavy stresses.
Still another object is to provide a novel procedure for
the fabrication of a temporary door which permits the
door to be transported to the site of installation in a
number of ways and which provides a door, when in
stalled, which is characterized by numerous advantages
not possessed by prior art structures. Other objects and
advantages of this invention can be seen as this speci?ca
tion proceeds.
The invention, in an illustrative embodiment, will be
3.5 explained in conjunction with the accompanying draw
ing, in which
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of the interior
of, 1a boxcar, the doorways of which are equipped with
From this, it will be appreciated that after a number
of temporary doors have been installed across a given 40 closures embodying the teachings of this invention;
:‘FIG. 2 is an enlarged crossasection‘al view, taken along
doorway, the framing posts are literally pockmarked with
the line 2—2 of FIG. 1; and
nail holes. Weakened or rotted portions of the door posts
are inadequate for securing the straps, thereby raising the
possibility ‘of premature detachment. The detachment of
)FIG. 3 is a fragmentary perspective view of a tempo~
nary door embodying teachings of the invention in a form
?rst occurs.
way itself is designated by the numeral 12, and the door
way 12 is closed by a temporary door generally designated
a single strap may result in a loss way out of propor 45 it might take during shipment or storage prior to actual
installation.
,
tion to that expected. The granular material tends to en
In the illustration given, the numeral 10 designates the
large any crevice or opening, so that there is a possibility
?oor of a boxcar A, while the numerals 11 designate the
of losing large quantities of grain where only a small leak
vertical doorway framing posts of the car A. The door
The present usage, i.e., the strap-equipped ?exible
panels, poses another problem which arises during the
unloading operation. Conventionally, two techniques are
employed for unloading. One can be characterized as
automatic, in which the freight car is lifted and tilted
13. The door .13 is seen to extend across the doorway 12
and abut the inner surfaces ‘of the posts 11. In accord
ance with conventional practice, the door .13 is equipped
so as to literally pour the grain out of the car into a 55 with a top board 14 ‘and a pry-board 15. A portion of
the door 13 extends horizontally inwardly and under the
hopper. In the course of the tilting, a ram or similar
pry-board 15 to provide a ?oor ?ap 16.
device is employed to “punc ” the temporary door into
As is best seen in FIG. '1, the generally rectangular door
the car and provide a grain escape opening. Where from
‘13 is equipped with a plurality of inwardly-extending,
75 to 100 nails are employed to secure the straps to the
horizontally-disposed ribs 117. The ribs 17 can be formed
door posts, and many of these at an angle, it can be seen 60
by folding the door 13 on itself along three equally spaced
that a large number of rupturing stresses are applied to
apart, horizontally-extending lines 17a, 17b and 170, as
these posts.
indicated in FIGS. 2 and 3. In the illustration given, the
The other unloading technique is more of a manual
door 13 is constructed of a corrugated paperboard having
operation, in which the ?exible panel is ?rst ruptured to
permit a portion of the grain to naturally ?ow out of the 65 a core \18 interposed between an inner liner 19 and an
outer liner 20. To provide the fold lines 17a, 17b and
car. Thereafter, it is again necessary to remove the
17c, the door 13 can be scored as by partially crushing the
straps, again by a punching operation or perhaps a shear
core
18 as at 18a in FIG. 2.
ing operation. In any event, the initial discharge is limited
Mounted within each rib 17 (and here it is appreciated
because the straps are ordinarily closely spaced so that
even though the ?exible panel of the temporary door be 70 that any number can be conveniently employed, depend
ing upon the degree of reinforcement desired, the height
removed, a considerable obstruction still exists.
of the door, etc.) is a beam member 21, best seen in FIGS.
It is a principal object of this invention to provide a
3,096,814
4
2 and 3. The beam member, as illustrated, is a metal
bar of generally rectangular cross section, with the longer
cross-sectional dimension disposed transversely of the door
13, i.e., horizontally. The beam member .21 in this posi
tion is substantially resistant to horizontal de?ection, and
therefore is elfective to distribute the stress of the grain
more or less uniformly across the door posts 11 against
which the beam members 21 bear. For example, a door
way of from 6 to 12 feet in Width can be satisfactorily
To install the door 13, it is only necessary to drive the
nails 24 into the posts 11 and apply the top board 14 and
the pry-board 15 in a conventional manner. With this
structure, only a limited number of nails 24 are required,
as illustrated, 16 per door. This compares most favor
ably with current practice, where upwards of 75 nails are
required for each door. Still further, the nails 24 here
may be driven perpendicularly to the inner face of the
post 11, and not at the angle previously employed for ten
barricaded through the employment of a ?exible panel 10 sioning of the previously-used straps. Thus, When the
equipped with ribs :17 and which carry metal beam mem
unloading operation is performed, the ram is effective to
boss 21 having cross-sectional dimensions of one inch by
disengage the temporary door quickly and Without any
one-eighth inch.
substantial rupturing or tearing action on the posts 11.
A wide variety of materials can be employed to fabri
of a width substantially that of the beam member thick 15 cate the door 13. An important characteristic of the
ness, as could be provided through the use of a one-eighth
beam members 21 is that they are substantially resistant
inch wide scoring wheel. This results in a generally rec
to de?ection under the weight of grain in a direction that
tangular rib which conforms to the shape of the beam
is lateral of the main surface of the door 13. The door
member ‘21 and minimizes any rupturing tendency of the
13, as pointed out above, can be conveniently constructed
beam member. The rupturing tendency of the beam
of corrugated paperboard. When this is done and the
member can also be minimized by rounding the corners
?utes are disposed transversely of the length of the beam
of the beam member 21 as at 21a in FIG. 2. Equally sat
members 21, an effective transmittal of stress from the
isfactory results are obtained, however, Where the con
grain to the posts 11 is achieved. Satisfactory results can
?guration of the rib 17 is generally V-shaped, the width of
be obtained with many other types of ?exible materials
If desired, the scoring or folding along line ‘17b can be
the scoring line 1% providing an additional advantage in 25 making up the panel portion of the door. If laminated
so far as eliminating point contact is concerned.
The door 13, as seen in FIGS. 1 ‘and 2, is secured to {the
sheets are employed, it is often desirable to reinforce the
panel in the regions of folding so as to minimize any
posts 11 by means of clamp members 22. The clamp
tendency to rupture.
members 22 are [generally U-shaped in con?guration and,
While, in the foregoing speci?cation, We have described
therefore, conform substantially to the shape of the rib 30 an embodiment of the invention in considerable detail
17. The clamp members 22 are equipped with vertically
for the purpose of illustrating the invention, many varia
extending ?anges 23 which are apertured for the receipt
tions in the details herein given may be appreciated by
of nails 24, the nails 24 extending into the posts 11. Pref
those skilled in the art Without departing from the spirit
erably, the clamp members 22 possess a springy character
and scope of the invention.
which tends to force the vertically-extending ?anges to 35
We claim:
gether and thus tightly grip the rib 17 and immobilize the
‘1. In combination, a grain-carrying freight car
beam member 21 against any twisting or torsional tend
equipped with oppositely-disposed doorways de?ned by
ency.
vertically-extending framing posts, a temporary door ex
The beam member 21 may be conveniently maintained
across each doorway and overlapping the interior
position within the rib 17 through the application of 40 tending
of said framing posts, means securing each door to its
adhesive 25 between adjacent faces of the rib '17 to secure
associated framing posts, each door comprising a general
the faces together.
The doors 13, as seen in FIG. 1, are united together by
crossties 26 which extend across the car A and through
apertures 27 in the various ribs .17. The apertures 27,
in extending through ribs 17, also extend through the
ly planar, rectangular paperboard panel folded along a
plurality of spaced-apart, parallel fold lines to provide
a rib adapted to extend laterally perpendicularly from the
45 plane of said panel, said rib, in the cross section thereof
extending perpendicular to said fold lines, having a di
mension perpendicular to said plane greater than the rib
dimension parallel to said plane, means for reinforcing
employed icrosstie structures Where it was necessary to
said rib, said ribs being disposed to face the interior of
pierce the ?exible panel and secure the crosstie member
to a vertically-extending bar, or the like, positioned on 50 said car and extending generally horizontally, and a tie
wire extending between and connected to the ribs of said
the outer panel surface. With the structure herein de
door panels free of any connection to said panels outside
scribed, there is no puncture or perforation in the grain
the outermost of said fold lines.
coniining surface of the panel which could ultimately de
beam members 21 and lie inside of the main inner surface
of the door 13. This is in direct contrast to previously
velop into a leak.
In the operation of the door .13, the door may be pro
vided as seen in ‘FIGS. ‘1 and 2, or, alternatively, as seen
in FIG. 3. In FIG. 3, the beam members v21 are adhe
sively secured between adjacent scoring lines, one of which
2. In
combination,
a
grain-carrying ‘freight
car
55 equipped with oppositely-disposed doorways de?ned by
vertically-extending framing posts, a temporary door ex
tending across each doorway and overlapping the in
terior of said framing posts, means securing each door to
its associated framing posts, each door comprising a
is an outer line of the three lines forming each -group—-the
door 13 of FIG. 3 being transported to the site of installa 60 generally planar, rectangular paperboard panel equipped
with a corrugated core, said panel being folded along a
tion in a substantially ?at condition. The development of
plurality of parallel, spaced-apart fold lines to provide a
the ribs 17 from the FIG. 3 structure can be achieved con
rib adapted to extend inwardly and perpendicularly from
veniently when the door 13 is positioned against the posts
the plane of said panel, said rib, in the cross section there
11, the clamping members 22 aiding in maintaining the
[fold portions in the desired rib con?guration. Here, it is 65 of extending perpendicular to said fold lines, having a
dimension perpendicular to said plane greater than the
to be appreciated that the clamping members 22 can be
rib dimension parallel to said plane, means for reinforc
provided either integrally with the door 13, or separately.
ing said rib, means on said panel maintaining the por
If provided with the door, they can be lightly adhesively
tion thereof between the outermost of said fold lines in
secured to the door for ready use. However, we prefer 70
rib form, the ?utes of said corrugated core extending
to provide the clamping members 22 separate from the
generally perpendicularly to said fold lines, and a tie wire
door 13 so that the clamping members 22 can be posi
extending between and connected to the ribs of said door
tioned as desired by the installing workman. Variations
panels.
in door width, therefore, can be conveniently compen
sated for.
75
(References on following page)
3,096,814
6
5
I
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,5 81,991
2,739,920
2,794,761
2,822,044
2,823,745
Weiss ________________ .__ Jan. 8,
Martin ______________ __ Mar. 27,
Williamson ___________ __ June 4,
Leslie ________________ __ Feb. 4,
Hill _________________ __ Feb. 8,
1952
1956
1957
1958
1958
2,845,118
2,892,497
2,920,807
3,021,897
Ford ________________ __ July 29, 1958
Pierson ______________ __ June 30, 1959
162,137
Sweden ______________ .. Feb. 11, 1958
5
Bruce ________________ __ Jan. 12, 1960
Ford ________________ __. Feb. 20, 1962
FOREIGN PATENTS
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