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Патент USA US3096820

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July 9, 1963
R. G. MARTZ
3,096,810
I_.OW PRESSURE OIL. BURNER
A rra/@NEM
"July 9, 1963
R. G. MARTZ
3,096,810
LOW PRESSURE OIL. BURNER
Filed Feb. 24. 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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United States Patent 0 Mice
3,096,810
Patented July 9, 1963
1
2
3,096,810
fuel oil and air is delivered under pressure through the
conduits 35, 36 'and 37 to the nozzle 38 for discharge
LOW` PRESSURE OHL BUER
Roger G. Martz, Lebanon, Ind., ‘assigner >to Stewart
Warner Corporation, Chicago, lll., a corporation of
‘Virginia>
Filed Feb. 24, 196i), Ser. No. 16,751
2 Claims. (Cl. 153-28)
into the combination chamber of the heating plant with
which the burner is used. A percolating chamber` 40 Vis
provided between Áthe lines 35 and 36 which chamber
causes an agitation or percolation of the oil» and air‘ mix
ture thereby maintaining the oil in aproperly dispersed
and uniform mixture with :the air. A cushioning chamber
42 connects with the percolating chamber so as to provide
particularly to an improved method and means for con 10 a body of air under pressure upon which the slightly
pulsating pressure of the fuel oil and air in line 35 can
trolling the ñow of combustion air therefor.
act so as to be made uniform and provide even burning
It is an object of the invention to provide an improved
of the mixture at lthe nozzle end..
liquid fuel burner which is extremely smooth, easy, and
Line 44 is connected to the upper end of thercushioning
efficient in starting.
charnber by fitting 46 and leads therefrom to a cylinder 45
Another object is to provide a liquid fuel burner em
This invention pertains to liquid fuel burners and more
uniformly so in contrast to the smoking and/ or explosions
provided 'above the metering pump 3. The fitting 46> con
necting line 44 has a sm-all orifice (not shown) which
has a relatively high flow resistance through which the
ordinarily accompanying starting of this type of burner.
pressure in the cushioning chamber bleeds or passes in a
plished by preventing the flow of cool `air through the
burner and into the heating plant under the action of
50. A shaft 53 connects the piston -to one end of a beam
ploy-ing supplementary or secondary Vair in which ignition
of the burner is virtually instantaneous and quiet and
Another object is to provide a liquid fuel burner of 20 relatively slow manner to the cylinder I45. The size of
the orifice is selected to allowv the full pressure of the
the above type in which the secondary air is automatically
cushioning chamber to reach the cylinder 45 in` from
controlled in an economical and efficient manner.
three to five seconds.
Another and most important object is to reduce heat
A piston 49 is positioned within the cylinder 45, nor
loss in the. heating plant with wh-ich the burner is em
ployed when` Ithe burner is «turned olf. This is accom 25 mally being urged downwardly by a compression spring
the draft when the burner is turned off.
`Other objects, advantages, and features of the inven
or lever 55 pivotally supported on post 56 extending from
the top of the metering pump casing. The opposite end
of the lever 55 is connected by means of shaft 59 to the
tion will appear from the following description read in 30 shutoff valve 6. The shaft is suitably sealed by diaphragm
60 to retain the fuel within the metering pump 3.
conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
liquid fuel burner employing the present invention;
lt is therefore seen `that within a relatively short time
after the burner is turned on, and the fuel metering and
particularly to FIG. 1 thereof, fuel oil is delivered by
automatically closes through >the action of the spring 50.
FIG. l is a diagrammatic cross-sectional view of a
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary top plan view of the actual 35 mixing pumps begin to operate. the shutoff valve 6 ofthe
metering pump opens. It is likewise understood that
btu‘ner depicted in FIG. 1 ; and
shortly after the burner is turned off, the `air pressure
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken
in chamber 42 passes through percolaitor 40 to reduce the
on line 3-3 of FIG. 2.
air pressure in cylinder 45. The shutoif valve 6 then
Referring to the drawings in detail and at the outset
A sump 63 is provided between conduits >36 and 37 to
gravity to the burner fromv a conventional supply ’tank
collect the liquid fuel as it drains back through ‘the slightly
(not shown) through a conduit 1 leading to the inlet side
inclined conduit 37 when the burner is turned off. A
of a slow speed fuel metering pump 3. The fuel oil passes
tube 64 is positioned within the sump so as to allow as
throughy a screen 4 and port S, controlled by a shutoff
valve 6, into the interior of «the metering pump. This 45 piration of the collected fuel through the end 65 into
the conduit 37 uponr starting of the burner.
pump is of the oscillating eccentric type in common use
The nozzle ‘38 is 'of a form known in the art having
as a‘volume‘tric metering device delivering a positive vol
an inner plug element 69 and a series of passages (not
urne of fuel regardless of the viscosity thereof.
Briefiy,»the working parts of the metering pump com
shown) extending around the plug member for atomiza
prise a worm 9 `which rotates shaft 10 and a pair of 50 tion of the liquid fuel and air mixture. A blower 71 is
oscillating eccentrics 13 thereon through worm gear 1i.
The oscillating eccentrics operate a pair of pistons ll(
through suitable linkage comprising eccentric rings 14,
provided within housing 7‘2 for the supply of supple
mentary or secondary 'air around the nozzle,38 for com
plete combustion of the ignited mixture of fuel oil and
‘air~ The secondary air passes through a blast tube` 74
yokes 17, and clevises 18 connected to the respective parts
by suitable pins as shown. By means of the eccentrics 55 which terminates at the discharge end in a hood 73 for
direction of the secondary air around the ignited mixture.
the pistons are moved in a combined reciprocatory and
A pair of horizontally disposed electrodes 75„only one
oscillatory manner. Intake and exhaust ports 21 and 22
»of which can be seen, is positioned above the nozzle for
on‘each‘of the pistons 16 provide for the ilow of the oil
ignitionof the air and oil mixture in the usual manner.
through the cylinders 23 in a well known manner. It is
therefore seen that a small quantity of fuel oil continu 60 Control of the ignition circuit may be effected in any con
ventionaly manner forming no part of «thepresent inven
ally iiows from the metering valve regardless of its vis
tion.
cosity.
The electrodes are supported within aporcelain insula
The oil is thus delivered through the conduit 26 to the
tor member 76 received in a holder element 77. The lat
fitting 27 and thence into a relatively high speed fuel
and air mixing pump 29 ofthe eccentric type. The intake 65 ter element is` provided with swirl tins 79‘ f-or thepassage
`of secondary air within and around a forward shellmem
side ofthe latter pump also communicates with the atmos
bei“ 81 in a whirling pattern. Members 'i7 and 8l are in
phere through the line 30 so that during each revolution
turn received Within ia flame controller member 84 having
of the pump rotor 31 a quantity of oil and a predetermined
a plurality of supporting tins 85 and 86 adapted to spin
quantity of air is taken/into the chamber of the pump.
»the
air` passing outwardly of the flame controller in the
70
The pump, therefore, functions to determine the fuel to
oppositedirection to that flowing around the members
air. ratio of the mixture delivered to the burner nozzle 38.
77 and 81. The flame controller member is adapted to
From the fuel and air mixing pump 29 the mixture of
3,096,810
3
be moved longitudinally for changing the lamount of sec
ondary air passing between the same and hood at the
front thereof. In this manner the characteristics of the
flame can be accurately controlled in accordance with
presently lknown practice.
The blower shaft 90, fuel and air mixing pump shaft
91, and the worm shaft of the fuel metering pump at 9
are operated by a common source of power, as by motor
92 (see FIG. 2). Actually these shafts are coaxial and
at least partly common inasmuch as FIG. l is a diagram
matic showing. The coaxial driven arrangement is clear
from FIG. 2 which shows the actual arrangement of the
parts.
IIt has been the experience in low pressure burners of
4
of connector 112 extending through an opening in the
damper. This chain extends from Ithe damper to a pulley
115 over which the chain passes. The pulley is supported
on a structure extending from the top of the fuel meter
ing pump 3. The chain is further attached by suitable
means to the lever 55 above the metering pump.
The plate 97 on the side of Ithe air regulator housing
is provided -with an inturned ñange portion 123. An ad
justing screw 125 extends through ‘a threaded opening in
this flange, being adapted to be moved upwardly and
downwardly and locked in any desired position by means
of the lock nu-t 126.
This screw constitutes a stop for
limiting the opening movement of the air damper- 101, as
clearly seen in FIG. 3. It is pointed out in this connec
the present type for the liquid fuel to drain back in the 15 tion that proper adjustment of Ithe ysecondary |air is of
lines, in this case into sump 63, when the burner is turned
major importance in obtaining complete and proper corn
off. Upon starting the burner, this fuel and the fuel
bustion of lthe fuel discharged from the nozzle. The ad
>from the pump 29 is ejected from the nozzle 38 into a
justing screw provides very lfine and accurate adjustment
relatively cool combustion chamber having a lean fuel
of the amount of secondary air allowed 'to flow through
air mixture therein. The electrodes 75 do not produce 20 the burner during normal operation thereof, for the most
suflicient heat to ignite this mixture particularly since the
eñicient `combustion of the fuel.
natural draft from the chimney rushing past the elec
In accordance lwith the present invention, the bead chain
trodes cools the electrodes. Eventually and some times
110 is in a taut condition when the outer end 128 of the
only after a large mass `of fuel has collected in the combus
lever 55 and the piston 49 are in a down position. It is
tion chamber land a rich fuel-air mixture is attained, igni 25 also noted that :this condition of the chain produces a
tion will, of course, take place. Where the previously men
closed position of the damper 101. Upon upward move
tioned ejected fuel is merely incompletely burned produc
ment of lthe piston 49 and end 128 of the lever 55 the
ing smoke and soot, or where the fuel has been ejected
chain will slacken and allow the spring 107 to move the
in a nonignited condition, ignition of this large mass of
damper into an open position against the stop member 125.
fuel and air mixture will produce ra violent explosion in
Considering the operation of the device, it is therefore
the combustion chamber heard throughout a house or
apparent that lwhen the operating pressure produced by
building, and even therebeyond. This explosion is very
the mixing pump 29 builds up in the cushioning chamber
objectionable to the occupants of a home `or building be
42 and passes through line 44 into the cylinder 45 the
sides producing the soot which lines the inside of the com
piston 49 and lever 55 will be moved, thus opening the
bustion chamber and reduces its efliciency.
35 shutoif valve 6 and at the »same time the damper 101. As
Another very objectionable feature of presently known
has been previously pointed out, because of «the flow re
burners lof this type is that vwhen the burner is turned oif
sistance in the fitting 46 and in :the line 44 the air pressure
and not operating, the natural draft of the chimney to
takes awhile to build up in the cylinder 4'5, usually from
'which the heating plant is connected draws in cool air
three to ñve seconds. Inasmuch as the damper 101 is
through the secondar-y air channel of the burner and into 40 operatively connected to the piston and lever, there will
fthe heating plant and up the chimney. This very sub
be a `delayed or rela-tively slow opening of the damper
over the initial period of burner operation.
stan-tial and constant supply of cool air greatly reduces
the inside temperature of the heating unit on the off cycle,
The damper 101 will therefore be in a closed position
rapidly cooling the same. Besides subjecting the parts of
when the burner is turned on. Consequently there will
the combustion chamber to relatively great and rapid 45 be no secondary air rushing past the end of the nozzle
changes in temperatures and to `the alternate heating and
38 at this time. It has been found that by preventing
cooling of the same which is undesirable, great efficiency
movement of secondary air the initial amount of fuel
of the heating plant is lost occasioned by the additional
ejected from the nozzle will immediately fully ignite.
heat necessary tto bring the plant up to the operating tem- ` ` This is because of a hotter spark produced by the elec
perature from Ia cool condition each time it is operated.
50 trodes without being deflected by the rush of air there
The present invention is adapted to eliminate both of
these major diñiculties in a very simple, reliable and in
expensive manner.
In accordance with the present invention an air regula
tor housing 94 is provided for the intake of air within
the blower or main housing 72. The regulator housing is
provided with a single inlet opening 95 of rectangular
form.
This housing has a lbore 96 on one side and a
past and because of the lack of the secondary air which
would otherwise blow past the ejected fuel and prevent
ignition or proper ignition. In this Way the smoking
and production -of soot and violent explosions are elimi
nated.
With the fuel valve `6 closed only a limited quantity
of fuell can Abe discharged from meter 3, the quantity
available generally being determined when the pressure
plate member 97 on the other side having a bore 98 in
capacity of the meter equalizes the vacuum built up
coaxial relation with the bore 96. Mounted within the 60 in meter 3. However, the available fuel from meter
bores are a pair of «coaxial shaft elements 98 and 99. A
3 is supplemented by the fuel in percolator 40 and that
rectangular damper 101 is supported in end slots in these
laspirated from sump 63. Consequently, immediately
`shaft elements, being suitably retained in position by
after starting the burner, pump 29 delivers a combustible
screws.
mixture of fuel and primary air -to nozzle 3S. Since the
The damper 101 is formed with upwardly and down 65 damper 101 is closed the hotter electrodes immediately
wardly turned edges 102 and 103 for substantially tight
ignite the mixture ejected from nozzle 38 to Support ig
sealing engagement with the spaced parallel inside sur
nition.
faces 104 and 105 of the air regulator housing inthe closed
By the time the available fuel from meter 3 and the
damper position shown in full `lines in FIG. 2. A tension
fuel in the sump 63 has burned, the air pressure in cylin
spring »107 is mounted between the damper and regulator 70 der 45 has built up sufficiently to open fuel valve 6.
housing, «being attached through suitable openings in each
This replenishes the fuel meter 3 and per-mits sustained
of the latter. This spring is so attached to Ithe damper as
Ifuel flow from pump 29 to nozzle 38. Simultaneously
to normally move the same from the closed position to an
with the fuel valve 6 opening, the damper 101 also opens
Aopen position. Bead chain 110 is attached to the damper
to permit a gradually increasing quantity of secondary
at the opposite side `of Athe line of pivot thereof by means 75 air flow past nozzle 33. This delayed admittance of sec
3,096,810
6
ond-ary air past the nozzle produces an extremely smooth
and quiet burner starting. Beca-use of the ignition of
«the primary fuel `and air supply from meter 3, pump
29 and the sump 63, the ignition is almost instantaneous
upon turning on of the burner and is continuous without
the usual false or interrupted starting with the accom
panying smoking and/or explosions previously noted.
Of equal importance to the smooth and quiet starting
of the burner is the automatic closing of the damper 101
shortly after the burner is tur-ned off. The pressure of
the compressed air in chamber 4Z, line 44 and cylinder
45 is dissipated either by bleeding through percolator
the latter upon operation of the former to open said clo
sure means, and to vent the latter upon termination of
the former to permit closing of the closure means, said
communicating path means having a ilow resistance sub
stantially greater than the tlow resistance of the nozzle
and sufficiently high to delay »in the order of a few sec
onds equalization of pressures in the exhaust side of the
pressure producing mea-ns and the pressure operated
means for delaying correspondingly the opening or clos
ing of the closure means relative to the operation of
the pressure producing means.
2. In a low pressure oil burner the combination com
prising a tube, a nozzle extending within the tube, pres
sure producing means connected in series with the noz
40 or by leakage. Spring S0 thus closes ‘the damper
101 which totally prevents the drawing in of cool air
through the burner and into the hot combustion cham 15 zle upstream therefrom, said pressure producing means
being operable intermittently for the supply of oil and
ber when the burner is off, thus to cool the plant and
air mixture to the nozzle for intermittent ñow there
incur the great :loss of heat previously noted. It is un
through, means Ifor supplying secondary air to the tube
derstood that the ñow resistance of the nozzle 38 is
including inlet means, closure means for substantially
small as compared to the flow resistance of the fitting
46 and the line 44. Thus the air and oil mixture in 20 preventing admission of the secondary air through the
inlet means, means :normally biasing the closure means
the peroolator 40 is almost instantaneously discharged
to the position closing the inlet means, fluid pressure
through the nozzle 38 as the pump 29 is stopped, while
operated means operatively connected to the closure
the air in cylinder 45 passes through the high ñow re
means, said pressure operated means being operable upon
sistance fitting and line to delay actuation of the damper
101 with respect to the operation of the pump. It has 25 full pressurization thereof to open the closure means
against the biasing means and being operable upon dis
been found by tests that fully 5% of the heating fuel
charge of pressure therein to permit the biasing means to
can be saved by the use of the present invention. It is
close the closure means, and means including a single
quite evident that such a saving is important especially
ñxed communicating path between the exhaust side of
over a «long period of time. This together with the total
elimination Yof the rough explosive starting heretofore 30 the pressure producing means and the pressure operated
means operable to pressurize the latter responsive to
generally present in the industry for low pressure burn
operation of the fromer and to vent the latter upon te-r
mination of «the former, said communicating path having
Although a particular embodiment and use of the in
a higher flow resistance than the flow resistance of the
vention has been illustrated and described, it is not de
sired to be so limited. The -appended claims should 35 nozzle and of such high ilow resistance »operable to delay
for -atleast a few seconds equalization of pressures in the
therefore be liberally construed in the overall light of
exhaust side of the pressure producing means and the
the inventive concepts.
~ pressure operated means for delaying correspondingly the
What is claimed is:
opening or closing of the closure means relative to opera
1. In a low pressure oil burner, the combination com
prising a tube, a nozzle extending Within the tube, pres '10 tion of the pressure producing means.
sure producing means operable intermittently for the
References Cited in the file of this patent
supply of cil and air mixture to the nozzle for intermit
UNITED STATES PATENTS
tent ñow therethrough, means for supplying secondary
1,631,859
Goodridge ________ ____ June 7, 1927
air to the tube including inlet means, normally closed
Janette ______________ __ Nov. 29, 1927
closure means for substantially preventing admission of 45 1,651,060
2,305,129
Arnold ______________ __ `Dec. 15, 1942
the secondary air through the inlet means, iìuid pres
2,397,986
Senninger ____________ __ Apr. 9, 1946
sure operated means operatively connected to the closure
means effective for opening actuation thereof for ad~
2,661,794
Shorrock ____________ __ Dec. 8, 1953
mitting secondary air through the inlet means, and means
FOREIGN PATENTS
50
ers represents a desirable contribution to the art.
forming a single continuous communicating path be
tween the exhaust side of the .pressure producing means
and the pressure operated means yoper-able to pressurize
687,675
806,969
France ______________ __ Apr. 29, 1930
Great Britain __________ .__ Jan. 7, 1959
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