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Патент USA US3097175

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July 9, 1963
w. KASTEN
3,097,165
FUEL FILTERING AND HEATER COMBINATION
Filed Oct. 26, 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR.
WHL 72:” 164575”
ATTOIPA/E)’
July 9, 1963
w. KASTEN
3,097,155
FUEL FILTERING AND HEATER COMBINATION
Filed Oct. 26, 1959
s Sheets-Sheet :s
?JdO .36
54
64
32
j 1 E .1 U
INVENTOR.
W41 72"}? K4575”
BY
W15“- 1%
United States Patent O? ice
1
3,097,165
Patented July 9, 1963
2
a head 10 having a plurality of annular chambers 12, 14,
3 097 165
16, 18 and 20 formed therein. Chambers 12 and 14
FUEL FILTERING AhlD IIEATER COMBINATION
communicate with lube oil inlet and outlet ports 22 and
‘Waiter Kasten, Madison Heights, Mich” assignor to The
24, respectively, while chambers 16 and 18 communicate
Bendix Corporation, South Bend, Inch, a corporation of (Fl with compressor bleed air inlet and outlet ports 26 and
Delaware
28, respectively. Safety chamber 20 communicates with
Filed Oct. 26, 1959, Ser. No. 848,559
a leak detector port 30'. A fuel bowl 32 is suitably con
8 Claims. (Cl. 210-133)
nected to head 10 through means of a bolt 33 and forms
a fuel chamber 34 therewith which communicates with
The present invention relates to fuel ?ltering and heater
devices of the type disclosed in my copending application 10 fuel inlet and outlet ports 36 and 38. Located in fuel
chamber 34 and interposed between the fuel inlet and out
Serial No, 814,617, and more particularly to certain im
let ports 36 and 38 is a retainer plate 40 which is held
provements relating thereto.
in position by a spring 42. A plurality of ?lter elements
One of the Objects of this invention is to provide a
44 are suitably connected to retainer plate 40 and are ar
single unit which functions as a ?lter deicer, fuel ?lter,
15 ranged in inner and outer concentric rings. These ?lter
fuel heater and lube oil cooler.
elements may consist of tubular screens, wire wound ele
Another object of this invention is to provide a single
ments, ribbon elements or any other types of elements
unit of the type described wherein lube oil is utilized
as the primary heat source and compressor bleed air is
having reasonably good conductivity which could be made
utilized as an auxiliary heat source.
in a wrap-around or substantially cylindrical unit and at
tached to the retainer plate 40. Each of the ?lter ele
ments contains a lay-pass valve 46 at ‘the lower end there
of for purposes to be subsequently explained. Located
within and in contact with each of the ?lter elements of
the outer ring are a plurality of U-shaped tubes 48 each of
which has one end communicating with oil inlet chamber
12 and the other end communicating with oil outlet cham
ber 14. A plurality of U-shaped tubes 59 are similarly
located within and in contact with each of the ?lter ele
ments 44 of the inner ring, but each of these tubes has
one end communicating with air inlet chamber 16 and the
other end communicating with air outlet chamber 18.
A further object of this invention is to provide a single
unit of the type described which incorporates a Single or
a plurality of safety chambers for preventing intermixing
of oil, air and/or fuel in case of leaky brazed joints.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a
head casting for a single unit of the type described which
includes all of the necessary inlet and outlet passages and
requisite partition means therebctwcen ‘for the fuel, oil,
and air passing through said unit.
An important object of this invention is to provide a
single unit of the type described incorporating a by-pass
valve arrangement which permits continued flow of fuel
along the complete length of the heat transfer means, lo
cated within the ?lter elements, under clogged ?ltering
conditions.
An additional object of this invention is to provide
means on the downstream side of each ?lter element
which will divide the fuel into relatively thin streams, so
that heat may be transferred thereto in a more e?ective
manner.
A further object of this invention is to provide a
?uted ?lter element support which will aid in extending
the service life of the associated ?lter element.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent
from the following description and accompanying draw
ings, wherein:
The tubes 48 and 50 may be formed of any suitable non
corrosive material having relatively high conductivity and
may be nested in sets of two, three or more pairs, as de
sired. A water drain plug 52. is provided for removal of
any free water that may accumulate in the bottom of the
bowl.
Operation of the device is as follows: Hot lube oil
enters chamber 12 through inlet port 22, ?ows through
the U-shaped tubes 48 in the outer ring into chamber 14
and leaves the device via outlet port 24. The fuel to be
filtered enters the fuel inlet port 36, ?ows through the
?lter elements 44 from the outside to the inside and leaves
the unit via fuel outlet port 38. Any contaminants in the
45 fuel will be deposited on the outside of the ?lter media
and can be readily removed by back-?ushing or cleaning.
Since the U-shaped tubes 48 are physically in contact with
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view taken along line 2~2 of
the ?lter elements 44, heat from the hot lube oil will be
FIGURE 1, showing only one set of heater tubes within
transferred directly to the ?lter surfaces, through means
a ?lter element;
50 of conduction, to prevent possible clogging of the ?lter
FIGURE 3 is a sectional view of a portion of another
elements by formation of ice thereon. Since the fuel,
embodiment incorporating my invention;
once inside of the ?lter elements, must ?ow along the
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view of a portion of a further
heater tubes 48, the fuel will be heated to a temperature
embodiment incorporating my invention;
about +32” F. and the oil will be cooled. It has been
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view taken along line 5-5
found, however, that lube oil does not normally contain
of FIGURE 4;
su?icient heat to heat the fuel under all ?ight conditions,
FIGURE 6 is a sectional view of a portion of a still
For example, at the initial start of a ?ight, the fuel is still
further embodiment incorporating my invention;
fairly warm and very little heat is required, but during very
FIGURE 7 is a sectional view taken substantially along
long ?ights at high altitudes, when the fuel may have cooled
line 7-7 of FIGURE 6;
60 to -50° F. or lower and the engines are throttled back
FIGURE 8 is an enlarged view partially in section with
to cruising, the lube oil does not get hot enough to bring
portions broken away for clarity of a single ?ltering ele~
the fuel above +32° F. In order to obviate this difficulty
ment and the heat transfer means located therein;
additional heat is provided by utilizing compressor bleed
FIGURE 9 is a sectional view taken along line 9-9
air as a second heat source. Thus, hot compress-or bleed
FIGURE 1 is a view in partial section of one embodi
ment incorporating my invention;
of FIGURE 8;
FiGURE 10 is
of a ?exible ?lter
and
FIGURE 11 is
the ?lter element
an enlarged sectional view of a portion
element and its ?uted support member;
65 air enters chamber 16 through inlet port 26, ?ows through
the U-shaped tubes 50' of the inner ring into chamber 18
and leaves the device via outlet port 28. Heat is trans
ferred from the inner ring of heater tubes 50 to the filter
a view similar to FIGURE 10 showing
elements 44 and the fuel ?owing therealong in the same
in a ?exed position.
manner as that described with respect to the heater tubes
Referring to FIGURES 1 and 2 of the drawings, it will 70 48 in the outer ring. Thus, the outer ring of heat trans
be noted that my fuel ?ltering and heater device includes
fer tubes and ?lter elements constitutes a ?lter deicer-fuel
3,097,165
4
3
nected to this chamber, could be used to shut off the oil
or bleed air supply to the unit and prevent further damage.
Another feature of the ?uted cylinders 64 is that an
automatic self-cleaning characteristic results when the
combination. Since one of the purposes of my unit is to
cool the lube oil ?owing through tubes 48, such lube oil 01 cylinders are utilized in conjunction with ?exible ?lter
?lter-oil cooler-fuel heater combination, and the inner
ring which utilizes compressor bleed air as auxiliary heat
is essentially only a ?lter deicer-fuel ?lter-fuel heater
will flow therethrough continuously. But, since heat may
not be required at all times through inner U-shaped tubes
50, ?ow of compressor bleed air therethrough may be
elements such as those made of metal screen.
During
the early service life of the ?lter elements, when the
outer surface of the elements is relatively free of contam
controlled by any suitable means, so that ?ow there
inants, the ?exible ?lter element 44 will maintain a posi
hrough will be intermittent in any predetermined desired ll) tion relative to the cylinders 64, as shown in FIGURE 10.
If we assume that under a given set of conditions of fuel
manner.
In order that the unit will always remain effective as an
?ow, the pressure loss through the ?lter element is 1 p.s.i.,
oil cooler, I have utilized individual by-pass valves 46 in
then We may have an external pressure (outside the ?lter
the bottom of each ?lter element 44 so that if any ?lter
clogging occurs, fuel will enter the bottom of the ?lters
element) of 2 p.s.i. and an internal pressure (inside the
screen) of 1 p.s.i. As solids accumulate on the external
surface of the ?lter element the pressure drop there
and flow past the complete length of the heat transfer
tubes to cool the oil ?owing therethrough. By so locating
the by-pass valves, it will be obvious that heat exchange
will always occur between the fuel and the oil regardless
of the condition of the ?lter elements.
Since the weakest part of most conventional heat ex
changers is the brazed joints where the heat transfer
tubes are attached to the housing, any fractures and sub
sequent leakage will leak fuel into the oil cooler section
across will gradually increase to a point at which the
?lter element will ?ex inwardly between ?ns 60, as shown
in FIGURE 11. Such a ?exing may occur, for the same
given ?ow conditions, when the external pressure reaches
4 p.s.i. while the internal pressure remains at l p.s.i.
Any further increase in the pressure differential would
normally open the by-pass valve means associated with
ing a separate safety chamber between the fuel section and
the oil compressor bleed air compartments. This safety
the particular ?lter element. If we assume that the by
pass valve is set at a 4 p.s.i. differential pressure, it will
open soon after the differential pressure exceeds 4 p.s.i.
The moment this happens the pressure inside of the ?ex
ible ?ltering element will rise above the l p.s.i. value and
chamber is vented to the atmosphere via port 30 or may
since the dynamic head approximates the static head the
be connected to an expansion chamber having a pressure
by-pass valve will remain open even though the external
?lter pressure is reduced to less than 4 p.s.i. This oc
currence reduces the external load on the filter elements
and cause ?re or engine failure.
In my proposed ar~
rangement, this danger has been eliminated by interpos
sensing valve (not shown) for detecting leaks.
The FIGURE 3 embodiment is essentially the same
as that of FIGURE 1 except that the ?lter elements 44
are now open at both ends and are equipped with an ad
ditional retainer plate 54 at the lower end thereof.
Fur
thermore, the multiple by-pass valves 46 of FIGURE 1
have been replaced by a single by-pass valve 56 in the
lower retainer plate 54 which will permit, during clogged
?ltering conditions, ?ow of fuel from the fuel inlet port
36 to the lower open end of the ?lter elements 44, via a 40
plurality of openings 58 located in a cylindrical exten
sion 60, of the lower retainer plate 54. Thus, ?ow
will be from one open end of the ?lter elements to the
other open end.
Referring to FIGURES 4 and 5, it will be noted that i
this embodiment is similar to the embodiment shown in
FIGURE 3, except that an additional safety chamber 62
has been added for preventing intermixing of the various
fluids in the event that one of the thin small diameter
heat transfer tubes 48, 50 breaks. In addition heat ’
transfer from the tubes 48, 50 to the fuel is improved by
attaching hollow externally ?uted cylinders 64 to the
head so that one end of each cylinder opens into cham
ber 62. The other end of each cylinder 64 is closed.
The arrangement is such that the ?uted cylinders 64 sur
round and are in contact with the heat transfer tubes 48,
50, and are in turn surrounded by the ?lter elements 44.
The hollow portion of the ?uted cylinder is ?lled with
metallic sodium (suitably sealed therein) which serves
as an effective heat transfer medium between the heater
tubes and the ?lter elements. The ?ns 66 formed on the
external surface of the ?uted cylinder (see FIGURE 5)
are in intimate contact with the ?lter elements, so that
after the fuel has passed through the ?lter elements it
will ?ow along the outer grooves 68 formed by the ?ns.
In this manner the fuel is divided into very thin streams
which are surrounded by metal so that heat to be trans
ferred from the heating media can be transferred to the
fuel without having to go through a large mass of fuel.
It will be noted that there is no direct connection between
the outside of the heat transfer tubes and the fuel cham
ber. If, for any reason, one of the small heater tubes
should break, oil or air pressure will build up in the cham
ber 62. A pressure sensitive device (not shown) if con
and increases the pressure inside of the tubes thereby
causing a ?exure of the screen elements in reverse. This
reverse ?exing dislodges some of the contaminants so
that normal ?ltering action re-occurs and the by-pass
valve returns to its closed position.
As a result of this
self purging action the effective ?ltering life of the ele
ment is increased considerably.
Referring to FIGURES 6, 7, 8 and 9, it will be seen
that this embodiment is essentially the same as that shown
in FIGURE 4, except that the safety and sodium cham
bers have been eliminated and the heating medium is
carried directly inside of the ?uted cylinders 64, which
previously contained the small heater tubes 43, 50 and
the sodium as the heat exchange medium. These ?uted
cylinders 60 are now provided with an insert 70 having
radial spokes extending from the center thereof. Basical
ly this insert serves the purpose of directing the flow of
the heat transfer medium from the open end of the hol
low externally ?uted cylinder 64 to the closed end there~
of over substantially one-half of the effective area of the
tube. After it reaches the closed end of the cylinder,
the how is reversed and it passes along the other half
of the cylinder to the open end. Therefore, it is neces
sary that the insert be spaced from the bottom end of the
?uted cylinder 64 by approximately a distance equal to
the diameter of the cylinder. The fuel to be heated ?ows
through the ?lter elements 44 and along the grooves 68
formed on the ?uted cylinder 64 and thence to the fuel
outlet port. The FIGURE 5 embodiment also uses the
single by-pass valve 56 which permits ?ow from one open
end of each ?lter element, along grooves 68 and out the
opposite open end in a manner previously described when
clogged ?ltering conditions occur.
The several practical advantages which ?ow from my
invention are believed to be obvious from the above de
scription, and other advantages may suggest themselves
to those who are familiar with the art to which this in
vention relates.
Having thus described the various features of the inven
tion, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is:
1. A fluid ?ltering and heater device comprising a head
3,097,165
having a ?rst chamber formed therein communicating
with a ?rst inlet port for permitting ingress of a ?rst ?uid,
a second chamber formed therein communicating with a
?rst outlet port for permitting egress of said ?rst ?uid,
a third chamber formed therein communicating with a
second inlet port for permitting ingress of a second ?uid,
and a fourth chamber formed therein communicating with
a second outlet port for permitting egress of said second
6
?rst ?uid, a third chamber formed therein for communi
eating with a second inlet port and a second outlet port
for permitting ingress and egress of a second ?uid, par
tition means for separating said chambers from each
other, means located in said third chamber and interposed
between said second inlet and outlet ports for ?ltering the
?uid ?owing therebetween, said last named means includ
ing a pair of retainer plates and a plurality of porous ?lter
?uid, a bowl operatively connected to said head and form
tubes of good conductivity and of the outside-in type hav
ing a ?fth chamber therewith, said ?fth chamber com 10 ing ‘the opposite ends thereof opening through said re
municating with a third inlet port and a third outlet port
tainer plates, a plurality of hollow non-porous externally
for permitting ingress and egress of a third ?uid, a re
?uted members operatively connected to said housing,
tainer plate located in said ?fth chamber and interposed
one of which is located within and in contact with a sub
between said third inlet and outlet ports, a plurality of
stantial portion of the length of each of said ?lter tubes
tubular members operatively connected to said head and 15 for transferring heat thereto and to the second ?uid ?ow
extending through said retainer plate, said tubular mem
ing along said ?uted members on the inside of said ?lter
bers each having two separated openings located therein,
tubes to thereby prevent the formation of ice on the ?lter
some of said tubular members having one of said open
tubes and in the second ?uid ?owing through said ?lter
ings communicating with said ?rst chamber and the other
tubes, said ?uted members each having an open end and
of said openings communicating with said second cham 20 a closed end, means operatively connected to said housing
ber and others of said tubular members having one of
and located within the hollow portion of each of said
said openings communicating with said third chamber
?uted members for forming two separated openings and a
and the other of said openings communicating with said
?ow path therebetween, one of said openings communi
fourth chamber, a plurality of ?lter elements of the out
eating with said ?rst chamber and the other of said open
side-in type operatively connected to said retainer plate 25 ings communicating with said second chamber, and by
for ?ltering the third ?uid ?owing from said third inlet
pass valve means interposed between the second inlet port
port to said third outlet port, said ?lter elements each
‘and the downstream side of said ?lter tubes for permitting
surrounding one of said tubular members and being in
continued ?ow of said second ?uid along the external
contact therewith, and by-pass means interposed between
surface of said ?uted members under clogged ?ltering
the third inlet port and the downstream side of said ?lter 30 conditions.
elements for permitting continued ?ow of said third ?uid
7. A ?uid ?ltering and heater device as de?ned in claim
inside of said ?lter and along said tubular members under
6 wherein the means operatively connected to said housing
clogged ?ltering conditions.
and located within the hollow portion of each of said
2. A ?uid ?ltering and heater device as de?ned in
?uted members comprises an insert having radially ex
35
claim 1 wherein a safety chamber is formed in said head
tending spokes in contact with the hollow portion of said
and is located between the ?fth chamber and the remain
?uted member, said insert being spaced from the closed
ing chambers for insuring against intermixing of said
end of said ?uted member.
various ?uids.
8. A ?uid ?ltering and heater device as de?ned in claim
3. A ?uid ?ltering and heater device as de?ned in claim
6 wherein said porous ?lter tube is formed of a material
40
1 wherein a plurality of safety chambers are formed in
capable of ?exing into the ?utes of said ?uted member
said head and are located between the ?fth chamber and
as a result of variations in the differential pressures acting
the remaining chambers for insuring against intermixing
of said various ?uids.
4. A ?uid ?ltering and heater device as de?ned in claim
1 wherein said by-pass means includes a plurality of by
pass valves each of which is operatively connected to only
one of said ?lter elements and is functionally independent
of the other by-pass valves.
5. A ?uid ?ltering and heater device as de?ned in claim
1 wherein said by-pass means includes a single by-pass
valve interposed between said third inlet port and the
downstream side of all of said ?lter elements.
6. A ?uid ?ltering and heater device comprising a
housing having a ?rst chamber formed therein communi
cating with a ?rst inlet port for permitting ingress of a
?rst ?uid, a second chamber formed therein communi
cating with a ?rst outlet port for permitting egress of said
thereacross to thereby provide a self-cleaning action.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
654,592
813,918
1,075,978
1,856,771
2,057,932
2,183,616
Barr _________________ -_ July 13, 1900
Schmitz ______________ __ Feb. 27,
Joerin et al ____________ __ Oct. 14,
L-oe?ler _______________ __ May 3,
Bolser _______________ -_ Oct. 20,
Korte _______________ __ Dec. 19,
2,212,932
2,300,849
1906
1913
1932
1936
1939
Fairlie ______________ __ Aug. 27, 1940
Tauch ________________ __ Nov. 3, 1942
12,539
70,805
Great Britain __________ __ June 2, 1904
Netherlands __________ __ Aug. 16, 1952
FOREIGN PATENTS
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