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Патент USA US3097521

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July 16, 1963
A. w. H. PORTER
3,097,511
WARP KNITTING MACHINES
7
Filed March 11, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet l
UW
Inventor
I /4//an W/XPora‘er
Attorneys
July 16,- 1963
A. w. H. PORTER
3,097,511
WARP KNITTING MACHINES
Filed March '11, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Inventor
B
-
Mil/“2V lAttornZs
United States Patent 0
1
3,097,511
WARP KNITTING MACHINES
Ailan Wiiliam Henry forter, Burton-on-Trent, England,
assignor to Hohonrn-F.N.F. Limited
Filed Mar. 11, 1957, Ser. No. 64:5,ti?3
Claims priority, application Great Britain Mar. 16, 1956
17 Claims. (Cl. 66-86)
This invention relates to mechanisms for controlling the
3,697,511
Patented July 16, 1963
2
The large mass must be arranged so that it is in neutral
equilibrium and thus when it is moved, it does not exert
any restoring force on the member to which the tension
bar is connected which moves only against the weaker
resilient connection. For this reason, the large mass is
preferably a ?ywheel. A ?y-wheel having a low fre—
quency characteristic will, however, allow oscillation of
the whole system to take place when, during starting and
stopping, the frequency of the machine is about the same
tension in the warp threads of high speed warp knittlng 10 as that of the ?y-wheel and weaker resilient connection.
To prevent this happening 3, ?uid damping device may be
machines.
used in conjunction with the ?y-wheel and in this case
A mechanism for this purpose has been used which com
may be connected to the ?y-wheel itself.
prises a tension bar over which the threads are led, and
which is mounted on a support in which there are two
An example of a knitting machine constructed in ac
resilient connections of different strengths and natural fre 15 cordance with the invention is illustrated in the accom
panying drawings in which:
quencies of vibration. The weaker connection de?ects
to absorb ?uctuations which occur in the tension of the
warp threads during each knitting cycle, and the stronger
connection yields substantially only under a persistent
increase in the mean tension of the threads. The move
ment of a member carried by the stronger resilient con
nection is used to control a mechanism which changes the
speed of rotation of the warp beam and so adjusts the ten
sion in the Warp threads as necessary.
The ?uctuations in the tension of the threads which
occur in each knitting cycle are cyclical and produce a
vibration in the Weaker resilient connection, the frequency
‘FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic side elevation of the
mechanism ?tted on a warp knitting machine.
FIGURE 2 is a side elevation of the mechanism in
detail.
FIGURE 3 is an elevation of the mechanism viewed
from the opposite side of FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 4 is a diagrammatic view showing the mech
anism electrically connected to a variable speed gearing
for driving the warp beam.
As shown in FIGURE 1, a sheet of warp threads 1
pass from a Warp beam 2, over a tension bar 3 and so
down to the knitting point. A further sheet of warp
of which is equal to the number of courses knitted per sec
threads 4 pass from a Warp‘ beam 5 to the knitting point
ond by the machine. In order that resonance does not
occur, the natural frequency of the weaker resilient con 30 over a tension bar 6. The tension bar 3 is carried at
intervals by spring cantilevers 7 from a shaft 8 and the
nection must be higher than the frequency at which it is
tension bar 6 is carried by similar arms 9 from a shaft
thus caused to vibrate. To obtain the high natural fre
10. Both the shafts 3 .and'ltl are carried at each end
quenoy which is thus necessary, which must usually be
of the machine in bearing bushes in brackets 11, which
over 1500 cycles per minute, the Weaker resilient connec
are ?xed to a frame 12 of the machine.
tion must have considerable stiffness. Since of course,
As shown in FIGURE 2 sleys 2a and 5a are provided
the stronger connection is even stiffer a persistent increase
for guiding the sheets of warp threads as they pass from
in tension of the Warp threads of considerable magnitude
the warp beams to the tension bars 3 and 6 respectively;
is necessary to cause the stronger resilient connection to
and a bell-crank lever 13 is ?xed to the shaft 8 and a sim—
yield and so vary the speed of the warp beam. The mech
anism cannot therefore, be made to respond sensitively. 4:0 ilar bell-crank lever 14 is ?xed to the shaft 1.11). One arm
of the bell-crank lever :13 is formed as a toothed quadrant
According to the present invention, the tension bar
15 and meshes with a pinion 16 which is fixed on a stub
over which the threads are led, is connected through a
shaft 17 extending through a bearing in the bracket 11.
stronger resilient connection to a speed-control member,
movement of which actuates a mechanism for adjusting
The stub shaft 17 carries a ?yJwheel 18 vat its end remote
member being connected through ‘a weaker resilient con
nection to a ?xed support and also being connected to
a device which acts to damp out oscillations in the member
at frequencies of the order of that at which the machine
second arm 19 of the bell-crank lever 13 and is surrounded
by a coiled compression spring 19a which abuts at one end
against a lug 20 which is ?xed to the bracket “11 and at
the speed of rotation of the warp beam, the speed-control 45 from the pinion 16. A rod 18a is pivotally ?xed to the
operates.
A ?uid damping device may be used, ‘for example, one
in which a vane is caused to move through a viscous ?uid,
or a dash~pot in which a piston moves within a cylinder
the other end against a knurled nut 21 on the rod 18a.
One [arm 22, of the bell-crank lever 14 meshes with a
pinion 23 which is exactly similar to the pinion 16 and
which is connected to a fly-wheel 24.
A second arm 25
is large compared with that of the tension bar, the speed
control member being connected to the large mass through
a mechanism which, when actuated ‘by movement of the
of the bell-crank lever 14 carries a spring 26 which op—
crates in a similar manner to the spring 19a. The ?y
wheel 18 carries a blade 27 which is positioned ‘between
arms 28 and 29 of micro-switches 30 and 31 respectively.
The ?y-wheel 24 carries a blade 32 which is similarly
positioned between arms 33 and 34 of micro-switches 35
member, causes a greater movement of the large mass.
and 36. The positions of the micro-switches 3t), 31, 35
However, as soon as a persistent increase in the tension
of the warp threads occurs, the weaker resilient connec
43 on which a cone 44 is ?xed.
and forces ?uid through a restricted ori?ce.
Preferably, however, the device comprises a mass which
The tension bar is enabled to vibrate due to yielding of 60 and 36 can each be adjusted "by micrometer screws 37, 38,
39 and 40.
the stronger resilient connection in response to the cyclical
As shown in FIGURE 4 the micro-switches 3t) and 31
?uctuations in the tension of the warp threads, but due
are included in control circuits of an electric motor 41.
to the action of the damping device the member to which
The motor 41 controls a variable speed gearing 42 in
the tension bar is connected is not able to respond, and
the weaker resilient connection is not appreciably de?ected. 65 cluded in the drive transmission of the warp beam 2.
The variable speed gearing 42. comprises an input shaft
An idle cone 45 is ro
tatably mounted beside the cone 44 and -a third similar
tion can respond readily without it being necessary for
cone 46 is ?xed on an output shaft 47 which either drives
a large de?ection of the stronger connection to take place
?rst and consequently, the speed of the warp beam is 70 the warp beam .2 directly or actuates a mechanism for
adjusting its speed of rotation, as hereinafter described.
quickly adjusted as necessary to correct the persistent
change in tension.
The drive is transmitted frictionally from the cone 44 to
3,097,511
[l
meshes with the pinion is rigidly connected to the speed
the cone 45 ‘by a ring 48 and similarly to the cone 46 by
a second ring 49. The ratio of the gearing thus depends
control member.
on the positions of the rings 48 (and 49 along the axes of
5. A knitting machine according to claim 2, in which
the cones. The position of the ring 48 may be varied by
the mechanism for adjusting the speed of rotation of the
rotating a screw-threaded shaft 5G‘ by hand and that of
warp beam includes an arm ?xed to the mass which,
the ring 49 by rotating a similar shaft 51 by means of
upon movement of the mass, closes either one or other
the motor 41. In the illustrative example, the input shaft
of a pair of switches to complete either an electrical cir
43 of the variable speed gearing 42 is rotated by the main
cuit which increases the speed of rotation of the warp
beam or an electrical circuit which decreases the speed
driving motor of the machine, which is not shown, and
the output shaft 47 is coupled to either one of the warp 10 of rotation of the warp beam, ‘depending on the direction
beams to drive the warp beam continuously.
of movement of the mass.
As the tension in the sheet of warp threads I fluctuates
6. A knitting machine according to claim 5, in which
during each knitting cycle the cantilever springs 7 which
the distance through which the arm must move to close
are relatively stiff and have a high natural frequency
either one or other of the switches is adjustable by
de?ect and enable the tension bar 3 to vibrate. The shaft 15 micrometer screws.
8 is however, prevented from de?ecting against the action
7. In a high speed ?at warp knitting machine includ—
of the relatively weak spring 19a because of the inertia
ing a warp beam and variable speed driving means for
of the fly wheel 118. When, however, a persistent in
rotating said warp beam, a mechanism for controlling the
crease in the tension of the ‘sheet of warp threads 1 oc
tension of the warp threads by adjusting the speed of said
curs, the tension bar 3 is pushed downwards and the
driving means, said mechanism including a ?xed support,
shaft ‘8 is rocked in a clockwise direction as seen in FIG
a speed control member movably mounted on said ?xed
URE 2. The bell-crank lever \13 therefore, also rotates
support and operatively connected to said variable speed
in a clockwise direction and rotates the pinion 16 through
driving means to adjust the speed thereof, a relatively
an angle approximately seven times as ‘great because the
weak resilient connection resisting movement of said
radius of the quadrant 15 is approximately seven times as 25 speed control member relatively to said ?xed support, a
great as the radius of the pinion 16. The blade 27 is
tension bar over which said warp threads pass, a relatively
thus pushed against the arm 29‘ which closes the micro
strong resilient connection connecting said tension bar to
switch 31. The shaft 8 forms the speed-control member,
said speed control member and damping means con
movement of which actuates the mechanism for adjust
nected to said speed control member to prevent said mem
ing the speed of the warp beam. In this particular ex 30 ber from oscillating in response to vibrations transmitted
ample, the blade 27 which actually ‘operates the speed
from said tension bar at frequencies of the order of that
controlling switch is ?xed to the ?y-wheel 18 instead of
at which the machine operates.
the speed control member itself to increase the sensitivity
8. In a high speed ?at warp knitting machine includ
of the mechanism.
ing a warp beam and variable speed driving means for
The motor 41 is energised by closure of the micro
rotating said warp beam, a mechanism for controlling
switch 31 and rotates the shaft 51 in a counterclockwise
the tension of the warp threads by adjusting the speed of
direction thus moving the ring 49 downwards and so in
said driving means, said mechanism including a ?xed
creasing the speed of the warp beam.
support, a speed control member movably mounted on
If a persistent decrease in the tension of the warp
said ?xed support and operatively connected to said vari
threads occurs, the blade 27 is pushed against the arm 28
able speed driving means to adjust the speed thereof, a
and closes the micro-switch 30. The motor 41 is again
relatively weak resilient connection resist-ing movement of
energised, ‘but in this case rotates the shaft 51 in a clock
said speed control member relatively to said ?xed sup
wise direction and moves the ring 49 upwards so decreas
port, a tension bar over which said warp threads pass, a
ing the speed of the warp beam.
relatively strong resilient connection connecting said ten
The increase or decrease in the speed ‘of the warp beam
sion bar to said speed control member, a mass, which is
3
causes a decrease or increase in the tension of the warp
threads as necessary.
The tension of the sheet of warp threads 4- is controlled
in an exactly similar manner.
I claim:
1. A high speed ?at warp knitting machine having a
large compared with that of said tension bar, movably
mounted on said ?xed support and means operatively con
necting said speed control member to said mass, to cause a
relatively large movement of said mass in response to a
50 relatively small movement of said speed control member,
mechanism for controlling the tension in the warp threads
by adjusting the speed of notation of a continuously driven
wanp beam, the mechanism comprising a tension bar over
which the threads are led and which is connected through 55
a resilient connection to a speed-control member, move
ment of which :actuates a mechanism for adjusting the
speed vof rotation of the warp beam, the speed-control
whereby vibrations transmitted to said speed control
member from said tension bar at frequencies of the order
of that at which the machine operates are prevented ‘from
causing said speed control member to oscillate with suf
?cient amplitude to affect said variable speed means.
9. A high speed ?at warp knitting machine as claimed
in claim 8, comprising electrical means for adjusting said
variable speed driving means, a ?rst circuit for energizing
member being connected through -a weaker resilient con
said electrical means to increase the speed of said vari
nection to a ?xed support and also being connected to a 60 able speed driving means, a second circuit for energizing
device which acts to damp out oscillations in the member
said electrical means to decrease the speed of said vari
at ‘frequencies of the order of that at which the machine
able speed driving means, an arm ?xed to said mass for
operates.
movement therewith, a ?rst switch in said ?rst circuit, a
2. A knitting machine according to claim 1, in which
second switch in said second circuit and actuating means
the damping device comprises a mass which is large com 65 for said switches in the path of movement of said arm,
pared with that of the tension bar and which is connected
to the speed-control member ‘by a mechanism, which
when actuated by movement of the member causes a rela
tively greater movement of the mass.
whereby movement of said mass in one direction causes
said arm to close said ?rst switch to complete said ?rst
circuit and movement of said mass in the other direction
causes said arm to close said second switch to complete
3. A knitting machine according to claim 2, in which 70 said second circuit.
10. A high speed ?at warp knitting machine as claimed
the mass is a fly-wheel and the speed-control member is
pivotally mounted.
in claim 9, further including micrometer screw means
4. A knitting machine according to claim 3, in which
for adjusting the position of said actuating means along
a pinion of small radius is rigidly connected to the fly
the path of said arm.
wheel and a toothed quadrant of large radius which 75
11. In a high speed ‘?at warp knitting machine includ
3,097,511
6
ing a warp beam and variable speed driving means for
rotating said :warp beam, a mechanism for controlling the
tension of the wanp threads by adjusting the speed of
said driving means, said mechanism including a ?xed
support, a speed control member pivotally mounted on
said ?xed support and operatively connected to said vari
tively weak resilient connection resisting movement of
said speed control member relatively to said ?xed support,
a tension ‘bar over which said warp threads pass, a rela
tively strong resilient connection ‘connecting said tension
bar to said speed control member, a flywheel, the mass of
which is large compared with that of said tension bar,
of said speed control member relatively to said ?xed sup
mounted on said ?xed support and means operatively con
necting said speed control member to said ?ywheel to
rotate said ?ywheel through a relatively large angle in
port, a tension bar over which said Warp threads pass, a
response to a relatively small angular movement of said
able speed driving means to adjust the speed thereof, a
relatively weak resilient connection resisting movement
speed control member, an arm ?xed to said ?ywheel for
relatively strong resilient connection connecting said ten
sion bar to said speed control member, a ?ywheel, the
movement therewith, a ?rst switch in said ?rst circuit, a
second switch in said second circuit and actuating means
mass of which is large compared Iwith that of said tension
for said switches in the path of movement of said arm,
bar, mounted on said ?xed support and means operatively
connecting said speed control member to said ?ywheel 15 whereby rotation of said ?ywheel in one direction causes
to rotate said ?ywheel through a relatively large angle ‘in
said arm to close said ?rst switch to complete said ?rst
response to a relatively small angular movement of said
circuit and rotation of said ?ywheel in the other direc
speed control member, whereby vibrations transmitted to
tion causes said arm to close said second switch to com
said speed control member ‘from said tension bar at fre
plete said second circuit ‘and whereby vibrations trans
quencies of the order of that at which the machine op 20 mitted to said speed control member from said tension
erates are prevented from causing said speed control
bar at ‘frequencies of the order of that at which the ma
member to oscillate with su?icient amplitude to affect
chine operates are prevented from causing said speed
said variable speed means.
control member to oscillate with su?icient amplitude to
12. A high speed ?at warp knitting machine as claimed
a?ect said variable speed gearing means.
in claim 11, in which said means operatively connecting 25
16. In combination with a warp knitting machine or
said speed control member to said ?ywheel includes a
the like of the type having knitting elements, a warp
pinion of relatively small radius rigidly connected to said
beam for supplying webs of ?brous material, warp threads
?ywheel and a toothed quadrant of relatively large radius
or the like to said elements, and driving means (for rotat
which meshes with said pinion and is rigidly connected to
ing said warp beam which includes a variable driving
said speed control member.
gear, electric control means for controlling the opera
13. A high speed ?at warp knitting machine as claimed
tion of said driving means, a ?rst tension control mem
in claim 11, comprising electrical means for adjusting
ber interposed between said warp beam and said knitting
said variable speed driving means, ‘a ?rst circuit for ener
elements and in engagement with said Warp threads, said
gizing said electrical means to increase the speed of said
tension control member being oscillated under control of
variable speed driving means, a second circuit for ener~ 35 said threads about a mean position corresponding to a
mean tension of said threads, a second control member
connected to said ?rst control member for movement
thereby in one direction or the other from a central
circuit, a second switch in said second circuit and actuat
normal position in accordance with a persistent movement
ing means for said switches in the path of movement of 40 in said direction of the mean position of successive oscil
said arm, whereby rotation of said ?ywheel in one direc
lations of said ?rst control member, means for damping
tion causes said arm to close said ?rst switch to complete
the motion of said second control member, and means
gizing said electrical means to decrease the speed of said
variable speed driving means, an arm ?xed to said ?y
wheel for movement therewith, a ?rst switch in said ?rst
said ?rst circuit and rotation of said ?ywheel in the other
direction causes said arm to ‘close said second switch to
complete said second circuit.
14. A high speed ?at warp knitting machine as claimed
actuated by movement of said second control member for
actuating said electric control means when said second
control member moves a predetermined distance in either
direction from its central normal position.
in claim 13, further including micrometer screw means
17. A high speed Warp knitting machine as claimed
for adjusting the position of said actuating means along
in claim 16 in which said damping means damps the
the path of said arm.
movement of said second control member With equal
15. A high speed ?at warp knitting machine, includ— 50 e?ectiveness at all positions of said second control member
ing ‘a warp beam, a variable speed gearing for rotating
and regardless of its direction of movement.
said Warp beam, and a mechanism for controlling the
tension of the warp threads by adjusting the ratio of said
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
variable speed gearing, said mechanism including an elec
UNITED STATES PATENTS
55
tric motor operatively coupled to increase the ratio of said
variable speed gearing on rotation in one direction and
to reduce the ratio of said variable speed gearing on
rotation in the other direction, a ?rst circuit for energiz
ing said motor for rotation in said one direction and a
second circuit for energizing said motor for rotation in 60
said other direction, a ?xed support, va speed control
member pivotally mounted on said ?xed support, a rela
2,582,972
2,664,724
2,720,093
2,801,308
Dungler ____________ __ Ian. 22,
Lambach et al. _______ .__ Jan. 5,
Lambach ‘et al. _______ __ Oct. 11,
Cubellis ____________ __ July 30,
1952
1954
1955
1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
718,097
Great Britain ________ __ Nov. 10, 1954
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