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Патент USA US3097645

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July 16, 1963
_
c, R. FREEMAN‘
’ 3,097,635
TARGET THROWING APPARATUS
Filgd Mar<_;h 2, 1961
v
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR.
CARL R. FREEMAN
July 16, 1963
c. RAF-‘REEMAN
3,097,635
TARGET THROWING APPARATUS
Filed March 2, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
I
_
.
INVENTOR.
CARL R. FREEMAN
United States
_
atent
Patented July 16., 1963
2
1
‘In the drawing:
3,097,635
FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a target throwing apparatus
TARGET THROWING APPARATUS
constructed in accordance with and embodying the present
Carl R. Freeman, 1237 W. 47th St, Chicago 9, Ill.
Filed Mar. 2, 1961, Ser. No. 92,931.
8 Claims. (Cl. 124-8)
invention;
PKG. 2 is a fragmentary side elevational view thereof,
partly ‘broken away and in section;
This invention relates to improvements in target throw
ing apparatus of the type used for throwing shooting
targets or “birdies” as they are called.
3,097,635
These birdies are
generally small fragile clay objects of sufficient mass to
permit ready throwing of the same.
‘It is one of the objects of the present invention to pro
vide a target throwing apparatus wherein a continuously
rotating member actuates a spring-loaded device which
then moves the target at a continually accelerating rate in
an arcuate path and wherein the target is free to separate
from its pusher and wherein a circular guide retains the
target against outward movement under the centrifugal
’
FIGS. 3 and 4 ‘are fragmentary sectional views taken
along lines 3—3 and 4—4, respectively, of 'FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view taken approxi
mately along line 5—'5 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 6‘ is a fragmentary sectional view similar to FIG.
5 and showing the position of the throwing arm after it
has completed its ?rst 180 degrees of rotation;
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view taken ‘along
line 7—-7 of FIG. 2.
In the drawing like reference numerals designate like
parts throughout.
Reference may now be had in more detail to the draw
ings which illustrate a preferred embodiment of the pres
forces generated, the target continuing to accelerate until
it reaches the end of the arcuate guide whereupon the 20 ent invention. A designates ‘a target throwing apparatus
having a housing 1, including a base 2, side walls 3, 4, a
target is projected outwardly by the centrifugal force
front wall 6, and a hood or top cover 7 having an up
acting thereon.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide
wardly and forwardly extending ?ange 8i.
Extending
transversely between the side walls 3, 4 are spaced cross
a spring actuating mechanism that is actuated during the
?rst part of the throwing cycle to which the target is sub 25 channels 9, 10 having cross channels 12, 13 mounted
ment of the target until the target attains the necessary
thereon and at right angles thereto. Bolted or otherwise
rigidly secured to the channels 12, 13 is an open top inner
speed for projection .and thereafter the spring mechanism
spends its energy to bring the throwing mechanism back
housing 15 that projects through the front wall 6. The
housing 15 comprises side walls 16, 17 and an inclined
jected and which then takes ‘over {and accelerates the move- -
to its initial position for the throwing of ‘a subsequent 30 front wall 18.
target.
Mounted on the inside face of the inclined front wall
_
It is a still further object of the present invention to
provide a target throwing mechanism that includes a rotary
target receiving arm that has a target receiving portion
substantially coincident with the axis of rotation of the 35
18 are spaced, aligned bearings 19, 20 rotatably support
ing a shaft 21, that is at an acute angle to the vertical and
projects upwardly beyond the top of the inner housing
16. A pushing member comprising a throwing arm 22 is
rigidly mounted on the upper end of the shaft 21 and
arm, thereby facilitating positioning of a target on the arm.
projects radially at substantially right angles thereto. The
It is a still further object of the present invention to‘ pro
.arm 22 has a substantially flat bottom plate 23 and up
vide a target throwing arm of the above-mentioned char
standing side ?anges 24, 25. The side ?ange 25 extends
acter wherein the arm goes from its initial position to a
downwardly inclined position to facilitate sliding of a tar 40 .to the radially outermost end of the arm 22 and is lined on
its surface facing the ?ange 24 with a layer of rubber 27.
get thereon from the initial center position to a position
Rigidly mounted on the arm 22 is a target receiving and
radially outermost on the arm where it is subjected to
guiding seat 23 which has a base 29 and a U-shaped side
maximum centrifugal action by the turning of the arm.
39. The axis of rotation of the shaft 21 passes through
It is a further object of the present invention to provide
the base 29. The base 29 is at an angle to the bottom
an apparatus of the type stated having an arm for throw
plate 23. As the arm 22 and the base 29 rotate, the
ing the birdies, the arm being rotatable approximately 180
degrees to energize a spring which thereafter deenergizes
‘to swing the arm very rapidly for the remaining 1180
- degrees to hurl the birdie therefrom.
It is also an object of the present invention to provide
an apparatus of the type stated wherein the driving mecha
inclination of the base changes. When the base 29 is
substantially horizontal, the arm 22 is in its initial or
target-loading position, as shown in FIG. 2.
A sprocket wheel 31 is rotatably mounted on the shaft
21 directly below the arm 22. A thrust collar 33 may be
rigidly mounted on the shaft 21 to support the sprocket
nism which rotates the arm the ?rst 180 degrees con
31 against downward shifting axially along the shaft 21.
tinuously rotates in the same direction as long as the
Adjacent to its outer periphery the sprocket wheel 31 has
apparatus is in operation so as to rotate the throwing arm 55 an upstanding pin 34 which is adapted to engage the side
the ?rst 180 degrees each time a birdie is loadedthereon.
?ange 25 and rotate the arm 22, for purposes presently
It is another object of the present invention to provide
morefully appearing. The sprocket wheel 31 is driven
an apparatus of the type stated in which the arm is rotat~
by a roller chain 35, which is, in turn, driven ‘by a smaller
able about an inclined axis and the birdie is loaded on the
diameter sprocket wheel 36 mounted on a drive shaft 37
arm at approximately the :axis of rotation, the birdie shift 60 of a motor-transmission assembly 38, that is suitably
mounted within the inner housing 16. As best seen in
ing radial-1y outwardly along the arm and into an engage
FIG. 2, the plane of the sprocket wheels 31--36 is sub
ment with a guide while the arm is being rotated the ?rst
stantially at right angles to the axis of the shaft 21, and
180 degrees by the driving mechanism.
the sprocket wheel 31 and the arm 22 are both adapted
It is an additional object of the present invention to pro
to project through an opening 39 at the upper end of
vide an apparatus of the type stated in which the movable
the front wall 6.
arm is automatically loaded with a birdie at the beginning
A crank 41 is rigidly mounted on the shaft 21 adjacent
of each cycle of its rotation.
to its lower end. This crank 41 receives a pivot pin 42
The attainment of the above and further objects of the
radially outwardly of the axis of the shaft 21, and the
present invention will be apparent from the following 70 pivot pin 42 secures one end of a coil spring 43. The
speci?cation taken in conjunction with the accompanying
drawing, forming a part thereof.
’
other end of the coil spring 43 hooks into an eye~bolt 44
which projects through an angle member 45, rigidly
3,097,635
3
mounted in the inner housing 16 and extending between
the side walls 17, 18 thereof. Adjusting nuts 48, 49 are
threaded onto the eye-bolt 44 to adjust the initial tension
on the spring 43. A slot 50 is formed in the inclined front
wall 18 through which the crank 41 may project as the
4
being attached at its ends to the lever 77 and housing
15, respectively. At one end of the lever 77 is another
pivot pin 80 for pivotally supporting an actuator bar 32,
which projects toward the disk 71. A tension spring 83
is secured to the lever 7? and bar 82 to bias the latter
shaft 21 rotates.
into engagement with a stop 84 on the housing 15.
Rigidly mounted on the side wall 17 are upwardly
A bracket 85 (FIGS. 2 and 7) secured on the angle
extending bars 51, 52 on the upper ends of which are
member 66 has an upstanding ear 87 which, through a
mounted bars 52, 53, which support a circular guide 55,
pivot pin 89, rockably supports a latch 90. The latch 90
the center of which is the axis of the shaft 21. The guide 10 has one end overlying the disk 71 and includes a lock
55 extends through an arc of somewhat more than 90
pin 91 that enters the holes 73 successively. The latch 90
degrees ‘beginning approximately 90 degrees past the posi
is biased clockwise by a spring 93. The other end of
tion of the throwing arm 22 shown in FIG. 5.
the latch 90 is on the underside of the sprocket wheel
When the arm 22 is in the position shown in FIGS. 2
31 for periodic actuation by an arcuate cam 94 thereon.
and 5 and is not rotating, a target or birdie b may be 15 During each revolution of the sprocket wheel 31, after
placed upon the seat 28. The sprocket wheel 31 is rotated
the throwing arm 22 has been actuated by the spring 43,
counterclockwise (FIG. 5) until the pin 34 engages or
the cam 94 will engage the latch 90 and lift the lock pin
abuts the side ?ange 25 on the arm 22. Until this en
91 out of locking engagement in the hole 73. There
gagement takes place, the throwing arm 22 is not moved.
after, the pin 34 engages the lever 77, shifting it to the
Continued rotation of the sprocket wheel 31 causes the 20 broken line position, FIG. 7. This, in turn, causes the
pin 31 to drive the throwing arm 22, which, in turn, will
actuator bar 32 to push against the adjacent pin 72, as
rotate the shaft 21 and the crank 41, which progressively
shown in broken lines, FIG. 7, thereby advancing the disk
increases the tension on the spring 43. As the arm ro
71 one step. The disk 71 is rotated until the next hole 73
tates approximately 90 degrees counterclockwise from its
moves into alignment with the lock pin 91. The turning
position shown in FIG. 5, it will become horizontal, and 25 of the magazine one notch brings its nextvhole 60 in
upon further rotation will become downwardly inclined
overlying relation to an opening 95 in the cover 7,
from the horizontal. When this occurs, the birdie b will
which opening 96 is directly above the seat 28. There
shift downwardly from the seat 28 and roll along the rub
ber strip 27 until the birdie b abuts the guide 55, along
which it slides as the throwing arm 22 continues to ro~ 30
tate and is driven therealong by the throwing arm 22.
When the throwing arm 22 has been rotated to the posi
tion shown in FIG. 6, the spring 43 and the crank arm 41
are in their position of toggle, and the spring is in its
maximum tension. Continued rotation of the shaft 21 by 35
fore, the birdie will drop through the opening 96 and
onto the seat 28.
Before the lock pin 91 becomes in alignment with the
next hole 73, the trailing end 95 ‘of the cam 94 has passed
the latch 90 so that the lock pin 91 is then in contact with
the upper surface of the disk 71. When said next hole
73 moves into alignment with the lock pin 91, the latter
will snap thereinto and lock the disk 71 and the magazine
59 in position. Continued rotation of the sprocket wheel
31 and corresponding movement of the pin 34 causes
pin 42 being then to the left of an imaginary line between
the pin to reeede from the lever 77 which is then returned
the axis of the shaft 21 (viewed from FIG. 6), and the
?xed end of the spring. When this happens, the spring 40 to the full line position of FIG. 7 by the spring 79 pre
paratory to its next step-by-step actuating movement of
43 Will snap and throw the arm 22 sharply counterclock
the disk 71. Continued turning of the sprocket wheel 31
wise back to its initial position shown in FIG. 5. Dur
will again cause the mechanism to repeat its cycle of
ing this latter movement of the throwing arm 22, the
operations, as previously described.
birdie b will be hurled therefrom and through the open
In compliance with the requirements of the patent
ing 39 in the front wall 6. The throwing arm 22 comes 45
statutes, I have herein shown and described a preferred
to rest in the position shown in FIG. 5. Meanwhile,
embodiment of this invention. It is, however, to be un
the sprocket wheel 31 continues to rotate until the pin 34
derstood that the invention is not limited to the precise
again engages the arm ?ange 25 for a repetition of the
construction herein shown, the same being merely illus
cycle. During the interval of time it takes for the pin to
trative of the principles of the invention. What is con
again engage the arm ?ange 25, another birdie or target
sidered new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent
b may be placed onto the seat 28 manually or auto
is:
matically by a loading mechanism M, and the cycle is
the arm 22 brings the connection point of the spring 43
with the crank arm 41 past its toggle position, the pivot
then repeated.
The loading mechanism M comprises a circular, ro
1. Target throwing apparatus for projecting a target
outwardly by centrifugal force, said apparatus compris
tatable magazine 59, which lies directly above the cover 7, 55 ing an arcuate target guide, ?rst means for pushing a
target by a continuous movement from a position radially
and has a plurality of circumferentially spaced, circular
inwardly of the guide to a position along the guide and
holes 60, each of which is adapted to receive a birdie b’.
then continuing the movement uninterruptedly along the
The birdies rest on the upper surface of the cover 7.
guide in an arcuate direction determined by the guide
The magazine 59 is rigidly mounted on the upper end of a
shaft 61 that extends downwardly through the cover 7 60 whereby the target is forced against the guide by cen
trifugal force, second means effective in response to the
and is rotatable in vertically spaced bearings 63, 64. The
?rst means having pushed the target to a predetermined
bearings 63, 64 are mounted on angle members 66, 67
position for then continuing the pushing with increasing
which extend across the back side of the inner housing 15.
velocity of said target pushing means through a cycle of
Stop collars 68, 69 are mounted on the shaft 61 adjacent to
bearings 63, 64 to retain the shaft 61 against axial move 65 movement, said second means including a spring actuated
by the movement of the ?rst means in the ?rst portion
ment. A disk 71 is rigidly mounted on the shaft 61. The
disk 71 has a plurality of circumferentially uniformly
of its cycle of movement, and means controlled by the
spaced depending pins 72, and radially inwardly of each
spring for then moving the ?rst means at an accelerating
pin a hole 73, there being one pin 72 and hole 73 for each
rate, said target guide coacting with said target pushing
hole 60.
70 means for guiding the target during said ?rst portion of its
As seen by reference to FIG. 7, the inner housing 15
cycle of movement and having a terminus beyond which
has a bracket 74 having a pivot pin 76 for rockably sup
the first means pushes the target whereupon the target
porting a lever 77 which extends between the throwing
is projected outwardly by the centrifugal force acting
arm 22 and drive sprocket wheel 31. The lever 77 is
thereon.
biased against a stop 78 by a tension spring 79, the latter 75
2. Target throwing apparatus for projecting a target
3,097,635
6
outwardly by centrifugal force acting thereon, said appa
from the target receiving portion to an off center posi
tion where it is moved by the arm and becomes subject
to centrifugal action, a circular guide centered substan
tially on the axis of rotation of the arm and located in
ratus comprising a rotary target pusher, an arcuate target
guide centered substantially on the axis of rotation of
the target pusher, means for positioning a target in the
path of movement of the pusher and adjacent to the
center of the arcuate guide, means for rotating said
the path of radially outward movement of a target on
the arm to limit such radial outward movement whereby
target pusher through a cycle of continuous movement,
the target is forced ‘against said guide by centrifugal
force and slides along the guide as the throwing arm
said last means including a continuously rotatable push
is rotated, means for swinging said arm through a cycle
ing member in abutment with the target pusher for
moving it through the ?rst portion of its cycle of move 10 of movement, said means comprising a continuously
rotating pushing member abutting against the arm and
ment into engagement with a target for moving the tar
from which the arm is free to move in the direct-ion of
get in an arcuate direction and radially outwardly to the
movement of said member, a crank connected with said
arcuate guide and continuing the movement uninterrupt
arm and rotatable thereby through one revolution for
edly along the guide, a spring actuated by the movement
of the pushing member in the ?rst portion of its cycle of 15 each cycle of operation of the arm, a spring being con
nected at one end to the crank ‘and at its opposite end
movement, and means controlled by the spring for then
to a ?xed point and passing through a toggle position
moving the target pusher at an accelerating rate, said
with respect to the crank twice during each revolution
target guide cooperating with the target pusher for guid
ing the target during said ?rst portion of its cycle of
of the crank, the ?rst toggle position being the position
movement at which time the target is forced against said
of minimum spring stress and the second being the posi
tion of mm'mum spring stress, said crank storing energy
guide by centrifugal forceqand is pushed therealong by
in the spring as the crank moves from the‘ ?rst to the
said target pusher, said guide also having a terminus
beyond which the target pusher pushes the target where . second toggle positions, said spring resisting turning of
the throwing arm during movement of the crank from its
upon the target is projected outwardly by the centrifugal
25 ?rst to its second toggle position ‘and changing the direc
force acting thereon.
tion of its force on said arm when the crank passes its
‘3. Target throwing apparatus for projecting a target
second toggle position in its cycle of movement whereby
outwardly by centrifugal force acting thereon, said appa
ratus comprising a rotary target pusher, an arcuate target
guide centered substantial-1y on the axis of rotation of
‘the spring then accelerates the movement of the arm, said
target guide having ‘a terminus beyond which the throw
ing arm pushes the target whereupon the target is pro
the target pusher, a target receiving member located
jected outwardly by the centrifugal force acting thereon.
radially inwardly of the arcuate guide, means connect
5. Target throwing apparatus for projecting a target
ing the member for movement with the pusher from a
outwardly by centrifugal force acting thereon, said appa
target receiving position to an inclined delivery position
ratus comprising a throwing arm having a throwing end,
from which a target moves by gravity into a position in
the path of movement of the pusher and radially inwardly 35 said arm being mounted ‘for rotation, the arm having a
target receiving portion, the axis of rotation passing
of the guide, means for rotating said target pusher
through the target receiving portion of the arm to facili
through a cycle of movement, said means including a
tate loading the arm with a target to be projected, said
‘crank connected with said target pusher and rotatable
arm being mounted with respect to its ‘axis of rotation to
thereby through one revolution for each cycle of opera
rotate through a position sloping downwardly from said
tion of the target pusher, and a loading spring connected
target receiving portion to the throwing end of the throw
at one end to the crank and at its opposite end to a
ing arm, whereby a target placed on said portion can
?xed point and passing through a toggle position with
slide radially along said arm to the throwing end, the
respect to the crank twice during each revolution of the
throwing end of the arm being at the end thereof remote
crank, the ?rst toggle position being the position of min~
imum spring stress and the second being the position of 45 from the axis of rotation whereby a target on said arm
is subjected to its maximum centrifugal force when the
maximum spring stress, said crank storing energy in the
spring as the crank moves from the ?rst to the second
target is at the throwing end of the rotating arm, a
circular guide centered substantially on the axis of rota
tion of the arm and located in the path of radially out
get pusher during movement of the crank from its first’
to its second toggle position and changing the direction 50 ward movement of a target on the arm to limit such
toggle positions, said spring resisting turning of the tar
of its force on said target pusher when the crank passes
its second toggle position in its cycle of movement where
by the spring then accelerates the movement of the target
pusher, said target guide cooperating with the target
pusher for guiding the target during said ?rst portion
of its cycle of movement at which time the target is
radial outward movement whereby by a continuous con
tact with the throwing arm the target is ?rst forced
against said guide by centrifugal force and is then urged
by the throwing arm along the guide as the throwing arm
is rotated, said target guide having a terminus beyond
which the throwing arm pushes the target whereupon
the target is projected outwardly by the centrifugal force
forced against said guide by centrifugal force and is
acting thereon.
pushed therealong by said target pusher, said guide also
6. Target throwing apparatus for projecting a target
having a terminus beyond which the target pusher pushes
the target whereupon the target is projected outwardly 60 outwardly by centrifugal force acting thereon, said ap
by the centrifugal force acting thereon. ‘
4. Target throwing apparatus ‘for projecting a target
outwardly by centrifugal force acting thereon, said appa
ratus comprising a throwing arm having a target receiv
paratus’ comprising a throwing arm having a throwing
end, said arm being mounted for rotation, the arm having
a target receiving portion, the axis of rotation passing
through the target receiving portion of the arm to facilitate
ing portion and 1a throwing end, said arm being mounted 65 loading the arm with a target to be projected, said arm
being mounted with respect to its axis of rotation to
for rotation, the axis of rotation passing through the
rotate
through a position sloping downwardly from said
target receiving portion of the arm to facilitate loading
target receiving portion to the throwing end of the throw
the arm with a target to be projected, the throwing end
ing arm, whereby a target placed on said portion can
of the arm being at the end thereof remote from the
70 slide radially along said arm to the throwing end, the
axis of rotation whereby a target on said arm is subjected
throwing end of the arm being at the end thereof remote
to its
centrifugal ?orce when the target is at
from the axis of rotation whereby a target on said arm
the throwing end of the rotating arm, means operated
is subjected to its maximum centrifugal vforce when the
responsive to initiation of rotation of the throwing arm
target is at the throwing end of the rotating arm, a cir
for causing movement of a target radially outwardly 75 cular guide centered substantially on the axis of rota
3,097,635
8
tion of the arm and located in the path of radially out
a cycle of movement, said means comprising a continu
ward movement of a target on the arm to limit such
radial outward movement whereby by a continuous con
ously rotating pushing member abutting against the arm
tact with the throwing arm the target is ?rst forced
against said guide by centrifugal force and is then urged
by the throwing arm along the guide as the throwing
arm is rotated, means for swinging said arm through a
and from which the arm is free to move in the direction
of movement of said member, a crank connected with
said arm and rotatable thereby through one revolution
for each cycle of operation of the arm, a spring con
nected at one end to the crank and at its opposite end
cycle of movement, said means comprising a continuously
to a ?xed point and passing through a toggle position
with respect to the crank twice during each revolution
from which ‘the arm is free to move in the direction 10 of the crank, the ?rst toggle position being the position
of movement of said member, a crank connected with
of minimum spring stress and the second being the posi
said arm and rotatable thereby through one revolution
tion of maximum spring stress, said crank storing energy
for each cycle of operation of the arm, a spring con
in the spring as the crank moves from the ?rst to the
rotating pushing member abutting against the arm and
nected at one end to the crank and at its opposite end
second toggle positions, said spring resisting turning of
to a ?xed point and passing through a toggle position with
respect to the crank twice during each revolution of the
the throwing arm during movement of the crank from
its ?rst to its second toggle position and changing the di
crank, the ?rst toggle position being the position of
minimum spring stress and the second being the position
of maximum spring stress, said crank storing energy in
rection of its force on said arm when the crank passes
throwing arm during movement of the crank ‘from its
is projected outwardly by the centrifugal force ‘acting
its second toggle position in its cycle of movement where
by the spring then accelerates the movement of the arm,
the spring as the crank moves from the ?rst to the sec 20 said target guide having a terminus beyond which the
ond toggle positions, said spring resisting turning of the
throwing arm pushes the target whereupon the target
?rst to its second toggle position and changing the direc
thereon, and means for placing a target on the target
tion of its force on said arm when the crank passes its
receiving portion of the arm when the crank is in its
second toggle position in its cycle of movement whereby
?rst toggle position.
8. Target throwing apparatus comprising arcuate target
the spring then accelerates the movement of the arm,
said target guide having a terminus beyond which the
throwing arm pushes the target whereupon the target is
projected outwardly by the centrifugal force acting
guide means, rotatable target throwing means rotatable
about the center of the guide means, a target receiving
member located radially inwardly of the guide means,
thereon.
means responsive to the rotation of the throwing means
7. Target throwing apparatus for projecting a target
outwardly by centrifugal force acting thereon, said rap
for causing movement of the target from the receiving
member into the path of movement of the throwing means
paratus comprising a throwing arm having a throwing end,
at a location radially inwardly of the guide means, where
said arm being mounted for rotation, the arm having
by it is moved by the throwing means by a continuous
a target receiving portion, the axis of rotation passing 35 uninterrupted movement ?rst radially outwardly toward
through the target receiving portion of the arm to
the guide means and then along the guide means, ?rst
facilitate loading the arm with a target to be projected,
means rotatable substantially at one speed for turning
said ar-m being mounted with respect to its axis of rota
said target throwing means at said one speed a fraction
tion to rotate through a position sloping downwardly from
of a revolution and cooperating with the target guide
said target receiving portion to the throwing end of the 40 means to shift a target along said guide means for said
throwing arm, whereby a target placed on said portion
fraction of a revolution, and second means operable inde
can slide radially along said arm to the throwing end,
pendently of said ?rst means for turning said target throw
the throwing end of the arm being at the end thereof
ing means through the remainder of said revolution at a
remote from the axis of rotation whereby a target on
speed greater than said one speed to shift the target off
said arm is subjected to its maximum centrifugal force 45 of said guide means and then discharge the target from
when the target is at the throwing end of the rotating
said target-throwing means.
arm, a circular guide centered substantially on the
axis of rotation of the arm and located in the path of
radially outward movement of a target on the arm to
limit such radial outward movement whereby by a con 50
tinuous contact with the throwing arm the target is ?rst
forced against said guide by centrifugal force and is then
urged by the throwing arm along the guide as the throw
ing arm is rotated, means for swinging said arm through
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
540,318
Jenkins _______________ __ June 4, 1895
1,475,713
Napier ____ __i ________ __ Nov. 27, 1923
2,171,623
2,660,157
Connell ______________ __ Sept. 5, 1939
Brinks _______________ __ Nov. 24, 1953
2,996,058
Ervine ____ __v ________ __ Aug. 15, 1961
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