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Патент USA US3097648

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July 16, 1963
l. STREIMER
METABOLATORS
Filed Feb. 27, 1961
3,097,638
United States Patent Of?ce
1
3,097,638
Irving Streimer, Bellevue, Wash., assignor to Boeing Air
METABOLATORS
plane Company, Seattle, Wash., a corporation of Dela
ware
Filed Feb. 27, 1961, Ser. No. 91,711
6 Claims. (c1. 128-—2.07)
3,097,638
Patented July 16, 1963
2
These and other features, objects and ‘advantages of
the invention will become more fully evident from the
following description thereof by reference to the accom
panying drawings.
FIGURE 1 is a schematic diagram of the improved
portable metabolator.
FIGURE 2 is a somewhat simpli?ed longitudinal sec
tional view taken through the main unit which includes
This invention relates to improvements in metabolator
the oxygen supply, the carbon dioxide and moisture ?lter,
apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption rate and 10 the demand regulator, oxygen consumption gauge means
related breathing characteristics. The invention is herein
and portions of the closed-circuit breathing system.
illustratively described by reference to the presently
Referring to FIGURE 1, the patient utilization device
preferred embodiment thereof; however, it will be recog
10 in this case comprises a face ‘mask or mouthpiece which
nized that certain modi?cations and changes therein with
is connected to the tube 12 having the branching portions
respect to details may be made without departing from 15 14 and 16. The branch 14 comprises an oxygen supply
the underlying essentials involved.
conduit having a check valve 18 therein which excludes
A broad object hereof is to provide a simple, reliable
‘and accurate metabolator of light-weight, compact con
struction. Speci?cally, it is desired to provide such a
exhalant from the tube 14' beyond the check valve while
permitting in?ow of oxygen from tube 14’ when the
patient inhales. The tube 16 comprises the exhalant pas~
device of portable form which can be worn on or carried 20 sage with a check valve 20 therein which prevents ex
by the patient during physical activities in which the
patient is required to be ‘ambulatory.
A speci?c object is to provide a metabolator of the type
haled gases in the tube 16' beyond the check valve from
?owing back to the patient utilization device. As shown
by the arrows, when the patient inhales the check valve 18
in which oxygen from a primary source is introduced into
is drawn open and fresh oxygen is drawn into the utiliza
a closed-circuit breathing system wherein exhaled oxygen 25 tion device, check valve 20 remaining closed, whereas
is recirculated and exhaled carbon dioxide and moisture
when the patient exhales valve 18 is closed and the check
are trapped. A related object is to provide such a metab
valve 20 is forced open and permits exhaled gases to ?ow
olator wherein oxygen supply rate is controlled by de~
into the tube 16'. A rubber-like breathing bag or ac
mand regulator apparatus insuring oxygen supply at pre
cumulator 22 is connected to the tube 16’ which extends
determined pressure referenced to ‘atmosphere, whereby 30 to the trap or ?lter 24 containing soda lime or other sub
normal environmental breathing conditions are simulated
stance for trapping carbon dioxide and preferably ‘also
as closely as possible.
moisture. As is conventional, the breathing bag 22 stores
Still another speci?c object is to provide a metabolator
exhalant gases, as an accumulator, and feeds those gases
incorporating a simple and reliable, high-output breathing
slowly through the ?lter 24 at a reduced rate which per
detector operable to detect breathing frequency and 35 mits effective absorption of the carbon dioxide ‘and mois
breath cycle form‘, and to do this without ‘adding material
ture.
ly to the cost, weight or bulk of the metabolator.
From the ?lter 24 unused oxygen which passes through
Still another object is to provide a simple, direct-indicat
the soda lime bed is conducted by a tube or passage 26
ing and reliable means for quantitatively indicating oxygen
to the inhaler tube 14' through the low-pressure chamber
consumption in such ‘a device.
In accordance with one feature of the invention, oxy
28 of a demand regulator unit 30. This demand regu
lator unit comprises a control valve 32 seated in the port
gen from a bottle or other primary source is fed at a
of an inlet passage or pipe 34 connected to the pressur
ized oxygen bottle 36 or other primary source of oxygen.
The valve 312 is mounted on a support rod 38‘ and is
demand-regulated rate into the closed-circuit breathing
system by means of a differential pressure actuated valve
incorporated in the supply line and actuated by a dia 45 urged toward closed position by a return spring 40. The
phragm or the like sensitive to the difference between
end of the rod 38 opposite from the valve 32 is pivot
atmospheric pressure and internal breathing apparatus
pressure presented to the patient. The device further
ally connected to the short lever arm 42 of a bell crank
pivoted at 44 on a ?xed support in the demand regu
includes a means to indicate directly oxygen consumption
lator. A relatively long lever arm 46 of this bell crank
during any selected test period, such means preferably 50 is pivotally connected to a large diaphragm 48 which
comprising a Bourdon tube pressure gauge connected in
divides the demand regulator housing v30 into the oxygen
the high-pressure side of the demand regulator valve pas
supply chamber 28 and an atmosphere chamber 50 which
sage and calibrated in the particular apparatus to measure
communicates with the ambient atmosphere (or other
quantity of oxygen consumed.
pressure reference in special cases) through the vent or
A further feature resides in the provision of a thermistor 55 opening 5-2’. If the pressure in the supply chamber 28
element breathing detector incorporated in a breathing
drops appreciably below that in the atmosphere chamber
passage of the apparatus, and preferably on the low
pressure side of the exhalant check valve in or adjacent
to the patient utilization device, which thermistor pro
duces a relatively strong output signal having a waveform
50 the bell crank opens the valve 32 and additional oxy
gen ?ows from the primary source 36 into the chamber
28 for presentation to the patient. Thus, the oxygen
supply pressure presented to the patient is substantially
and magnitude determined by exh-alant temperature
variations and closely representative of those breathing
pressure which is only slightly lower than the pressure
characteristics of primary interest in metabolism tests.
in chamber 50.
ambient atmospheric pressure, or more speci?cally is a
3,097,638
.
a
A
quency, amplitude and pattern of the patient. This data
3
A Bourdon tube gauge or other pressure gauge 54
when considered along with the quantity of oxygen con
sumed during the test has important diagnostic value as
will be readily noted.
This invention enables a physician to determine the
minute-by-minute rate of oxygen consumption in the case
of “blue babies,” in the case of adults being diagnosed
for glandular, heart and other conditions and in the case
communicating with the high-pressure side of the de
mand regulator valve is calibrated in the apparatus to
indicate, by a cumulative change of pressure over a period
of time, the amount of oxygen consumed in that period.
If temperature conditions change widely during the test
period, temperature compensation may be required in
order to correct the readings of the oxygen consumption
of operative and postoperative therapy, giving an indi
gauge 54. Therefore, it is also desirable in some cases
to provide a thermometer 56, likewise in communication 10 cation of the patient’s vitality. Also, it may be used in
anesthesiology wherein gases may be premixed and fed
to the patient at his own demand rate, thereby avoiding
the latitude of “hunting” which normally occurs in main
taining a patient at a given level of anesthesia. It may
also be used to test the physical well being of an astro
naut during space ?ight. These and other uses and
with the high-pressure side of the demand regulator valve
and from which correction data may be derived.
In most
tests, however, the test duration may be so short that no
appreciable temperature‘ change occurs su?icient to re
quire temperature corrections.
Referring now to the details shown in FIGURE 2, the
unit as thus far described is preferably mounted in a cas
aspects of the invention will be recognized by those
ing 60‘, except for the patient utilization device and any
necessary ?exible tubes 14-‘, 14’ and 16, 16", along with
the breathing bag 22. The trap 24 comprises an annular
cup the open side of which is clamped against a seal 24a
skilled in the art, based on the present disclosure.
I claim as my invention:
1. A metabolator comprising a closed-circuit breath
ing system including a patient utilization device, a car
bon dioxide absorber unit having input and output, a
demand regulator unit ‘having a low~pressure ?ow space
and a high-pressure ?ow space therein, an exhaling duct
surrounding the sleeve 62 which houses the oxygen bottle
36. The cup is clamped in this position by a ring 64
which threads onto the outer end of the sleeve 62.
A
conventional insert valve 66 in the discharge end of the 25 connecting said patient utilization device to said input,
means connecting said low-pressure ?ow space to said
oxygen bottle is opened when the oxygen bottle is in
output, an inhaling duct connecting said patient utiliza
serted and the two lugs 68 on the projecting valve ?tting
tion device to said low-pressure flow space, a source of
engage a cam 70 mounted in the housing \60, in order
to be actuated by the cam as the bottle is turned through
compressed oxygen connected to said high-pressure ?ow
space, said demand regulator unit further including a
passage interconnecting said How spaces, a valve normally
closing said passage, and a valve-actuating device includ
ing means responsive to the di?‘erential of ambient atmos
pheric pressure and pressure in said low-pressure ?ow
space and operable to open said valve when such latter
pressure drops by a predetermined amount below such
a predetermined angle about its longitudinal axis. This
type of valve actuating system is known. When the valve
66 is opened, oxygen under high pressure is delivered
into the passageways 72 which lead to the demand regu
lator valve ‘34 and to the inlet of the Bourdon tube pres
sure gauge 54.
The demand regulator section or unit 32 comprises’ an
ambient atmospheric pressure, thereby continuously to
axial extension of the section which carries the coaxia‘lly
provide oxygen ‘at substantially atmospheric pressure to
arranged ?lter and oxygen supply bottle. The extreme
the patient, and means to measure the quantity of oxy
end face of the unit comprises a transparent viewing
screen 80 through which the indicator needle 54a of the 40 gen consumed by the patient.
2. The metabolator de?ned in claim 1, wherein the
Bourdon tube pressure gauge 54 may be seen. The
last-mentioned means comprises a pressure-sensitive indi
Bourdon tube is mounted physically in the atmosphere
cator responsively connected ‘to the high-pressure ?ow
chamber 50 adjacent to the atmosphere side of the dia
space to measure the change of pressure of oxygen therein
phragm 48. An apertured membrane stop 82 is bowed
over a predetermined test period.
3. The metabolator de?ned in claim 2, and a thermo
electric element mounted in the exhaling duct, and asso
ciated indicator circuit means in which said thermoelec
convexly toward the Bourdon tube gauge and acts as a
protective barrier between the Bourdon tube gauge and
the diaphragm, preventing extreme ?exure of the dia
phragm toward the Bourdon tube gauge from damaging
either.
tric element is electrically connected, including an indi
cator responsive to the electric pulsations inducted in
_
The demand regulator valve mechanism is mounted
in the interior space 2.8 with-in the housing 60 between
said element by temperature cycles accompanying breath
exhalations from the patient.
the diaphragm 48 and the ?lter-oxygen bottle unit. Oxy
gen emerging from the soda lime trap ?ows to an inlet
84 into the chamber 28 and from this chamber ?ows,
along with fresh oxygen admitted through the valve 32,
out the port 86 to the supply tube '14’.
The thermometer 56 is mounted on the end of the
oxygen supply bottle 36 facing from the end of the unit
opposite that occupied by the Bourdon tube pressure
gauge 54.
I
As a further feature, a thermistor unit 90 is mounted
the exhalant passage 16, 16’, beyond the check valve
It is connected in a thermistor ampli?er circuit 92
which operates a recording oscillograph 94. Being sen
sitive to temperature, this thermistor produces an elec
trical signal which is related to breath exhalant tempera
ture and thereby varies in amplitude as the patient
breathes. With each exhalation the signal increases in
amplitude initially and then drops in amplitude as the 70
20.
exhalation cycle terminates. The drop in amplitude is,
of courseydue to the radiation and absorption of heat
of the exhaled gases as they are held in the tube 16'
pending ultimate ?ow to the ?lter unit 24. The record
4. The metabolator de?ned in claim 3, wherein the
thermoelectric element comprises a thermistor and the
55 last-mentioned indicator includes a means responsive to
thermistor current variations.
5. A metabolator comprising a closed-circuit breath
ing system including a patient utilization device, a car
bon dioxide absorber unit having input and output, a
demand regulator unit having a low-pressure flow space
and a high-pressure ?ow space therein, an exhaling duct
connecting said patient utilization device to said input,
means connecting said low-pressure ?ow space to said
output, an inhaling duct connecting said patient utiliza
tion device to said low-pressure ?ow space, a source of
compressed oxygen connected to said high-pressure ?ow
space, said demand regulator unit further including a
passage interconnecting said flow spaces, a valve nor
mally closing said passage, and a valve-actuating device
operable to maintain oxygen pressure in said low-pressure
?ow space by opening said valve in response to a drop
of pressure therein, and means to measure the quantity
of oxygen consumed by the patient, comprising a pres
ing oscillograph trace thereby shows the breathing fre 75 sure-sensitive indicator responsively connected to the
3,097,638
5
high-pressure ?ow space to measure ‘the change of pressureof oxygen therein over a medetermined test period.
6. The met-abolator de?ned in claim 5, ‘and 1a theimo-
electric element mounted in the exhaling duct, and ‘asso
ciated indicator circuit means in which said thermuelec- 5
tric element is electrically connected, including an ‘indi
cator [responsive to the electric pulsations induced said
element by temperature cycles accompanying breath ex
hal-ations from the patient.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
10
1,550,335
UNITED STATES PATENTS
‘
Benedict ____________ __ Aug. 18, 1925
6
2,893,3 81
2,916,033
‘2,981,911
Black ________________ __ July 7, 1959
Coleman ______________ __ Dec. 8, "1959
Wamick __________ _..v.._ Apr. 25, 1961
FOREIGN PATENTS
848,725
Great Britain ________ __ Sept. 21, 1960
OTHER REFERENCES
Leach: 59191199, Page 341, M'a-T- 15, 1946‘
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