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Патент USA US3097718

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July 16?, 1963
A. w. KAMMERER ETAL
_
Filed May 1l, 1959
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3,097,708
RETRIEVABLEDRILLINGAPPARATUS
5 Sheets-Sheet l
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July 16, 1963
A. w. KAMMERER ETAL
RETRIEVAB-LE DRILLING APPARATUS
Filed May 11, 1959
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3,097,708
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July 16, 1963
3,097,708
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Filed May 11, 1959
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July 16, 1963
A. w. KAMMERER ETAL
3,097,708
RETRIEVABLE DRILL颪G APPARATUS
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July 16, 1963
3,097,708
A. W. KAMMERER ETAL
RETRIEVABLE DRILLING APP繰ATUS
Filed May l1, 1959
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BY
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Unite States Patent O ? ice
3,097,708
Patented July 16, 1963
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2
casing string, so as to provide adequate clearance around
the outside of the casing string for the circulation of
3,097,708
RETRIEVABLE DRILLING APPARATUS
Archer W. Kammerer, Archer W. Kammerer, Jr., and
Jean K. Lamphere, Fullerton, Calif., assignors, by
drilling mud ,and the subsequent placement of cementi
tious material.
An additional object of the invention -is to provide a re
mesne assignments, of three-fifths to said Archer W.
trievable drill bit having expandible cutters `and adapted
Kammerer, one-fifth to said Archer W. Kammerer, Jr.,
to be run through and coupled to -a casing string or the
and one-tifth to said Jean K. Lamphere
like, the -cutters being releasably latched in their ex
panded position so as to prevent their inadvertent partial
Filed May 11, 1959, Ser. No. 812,387
19 Claims. (Cl. 175-2?60)
10 or full retraction.
The present invention relates to rotary drilling appara
Yet a further object of the invention is to provide a
retrievable drill bit having expansible cutters adapted to
Oil, gas, water, sulphur and similar well bores have
be releasably latched in their expanded position, in which
heretofore been drilled with a drill bit secured to the
the latching mechanism is not subject to the erosive, or
lower end of a string of drill pipe. As each bit becomes 15 any, action of the circulating drilling 駏id.
dull the drill pipe is removed from the well bore, another
Another object of the invention is to provide a retriev
bit attached to it :and the string of drill pipe relowered in
able drill bit adapted to be lowered through and coupled
the well bore. After the desired depth of hole has been
to a casing string and embodying a mandrel movable
produced, the `drill pipe is removed and casing or the like
relatively to a bit body to effect expansion 玜nd retraction
is lowered in the hole, which may be cemented in place. 20 of the bit cutters, in which the drilling torque is trans
The necessity -for frequent round trips to change the
mitted from the casing through the mandrel to the bit
drill bit is a time consuming and costly operation. Poten
body and cutters.
tial damage to the well bore is also present due to pres~
This invention possesses many other advantages, and
sures and the like developed in the drilling mud as a re
has other objects which may be made more clearly ap
sult of raising 籥nd lowering the string of drill pipe. There 25 parent from a consideration of several forms in which it
is also the danger of being unable to lower the casing in . may be embodied. Such forms `are shown in the draw
the drilled hole to the required depth, or in damaging the
ings ?accompanying and forming part of the present speci
tus for well bores.
well formation during lowering of the casing.
iication. These forms will now be described in detail for
An object of the present invention is to provide im
proved drilling apparatus that avoids the necessity for
repeated round `trips of the drilling string to change drill
bits, the apparatus being capable of being lowered and
removed through a string of pipe, that will form the
ulti-mate casing 'for the well bore, and of being readily
the purpose of illustrating the gener-al principles of the
30 invention; but it is to be understood that such detailed
description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, since
the scope of the invention is best defined by the appended
claims.
~ Referring to the drawings:
connected to the lower end of the pipe, which is then 35 VFIGURES l to la together constitute a longitudinal
rotated to effect drilling of the hole, and of being released
section through -a drill bit within and at the lower end of
from the pipe and retrieved through its bore after the
a string of casing or similar pipe, the apparatus being
apparatus becomes dull or is to beretrieved'for any other
disposed in it-s position for lowering the drilling bit
reason.
through the well pipe, FIG. la constituting a lower con
40
Another object of the invention is to provide a retriev~ ` tinuation of FIG. l;
able drilling bit capable of being lowered through a string
FIGS. 2 Iand 2a are views similar to FIGS. 1 and la
of pipe to its lower end 籥nd of being rotationally coupled
with the drill bit cutters in expanded position and the
to the pipe, the drilling bit hav-ing cutters that are expandi
drill bit coupled to the string of casing, FIG. 2a constitut~
ble outwardly beyond the outside diameter of the pipe 45 ing a lower continuation of FIG. 2;
without the necessity for resting the bit on the bottom
FIG. 3 isa section taken along the line 3-3 on FIG. l,
of the hole being drilled.
with certain parts in lanother relative position;
A further object of the invention is to provide a re
t FIG. 4 is a cross-section taken along the line 4-4 on
trievable drill bit of the character indicated that is posi
tively coupled to the drill pipe after having been lowere
through it.
?
An additional object of the invention is to provide a
ret-rievable drill bit of the character indicated in which
FIG. 2;
50
p
FIG. 5 is a cross-section taken along the line 5_5 on
Y FIG. 2;
FIG. 6 is a cross-section taken along the line 6--6 on
FIG. 2;
the drilling torque is transmitted directly from the string of
FIG. 7 is a longitudinal section similar to FIG. 1, dis
pipe to the drill bit cutters, and in which the drilling 55 closing the upper portion of the drill bit being released;
weight is .transmitted directly from the string of pipe to
the cutters.
FIG. 8 is a side elevational view as seen along the line
8_8 on FIG. 2a;
FIGS. 9 and 9a together constitute a longitudinal sec
Yet another object ?of the invention is to provide a
retrievable drill bit of the character indicated in which
tion through another embodiment of the invention with
the cutters are positively locked in their outwardly ex 60 the cutters in expanded position, FIG. 9a constituting a
p
lower continuation of FIG. 9;
Another object of the invention is to provide a retriev
FIG. 10 is .a cross-section taken along the line 10--10
on FIG. 9;
able drill bit in which the cutters are positively retracted
from their expanded condition to facilitate withdrawal of
? FIG. 1l is a cross-section taken along the line 11-11
the bit through the string of casing, or similar pipe, used 65 on FIG. 9.
to rotate the bit and drill the well bore.
The apparatus is disclosed in the drawings yas including
Still a further object of the invention is to provide
the lower portion of a string of well casing 10, or similar
a retrievable ldrill bit adapted to be run through and
pipe, which extends to the top of the well 'bore being
releasably attached to the lower end of a casing string
drilled, Iand which is rotated to transmit the drilling torque
or other pipe string, in which the bit cutters have a rela 70 and the drilling weight to a retrievable `drill bit portion `11
tively large range of expansion to cut a hole diameter
of the apparatus. The drill -bit is movable down through
substantially Agreater than the outside diameter of the
the `string of casing from the top of the hole and is re
panded position.
3,097,708
4
leasably coupled to the lower portion 12 of the casing,
rto the upper portion 40 to facilitate proper operation of
the apparatus. The lower mandrel portion is retained in
after which drilling of the well bore can proceed through
rotation of the string of casing 1t) and its progressive
the upper mandrel portion by means of a roller bearing
device in which the inner race 41 engages a downwardly
facing shoulder 42 on the upper mandrel portion, this race
downward movement as the hole is produced. During
the rotating operation drilling mud or the like is pumped
down through the interior of the casing 10?, discharging
contacting a set of balls 43 that ride within an outer
raceway 44 formed in the lower pant of the upper man
drel member 40. The balls 43 may be inserted in the op
-posed raceways thnough a hole 45 that may then be
'from its lower portion or the drill bit 11, to carry the
cuttings upwardly and around the string of casing to the
top ot the hole. When the drill bit 11 becomes dull, it is
released from the casing string 10 籥nd is withdrawn
through its interior to the top of the hole, whereupon the
closed by a suitable plug 46 welded to the upper mandrel
member 4t?.
The upper member 40 has a non-circular
cross-section, fitting within a companion non-circular bore
same drill bit with new cutters, or another drill bit, is
lowered through the casing and is locked in place. When
40a in the body 13 to provide a slidable spline connection between the upper mandrel member and body.
the apparatus is again withdrawn through the interior of 15
When the spring 24 is allowed to expand for the pur
the casing string 10 and rthe cutters are replaced. This
pose of shifting the cutters 17 outwardly, it will move the
action is repeated las often as necessary in drilling the hole
mandrel 23 downwardly within the body 13 to the extent
limited by engagement of the mandrel flange 28 with the
to the `desired depth. However, the casing 10` need never
be withdrawn yfrom the well bore. In fact, after the hole
4stop shoulder 32 on the body. When this occurs the cut
has been drilled to the desired depth, the casing can re 20 ters are latched in their outward position by a releasable
main therein and be cemented in place, if desired, in sub
latch device 50 carried by the mandrel. As disclosed in
stantially the same manner fas casing strings are ordinarily
the drawings, `such releasable latch device includes a
cemented in a well bore.
latch 51 disposed in a body slot 52 and pivoted on a hinge
pin 53 extending across this slot. The upper part of the
In the form of invention illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 8, in
clusive, the drill bit 11 includes an elongate main body 13 25 latch is urged in an outward direction by a helical com
pression spring 54 disposed between the upper portion
having a plurality, such as a pair, of cutter supporting
members 14 mounted in a body slot 15 on hinge pins 16
of the mandrel above the slot 52 and a latch ear 55. This
suitably secured to the body. A generally conical roller
spring 54 will urge the upper portion 56 of the latch out
wardly into a recess 57 in the body of the tool and under
type of toothed cutter 17 is rotatably carried on the lower
portion of each cutter arm 14 and initially occupies an
a body shoulder 58, which a latch linger 59 will engage
to prevent return or upward movement of the mandrel
inward or retracted position within the contines of the
member 23 within the body 13. When the latch 51 is dis
body 13. The lower portion of the body 13 may be con
the new cutters become dull the `drill bit portion 11 of
posed within the body recess 57, the longitudinal force
stituted as a threaded box 1S adapted to threadedly re
ceive the upper pin end 19 of a lower pilot bit 20 which
on the latch is transmitted between the body shoulder 58
is adapted to drill the central portion 21 of the Well bore 35 and the upper mandrel member 40 directly through the
latch 51 and without being imposed on the hinge pin 53.
(FIG. 2a). The cutters 17 are expandible outwardly to
This is due 籺o the fact that the hole 60 in the latch through
enlarge the well bore drilled by the pilot bit to a diameter
which the hinge pin 53 passes is elongate so that the pin
22 that is substantially greater than the outside diameter
lits relatively loosely therewithin. When the latch 51 swings
of the ystring of drill casing 10 through which the drilling
bit 1v1 is movable.
40
outwardly to its latching position against the body
shoulder 58, the lower end 61 of the latch engages the
lower end 62 of the mandrel defining the body slot 52
of downward movement of -a mandrel 23 within the body
therewithin.
13 of the tool 11. This mandrel is urged in a downward
direction by a helical compression spring 24 which sur
'I?he latch 51 is releasable from the shoulder 58 and is
rounds it, the upper end of the spring engaging a spring 45 swung inwardly from the body 13 back within the con
seat 25 that is prevented from moving upwardly along the
fines of the mandrel member `40. This is accomplished
through use of a retrieving plunger 63 disposed in the
body 13 by a suitable split snap retainer ring 26 disposed
in a groove 27 in the -body and 'overlying the upper end
bore 64 of the upper mandrel member 40. The lower
end of the plunger has a slot 65 ?extending therethrough,
of the spring seat. The lower end of the spring bears
against a spring seat formed- 籦y a shoulder or 馻nge 28 50 there being a retrieving pin 66 secured to the plunger
and extending through an opening 67 in the latch, this
forming part of the mandrel 23, which tits wi-thin a com
panion bore 29 in the body 13 of the tool.
pin being guided for straight line movement within the
Outward expansion of the cutters 17 occurs as la result
mandrel 23 by being received in longitudinal slots 68
When the compression spring 24 is allowed to expand
it will move the mandrel 23 downwardly, thereby moving
on opposite sides of the mandrel bore 64. When the
an expander 30 formed on the mandrel downwardly along 55 plunger 63 is in its downward position, its pin 66 is on the
tapered expander surfaces 31 on the cutter supporting
right side (as 籨isclosed in FIGS. l and 2) of the latch
arms 14 to urge the latter and the cutters 17 outwardly.
When the mandrel 23 moves downwardly to its fullest
extent, as determined by engagement of the tlange 28 with
opening `67, the lower part of this opening being much
wider than the pin diameter. The spring 54 can, there
tore, swing the latch 51 outwardly when the mandrel 23
a lower stop shoulder 32 on the body, retainer surfaces 60 moves downwardly within the body 13 to move the latch
51 into the body recess 57 and under the latch shoulder
33 on the cutter supporting members or arms, which are
located ?below the tapered expander :surfaces 31, will en
gage the periphery 34 of the expander, 羨hich will then
58 (FIG. 2). When this occurs, the retrieving pin 66 is
disposed adjacent the lower end of the left side 70 of
the latch opening, so that upward movement of the
serve as a lock resisting and precluding inadvertent in
ward movement of the cutter -supporting members 14 and 65 plunger 63 will cause the pin 66 to engage the tapered
left side 70 and swing the latch 51 out of the
the cutters 17 from their outwardly expanded position.
body recess 57 and back to its retracted position within
The lower portion 35 of the mandrel below its expander
the upper mandrel member 4t).
and the lock 30 is slidable through a bushing 36 mounted
Downward movement of the plunger 63 within the
within a guide 37 that may be integral with the body and
extends across its slot 15; whereas the upper yend 38 of 70 mandrel member 40 is limited by engagement of the
the mandrel is piloted within the lower socket or bore 39
plunger flange 71 with the upper end of the mandrel,
of an upper mandrel portion 40, to which it is swivelly
whereas its upward movement is determined by engage
secured so -that the mandrel portions move 玪ongitudinally
ment of the retrieving pin 66 with the upper ends of the
as a unit, but in which the lower porti-on can turn arcu
longitudinal mandrel slots 68. The plunger 63 is initially
ately (which need only be to a slight extent) with respect 75 玠isposed in its lower position during lowering ofthe drill
3,097,708
bit 11 through the well casing 10, and it may be elevated
by means of a suitable overshot (not shown) attached to
a wire line (not shown), which can ?be coupled to a head
72 at the upper end of the retrieving plunger 63, 玹o move
the latch 51 from its expanded to its retracted position
within the mandrel 40.
The compression spring 24 is maintained in its stressed
state during lowering of 籺he idrilling apparatus down
through the casing by a plurality of holding elements 73,
each of which is mounted on a hinge or fulcrum pin 74
secured to arms 75 extending outwardly from a ring 76
welded to the upper mandrel member 40 above the upper
end lof the bit body 13. These holding elements 73 in
clude depending legs 77 which engage upwardly facing
holding shoulders 78 at the upper portion` of the ibody.
When in this position, the mandrel 23 cannot be shifted
downwardly in the body 13 by the spring 24, and, instead,
through the mandrel 23, xforces the cutter> arms >14 out
wardly to greater extents, until they reach their maximum
outwardly expanded position in which the peripheral
lock surfaces 34 of the mandrel engage the companion
> lock surfaces 33 on the cutter supporting arms.
At this
time, the supporting arms 14 will be disposed
the
upper portions 97 of the casing slots, being guided there
into, if they have been previously disaligned therewith,
Iby the tapered sides 96 of the lower portions of the slots.
The cutters 17 will have produced a transverse annular
shoulder 99 in the formation, whereupon the imposition
of downweight on the casing string 10 will cause the
upper ends 9S of the casing slots to engage companion
upwardly facing drilling weight shoulders 190 on the
cutter supporting members, so that the drilling weight
is transmitted from the casing 10 ?directly to these shoul
ders 100 and the supporting members 14, causing the
will occupy its upper position, as limited by engagement
latter -to urge the cutters 17 against the formation shoul
of a mandrel shoulder 79 with a retainer ring 80, which
der 99. The drilling torque .is transmitted Idirectly from
may be a split snap ring 駎ting within an internal circumf 20 the sides 97 of the slots to the cutter supporting arms 14
ferential groove S1 玦n the body of the tool.
and cutters 17.
The holding elements 73 are released, to permit the
Rotation of the casing string 10 and of the cutter sup
spring 24 to expand, after the lower portion of the drill
porting arms 14 and cutters 17 will continue to e韋ect a
bit 11 and its cutters 17 are disposed below the lower
removal of the annulus ?or formation material which sur
terminus of the casing string 10, by engagement of out 25 rounds the pilot hole 21 drilled ?by the pil-ot bit. The
wardly extending lingers 82 on the holding elements with
cuttings are removed by pumping drilling mud, 羙r the
a tapered stop shoulder 83 von the casing string or shoe.
It is apparent that as these fingers 82 move down along
like, downwardly 玹hrough the casing string 10 which will
pass through a plurality of longitudinal ports or pas
the shoulder 83 they will swing upwardly, resulting in an
sages 105 in the stop ring 85, then continuing around the
outward shifting of the holding element legs 77 from the 30 exterior lof the :body 13 and in through side ports 106
body shoulder 78, whereupon the spring 24 can expand
in the -body that communicate with side ports 107 in the
and shift the mandrel 23 downwardly of the body 13,
lower mandrel member 23 opening into the central pas
to cause the expander and'lock 30 to expand the cutter
sage 108 in ythis member, the iluid discharging through
arms 14 and cutters 17 outwardly to the extent limited by
the lower end of this mandrel member into the body slot
engagement of the periphery 34 of the lock with the corn 35 15, and then flowing outwardly around 羣he cutters 17
panion lock surfaces 33 on the cutter supporting members.
and the formation shoulder 99, `commingling with the out
Downward movement of the mandrel 23 of the 籺ool
tings produced by the cutters and 籧arry-ing them upwardly
in the casing 1,0 is limited by engagement of a stop ring
around lthe exterior of the casing 10 to the top of the
85 on the upper portion of the mandrel with the stop
well bore.
`
shoulder 83 of the casing or pipe 10. This ring has an 40
In order to prevent the drilling fluid from entering the
external diameter greater than the internal diameter of
annulus between the lower mandrel member 23 and body
the casing below the stop shoulder 83. 籌t is swivelly
13 containing the spring 24, the upper spring seat 25 may
secured :on the upper mandrel member 40 lby means of
have inner and outer side seals 109 thereon engaging the.
balls S6 extending circumferentially around a mandrel
periphery of the lower mandrel member 23 and the inner
raceway 87 and a companion raceway 88 in the stop ring. 45 wall of the body. Similarly, .a side seal 110y is provided
Engagement of the ring 85 with the st-op shoulder 83 will
between the upper yand lower mandrel members 23, 40.
not prevent arcuate movement of the mandrel ?23 and
Side seals 1'11 are also disposed between the stop ring
the body 13 of the tool, in order that the cutter supporting
85 and the mandrel member 40 and this mandrel member
members 14 :can be appropriately coupled to the `lower
and the retrieving plunger 63. These latter seals yare pro
portion 12 of the casing, as explained hereinbelow. The 50 vided above the swivel ball members 86, so as to minimize
appropriate location of the raceways 87, 88 opposite one
the opportunity of ?drilling mud and #foreign substances
another, so that the balls 86 can be inserted in place
resisting arcuate movement of the mandrel 40, 23 within
through a hole 89 in the mandrel which is then closed by
the stop ring 85.
a plug 90, is determined by engagement of the upper end
In the event that the cutters 17 are elevated from the
of the stop ring 85 with an outwardly directed flange 91 55 formation shoulder, as might yoccur in adding addition-al
at the upper end ci the upper mandrel member 40'.
sections of casing to the `drill string at the top of the well
When the stop ring 85 engages the stop shoulder 83,
bore, the cutters are prevented from retracting even par
which will occur shortly after the holding elements 73
tially from their fully expanded position. This is due to
have `been released from 4the body 13 of fthe tool, the
the outward shifting of the latch 511 into the body recess
spring 24 will be urging the mandrel 23 downwardly 60 57 and under the latch yshoulder 58 following outward
oi the body and against the expander surfaces 31 on the
expansion of the cutters to their maximum extent. Thus,
cutter arms 14. At this time, the cutter arms 14 are dis~
the cutters will remain in their outward expanded position
posed within and also project below opposed down
so that subsequent relowering of the casing string 10 can
wardly opening slots 95 in the casing (FIG. 8), the lower
be had with assurance that the cutters will continue to
sides 96 of each slot Vdiverging 玦n a downward idirec 65 enlarge the well bore to the ?desired diameter, which is
tion and the upper sides 97 0f each slot being substan
substantially greater than the external diameter of the
tially parallel to one another, terminating at a shoulder
casing string.
98 that lies in the plane substantially normal `to the axis
When the drill bit apparatus is to be removed from the
of the apparatus. As the> spring 24 expands Ithe arms
well casing, a suitable overshot (not shown) is llowered
14 outwardly, the casing 10 is rotated, the 4trailing sides 70 on a wire sand line or the like (not shown) down through
`of the slots 95 engaging the cutter supporting arms and
the casing 10, tand will couple itself to the head 72 of the
rotating the arms 14 as well as the cutters 417, which will
retrieving plunger 63 (all in a well-known manner). The
dig into any formation that they encounter and ei頴ct
taking _of an upward pull on the wire line will move the
its removal. As the hole .-is enlarged (without moving
plunger 63 upwardly, which will `cause the retrieving pin
the casing string 10 downwardly), the spring 24, acting 75 `66 to engage the left side 70 of the latch -slot 67, shifting
3,097,708
0
7
O
S3. Companion dogs 129 are provided in this recess
which will engage the driving dogs 123, so that the
rotational effort of the casing string 10a is transferred to
the dogs, the latter engaging the sides of the mandrel
the latch 51 inwardly `fully within the contines of the
mandrel 40. The upward movement on the plunger 63
will then be transmitted through its pin 66 to the mandrel
40, 23, moving the mandrel upwardly against the eforce
of the spring 24, the body then being prevented from
moving `upwardly by virtue of the fact that the cutter sup
slots 122 to rotate the mandrel 40 which has a slidable
spline connection 40a to the body of the tool.
Downward drilling weight is also transferred through
the downwardly facing shoulder 130 defining the upper
porting member shoulders 100 are engaging the casing
shoulders 98. The mandrel 23 is shifted upwardly against
the action of the spring 24 to further compress the l-atter,
until the expander and lock portion 30 of the mandrel is
disposed above the lock and expander surfaces 31 on the
cutter supporting members. Continued upward move
end of the casing recess and which engages the upper
ends of the dogs 123.
From the dogs, the downward
drilling weight is transmitted through the mandrel 40,
23 and its lower flange 2S` to the body 13 of the tool,
and 羏rom the body of the tool through the body stop
ment of the 籱andrel 23 will cause an upwardly facing
shoulder 112 on the mandrel to contact inwardly directed
relatively short arms 113 on the cutter supporting mem
shoulders 120 to the companion shoulders 120e on the
cutter supporting members 14a.
The retrieving plunger 63a has a second or upper
bers 14, causing such short arms to swing the supporting
retrieving pin 135 therein extending through openings
members about their hinge pins 16 and in an inward direc
67a in the driving dogs 123. When the dogs swing out
tion, to place the cutters 17 inwardly of the casing 10 and
wardly into the casing recess 12S, the upper retrieving
substantially within the confines of the `drill bit body 13.
The entire drill bit 11 is now moved upwardly within the 20 pin 135 will be disposed at the lower ends of the open
ings `67a and in a position to engage the inclined sides 70a
casing 10, the cutter supporting arms 14 riding upwardly
of the openings, such that upward movement of the
along the wall of the casing. The elevation of the wire
plunger 63a within the mandrel 4Gb will cause the upper
line continues to bring the entire drilling apparatus to
pin 135 to retract the dogs 123 from the casing recess
the top of the well casing 10, where it can be replaced by
a similar drill bit or in which the worn cutters can be 25 128 at substantially the same time that the lower re
replaced and the bit relowered through the well casing
10, with the holding elements 73 again retaining the
spring 24 玦n its compressed condition. The cutter sup
porting members 14 and cutters 17 will remain inherently
in their retracted positions.
30
When the new or reconditioned drill bit again reaches
the lower end of the casing 10, the 駈gers 812 will again
engage the stop shoulder 83 to release the mandrel 23,
permitting the spring 24 to expand and the cutters 17
to be shifted outwardly to their expanded position within
the casing slots 95. Drilling weight can now be imposed
on the casing 10 and the latter rotated to continue the
tracting pin 66 is removing the latch 51 from the body
recess 57. When the dogs 123 and latch 51 have been
retracted, the plunger 63a is movable upwardly, through
use lof the wire line and overshot previously referred to,
to elevate the mandrel 4Gb, 23 and the body 13 of the
tool within the casing 10a. When the cutter arms 14a
engage the lower end 136 of the casing they will resist
upward movement of the body 13 of the tool, where
upon the mandrel 23 is shifted upwardly Within the
body to compress the spring 24 and move the expander
and lock device 30 above the expander surfaces 31 of
the cutter supporting members, the mandrel shoulder 112
drilling -of the well bore.
then engaging the short arms 113 on the supporting mem
bers to swing the latter and the cutters 17 inwardly
Retrievable dr-ill bits are lowered within and elevated
through the well casing 10l as often as -required, until 40 within the body slot 15, the entire bit apparatus then be
ing capable of passing upwardly into the casing string to
the hole is ldrilled to the desired depth. When this oc
be elevated therewithin to the top of the well bore.
curs, the drill bit is retrieved from the well casing and
The inventors claim:
the latter can be cemented in place, if desired.
1. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
In the form of invention illustrated in FIGS. 9 to 1l,
inclusive, substantially the same mechanism is employed 45 within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of
pipe disposed in a well bore: a unitary body movable
for expanding the cutter arms 14a and cutters 17 and for
longitudinally through the pipe; a plurality of initially
latching them in their outwardly expanded position. The
expansion of the spring 24 is also prevented initially by
retracted cutter means mounted on and circumferentially
the same holding elements 73 pivotally mounted on the
spaced about 籹aid body for expansion laterally outwardly
mandrel 4Gb and engaging the upper portion 78 of the 50 of said body; said lbit including means adapted to engage
a lower portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe
drill bit body 13. However, in lieu of the drilling weight
and torque being transmitted directly `from the casing
with said cutter means projecting below the lower end
of the pipe; means carried `by said body for expanding said
string 10a to the cutter supporting members 14a, the
drilling torque and weight is transmitted Vfrom the casing
cutter means from its initially retracted position laterally
to the mandrel 40h, 23, and `from the latter to the body 55 outwardly of the body to drill an eifective hole diameter
13 of the tool, and thence to the cutter supporting mem
greater than the outside `diameter of the pipe; and means
for coupling said expanding means to the pipe, whereby
bers 14a, which, when expanded outwardly, will engage
the pipe is adapted to rotate the bit and transmit torque
lbody stop shoulders 120 on the sides of the body slot 15,
through said expanding means and body to said cutter
in the m-anner disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,
809,016.
As disclosed in FIGS. 9 to l1, the upper mandrel mem
ber 4Gb has a stop ring 85a integral therewith, this stop
ring being engageable with the casing stop shoulder 83.
Above this stop -ring the upper mandrel member 40b is
provided with a head 121 having slots 122 extending
transversely thereof and Ireceiving a pair of oppositely
directed driving or coupling dogs 123 which are pivotally
mounted on pins 124 secured to the head. Each latch
60 means.
v2. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
within and coupled to the lower portion of `a string of
pipe disposed in a well bore: a body movable longitu
dinally through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means
mounted on said body for expansion laterally outwardly
of said body; said bit including means adapted to engage
a lower portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe
with said cutter means projecting below the lower end of
the pipe; means movable longitudinally in said body and
pression spring 125, one end of which engages the head 70 engageable with said cutter means for expanding said
121 and the other end of which engages an upper lug
cutter means laterally outwardly of the body to drill
126 on the driving dog to urge the upper, outer portion
an effective hole diameter greater than the outside diam
127 of the driving dog outwardly into a recess 128 in
eter of the pipe; and means for coupling said expanding
the casing shoe 12a, with which the driving dogs become
means to the pipe, whereby the pipe is adapted to rotate
aligned when the stop ring 85a engages the stop shoulder 75 the bit; said locating means including a member mounted
or dog 123 is urged in an outward direction by a. corn
3,097,708`
9
on said expanding means and engageable with the pipe
to prevent ?further downward movement of said expanding
means in the pipe.
3. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of
pipe disposed in a well bore: a unitary body movable
longitudinally through the pipe; a plurality of initially
retracted cutter means mounted on and circumferentially
spaced about said body `for expansion laterally outwardly
of said body; said bit including means adapted to engage
a lower portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the
pipe with said cutter means projecting below the lower
end of the pipe; means movable in one direction longitu
dinally in said 籦ody and engageable with said cutter
10
by such pipe portion to a released condition and permit
operation of said expanding means.
7. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of
pipe disposed in a well bore: a body movable longitudi
nally through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means
mounted on said body for expansion laterally outwardly
of said body; said bit including means adapted to engage
a lower portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe
with said cutter means projecting below the lower end
of the pipe; means including a mandrel movable rela
tively downwardly in said body and engaging said cutter
means to expand said cutter means laterally outwardly
of the body to drill an el頴ctive hole diameter greater
means for expanding said cutter means from its initially 15 than the outside diameter of the pipe; means for coupling
retracted position laterally outwardly of the body to drill
an effective hole diameter greater than the outside diam
eter of the pipe; releasable latch means Afor preventing
the bit to the pipe, whereby the pipe is adapted to rotate
the bit; and means for relatively elevating the mandrel in
said body to permit retraction of said cutter means; said
movement of said expanding means in the opposite lon
locating means including a member mounted on said
gitudinal direction after expansion of said cutter means;
mandrel and eugageable with the lower portion of the
and means VJr'or coupling the bit to the pipe, whereby the
pipe to prevent further downward movement of said
pipe is adapted to rotate the bit.
mandrel in the pipe.
4. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
`8. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
within and coupled to the lower portion of a lstring of pipe
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of pipe
disposed in a well bore: a body movable longitudinally 25 disposed in a well bore: a unitary body movable longitu
through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means mounted
dinally through the pipe; a plurality of initially retracted
on said body for expansion later-ally outwardly of said
cutter means mounted on and circumferentially spaced
body; said bit including means adapted to engage la lower
about said body for expansion laterally outwardly of said
portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe with said
body; said bit including means adapted to engage a lower
cutter means projecting below the lower end of the pipe; 30 portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe with said
means movable in one 籨irection longitudinally in said
cutter means projecting below the lower end of the pipe;
body and engageable with said cutter means for expanding
means including a mandrel movable relatively down
said cutter means :from its initially retracted position
wardly in said body and engaging said cutter means to
laterally -outwardly of the body to drill an el頴ctive hole
expand said cutter means from its initially retracted posi
diameter greater than the outside diameter of the pipe; 35 tion laterally outwardly of the body to drill an el頴ctive
releasable latch means for preventingtmovem-ent of said
hole diameter greater than the outside diameter of the
expanding means in the opposite longitudinal direction
pipe; means for coupling the bit to the pipe, whereby the
after expansion of said cutter means; and means lfor cou
pipe is adapted to rotate the bit; releasable latch means
pling the cutter means directly to the pipe, whereby the
for preventing upward movement of said mandrel after
pipe transmits its rotary motion and torque directly to the
said cutter means has been expanded outwardly; and
cutter means.
means for releasing said latch means and for relatively
5. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
elevating the mandrel in said body` to permit retraction
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of pipe
of said cutter means.
.
disposed in a well bore: a -body movable longitudinally
. 9. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be loweredV
through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means mounted 45 within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of
on said body for expansion laterally outwardly of said
pipe disposed in a well bore: a body movable longitu
body; said bit including means adapted to engage a lower
dinally through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means
portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe with said
mounted on said body for expansion laterally outwardly
cutter means projecting below the -lower end of the pipe;
of said body; said bit including means adapted to engage
means for expanding said cutter means laterally out 50 a lower portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe
wardly of the body to drill an e馿ctive hole diameter
with said cutter means projecting below the lower end of
greater than the outside diameter of the pipe; said locat
the pipe; means including a mandrel movable relatively
downwardly in said body and engaging said cutter means
ing means including a member mounted on said expand
to expand said cutter means laterally outwardly of the
ing means and engageable with the pipe to prevent further
downward movement of said expanding means in the pipe; 55 body to drill an effective hole diameter greater than the
outside diameter of the pipe; means for coupling the bit to
and means 籪or coupling t?ne cutter means directlyV to the
pipe, whereby the pipe transmits its rotary motion and
torque directly to the cutter means.
?
.
the pipe, whereby the pipe is adpted to rotate the bit;
means for relatively elevating the mandrel in said body
to permit retraction of said cutter means; and releasable
6. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of 60 holding means engaging said mandrel and body to prevent
relative downward movement of said mandrel in said bod-y
pipe disposed in a well bore: a body movable longi
during lowering of the bit through the pipe, said holding
tudinally through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means
means being engageable -with a portion of the pipe to be
mounted on said body for expansion laterally outwardly
shifted by such pipe portion to a released condition and
of said body; said bit including means adapted to顁頶age
a lower portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe 65 permit such relative downward movement of said man
with said cutter means projecting below the lower end
Y l0. In a retrievable drilling bit adaptedto be lowered
of the pipe; means for expanding said cutter meansl later
within and coupled to the lower portion ofV a string of
ally outwardly of the body to drill an effective hole di
pipe disposed in a well bore: a body-movable longitu
ameter greater than the outside diameter of the pipe; 70 dinally through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means
means for coupling the bit to the pipe, whereby the pipe
mounted on said body for expansion laterally outwardly of
is adapted to rotate the bit; and releasable holding means
said body; said bit including means adapted toengage a
for preventing operation of said expanding means during
lower portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the Vpipe with
lowering of the bit through the pipe, said holding means
said cutter means projecting below the lower end ofthe
being engageable with a portion of the pipe to be shifted 75 pipe; means including a mandrel movable relatively down-~
drel.
-
-
3,097,708
11?;
ll
wardly in said body and engaging said cutter means to ex
pand said cutter means laterally outwardly of the body to
drill an effective hole diameter greater than the outside
diameter of the pipe; means for coupling the bit to the
pipe, whereby the pipe is adapted to rotate the bit; means
for relatively elevating the mandrel in said body to permit
and body to prevent operation of said spring means;
means for coupling said mandrel to the pipe, whereby the
pipe is adapted to rotate the bit; and means for relatively
elevating said mandrel in said body to permit retraction
of said cutter means.
14. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of pipe
disposed in a well bore: a body movable longitudinally
engaging said mandrel and body to prevent relative down
through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means mounted
ward movement of said mandrel in said body during lower
on said body for expansion laterally outwardly of said
ing of the bit through the pipe, said holding means being
body; said bit including means adapted to engage a lower
released upon engaging a portion of the pipe to permit
portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe with said
such relative downward movement of said mandrel; re
cutter means projecting below the lower end of the pipe;
leasable latch means for preventing upward movement
a mandrel movable relatively downwardly in said body
of said mandrel after said cutter means has been expanded
and engaging said cutter means to expand said cutter
outwardly; and means for releasing said latch means and
means laterally outwardly of the body to drill an eifective
for relatively elevating the mandrel in said body to permit
hole diameter greater than the outside diameter of the
retraction of said cutter means.
pipe; spring means for moving said mandrel relatively
11. fIn a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
downwardly in said body; releasable holding means en
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of pipe
disposed in a well bore: a body movable longitudinally 20 gaging said mandrel and body to prevent operation of said
spring means; means for coupling the bit to the pipe,
through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means mounted
whereby the pipe is adapted to rotate the bit; releasable
on said body for expansion laterally outwardly of said
latch means for preventing upward movement of said
body; said bit including means adapted to engage a lower
mandrel after said cutter means has been expanded out
portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe with said
cutter means projecting below the lower end of the pipe; 25 wardly; and means for releasing said latch means and for
relatively elevating said mandrel in said body to permit
a mandrel movable relatively downwardly in said body
retraction of said cutter means.
and engaging said cutter means to expand said cutter
15. 'In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
means laterally outwardly of the body to drill an effective
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of pipe
hole diameter greater than the outside diameter of the
pipe; spring means for moving said mandrel relatively 30 disposed in a well bore: a body movable longitudinally
through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means mounted
downwardly in said body; releasable holding means engag
on said body for expansion laterally outwardly of said
ing said mandrel and body to prevent operation of said
body; said bit including means adapted to engage a lower
spring means; said holding means including instrumen
portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe with said
talities engageable lwith the pipe to be shifted by the pipe
cutter means projecting below the lower end of the pipe;
to a released condition; means for coupling the bit to the
a mandrel movable relatively downwardly in said body
pipe, whereby the pipe is adapted to rotate the bit; and
and engaging said cutter means to expand said cutter
means for relatively elevating said mandrel in said body
means laterally outwardly of the body to drill an effective
to permit retraction of said cutter means.
12. 1n a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
hole diameter greater than the outside diameter of the
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of pipe 40 pipe; spring means for moving said mandrel relatively
disposed in a well bore: a body movable longitudinally
downwardly in said body; releasable holding means en
through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means mounted
gaging said mandrel and body to prevent operation of said
on said body for expansion laterally outwardly of said
spring means; means for coupling said cutter means di
body; said bit including means adapted to engage a lower
rectly to the pipe whereby the pipe is adapted to rotate
portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe with said 45 the bit; releasable latch means acting between said man
cutter means projecting below the lower end of the pipe;
drel and body for preventing upward movement of said
a mandrel movable relatively downwardly in said body
mandrel after said cutter means has been expanded out
and engaging said cutter means to expand said cutter
wardly; and means for releasing said latch means and for
means laterally outwardly of the body to drill an effective
relatively elevating said mandrel in said body to permit
hole diameter greater than the outside diameter of the
retraction of said cutter means out of coupling relation to
retraction of said cutter means; releasable holding means
pipe; spring means for moving said mandrel relatively
the pipe.
downwardly in said body; releasable holding means engag
ing said mandrel and body to prevent operation of said
spring means; said holding means including instrumental
ities engageable with the pipe to be shifted by the pipe
16. ?In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of pipe
disposed in a well bore: a body movable longitudinally
through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means mounted
on said body for expansion laterally outwardly of said
to a released condition; means for coupling said cutter
means directly to the pipe whereby the pipe is adapted to
body; said bit including means adapted to engage a lower
rotate the bit; and means for relatively elevating said man
portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe with said
drel in said body to permit retraction of said cutter means
cutter means projecting below the lower end of the pipe;
60 a mandrel movable relatively downwardly in said body in
out of coupling relation to the pipe.
13. IIn a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
torque transmitting relation thereto and engaging said
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of pipe
cuter means to expand said cutter means laterally out
disposed in a well bore: a body movable longitudinally
wardly of the body to drill an ei飁ctive hole diameter
through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means mounted
greater than the outside diameter of the pipe; spring
on said body for expansion laterally outwardly of said
means for moving said mandrel relatively downwardly in
body; said bit including means adapted to engage a lower
said body; releasable holding means engaging said man
portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe with said
drel and body to prevent operation of said spring means;
cutter means projecting below the lower end of the pipe;
means for coupling said mandrel to the pipe, whereby
a mandrel movable relatively downwardly in said body
the pipe is adapted to rotate the bit; releasable latch
in torque transmitting relation thereto and engaging said 70 means for preventing upward movement of said mandrel
cutter means to expand said cutter means laterally out
after said cutter means has been expanded outwardly; and
wardly of the body to drill an el飁ctive hole diameter
means for releasing said latch means and for relatively
greater than the outside diameter of the pipe; spring means
elevating the mandrel in said body to permit retraction
for moving said mandrel relatively downwardly in said
of said cutter means.
17. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
body; releasable holding means engaging said mandrel 75
3,097,708
13
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of pipe
Idisposed in a well bore: a body movable longitudinally
through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means mounted
on said body for expansion laterally outwardly of said
body; said bit including means adapted to engage a lower
portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe with said
cutter means projecting Ibelow the lower end of the pipe;
a mandrel movable relatively downwardly in said body
in torque transmitting relation thereto and engaging said
cutter means to expand said cutter means laterally out
14
elevating the mandrel in said body to permit retraction of
said cutter means.
19. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of pipe
disposed in a well bore: a body movable longitudinally
through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means mounted
on said body for expansion laterally outwardly of said
body; said bit including means adapted to engage a lower
portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe with said
cutter means projecting below the lower end of the pipe;
a mandrel movable relatively downwardly in said body
in torque transmitting relation thereto and engaging said
wardly of the body to drill an e韋ective hole diameter
greater than the outside diameter of the pipe; spring means
cutter means to expand said cutter means laterally out
for moving said mandrel relatively downwardly in said
wardly of the body to drill an effective hole diameter
body; releasable holding means engaging said mandrel
and body to prevent operation of said spring means; cou 15 greater than the outside diameter of the pipe; spring means
for moving said mandrel relatively downwardly in said
pling means on said mandrel expandible outwardly into
body; releasable holding means engaging said mandrel and
coupling relation with the pipe, whereby the pipe is adapted
body to prevent operation of said spring means; coupling
to rotate the bit; means for releasing said `coupling means
means on said mandrel expandible outwardly into cou~
from the pipe; and means for relatively elevating said
mandrel in said body to permit retraction of said cutter 20 pling relation with the pipe, whereby the pipe is adapted
means.
to rotate the bit; reieasable latch means acting between
18. In a retrievable drilling bit adapted to be lowered
within and coupled to the lower portion of a string of
pipe disposed in a lwell bore: a body movable longitudi
nally through the pipe; initially retracted cutter means 25
said mandrel and body for preventing upward movement
mounted on said body for expansion laterally outwardly
of said mandrel after said cutter means has been expanded
outwardly; means projecting upwardly from and movable
upwardly with respect to said mandrel for releasing said
coupling means from the pipe and for releasing said latch
means and for relatively elevating the mandrel in said body
of said body; said Ibit including means adapted to engage
to permit retraction of said cutter means; and releasable
a lower portion of the pipe to locate the bit in the pipe
holding means for preventing downward movement of
with said cutter means projecting below the lower end
of the pipe; a mandrel movable relatively downwardly in 30 said mandrel in said body during lowering of the bit
through the pipe, said holding means being released upon
said body in torque transmitting relation -thereto and en
engaging a portion of the pipe to permit downward move
gaging said cutter means to expand said cutter means
ment of said mandrel under the in駏ence of said spring
laterally outwardly of the body to drill an effective hole
means.
diameter greater than the outside diameter of the pipe;
spring means for moving said mandrel relatively down 35
wardly in said body; releasable holding means engaging
References Cited in the file of this patent
said mandrel and body to prevent operation of said spring
UNITED STATES PATENTS
means; coupling means on said mandrel expandible out
wardly into coupling relation with the pipe, whereby the
l籶ipe is adapted to rotate the bit; releasable latch means 40
acting between said mandrel and body for preventing up
ward movement of said mandrel after said cutter means
has been expanded outwardly; and means projecting up
wardly from and movable upwardly with respect to said
mandrel for releasing said coupling means from the pipe 45
,and for releasing said latch means and for relatively
1,832,129
1,909,817
2,144,687
2,173,018
Knaur ______________ __ Nov.
Dodds _______________ __ May
Pippir ________________ __ Jan.
Hurley ______________ __ Sept.
17, 1931
16, 19133
24, 1939
2,184,361
Noble _______________ __ Dec. 26, 1939
2,755,071
2,764,388
2,771,275
Kammerer ___________ __ July 17, 1956
Camp ______________ __ Sept. 25, 1956
Ortlo韋 ______ ________.,__ Nov. 20, 1956
12, 1939
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