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Патент USA US3097768

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July 16, 1963
P. E. E. A. A. HENRICOT
3,097,751
AUTOMATIC RAILWAY COUPLERS
Filed July 24, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Poul Emiie Ernest Alfred Andre’ Henricot
BY
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July 16, 1963
P. E. E. A. A. HENRICOT
3,097,751
AUTOMATIC RAILWAY COUPLBRS
Filed July 24, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
Emile Ernest Alfred André Henricot
BY M
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A?'ys
July 16, 1963
P. E. E. A. A. HENRXCOT
3,097,751
AUTOMATIC RAILWAY COUPLERS
Filed July 24, 1959
F167
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
FIGS
1 INVENTOR.
Poul Emile Ernest Alfred Andre Henricot
BYMkZZZM
Att’ys
July 16, 1963
P. E. E. A. A. HENRICOT
3,097,751
AUTOMATIC RAILWAY COUPLERS
Filed July 24, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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INVENTOR.
Poul Emile Ernest Alfred Andre’ Henricoi
United States Patent O? ice
3,097,751
Patented July 16, 1963
1
2
3,097,751
clarity, not essential elements have been omitted from
C0urt-St.-Etienne, Belgium
FIGURE 1 shows in side elevation the essential part
of automatic coupler according to the invention, partly in
section, the so-called guard arm, i.e. the portion in front
AUTOMATIC RAILWAY COUPLERS
Paul Emile Ernest Alfred André Henricot,
Filed July 24, 1959, Ser. No. 829,266
9 Claims. (Cl. 213-152)
The present invention relates to automatic center buffer
couplers of the movable knuckle type and more particu
drawings.
of line I—-I on plan view FIGURE 6 having been re
moved.
FIGURES 2 and 3 show inner views of the two halves
larly pertains to improve their structure in order to adapt 10 of coupler casting as they would appear when, after re
moval of inner parts, it were sectioned along line II—II of
them to present-day or near-future requirements recapac
FIGURE 1, top portion turned over and both halves con
ity and safety of operation, whilst taking due regard to
sidered from above. FIGURE 3 more speci?cally gives
the necessity of overcoming transition di?iculties in net
an alternate embodiment of the invention, and in both
works passing over from an older type of different cou
pler to automatic central buffer practice in the course of 15 ?gures, dot lines giving the outer contour of knuckle lines
have been added for purpose hereafter explained.
their development.
FIGURE 4 gives a top view of knuckle.
It is a matter of record that in the most progressive
FIGURE 5 shows a vertical section through assembled
railways in the world, the heaviest type of automatic cou
coupler, substantially along line V-V of FIGURE 6.
pler now existing is scarcely able to cope with the heaviest
FIGURE 6 is a sectional plan view, similar to FIG
trains whilst working over di?icult mountain grades; cou 20
URE 2 but with essential inner elements maintained, ex
plers are working dangerous near their limiting breaking
plaining sundry preferred embodiments of invention.
strength, failures due to overload become common, and
FIGURE 7 is .a sideway view of lock of coupler ac
yet the demand is increasing for higher capacity and
cording to the invention, in assembly with its lock-lifter
speed of goods circulation. Also in view of this de
mand, only an essentially unavoidable increase in dead 25 and positioned within the surrounding elements of the
coupler, in order to show its performance.
weight of the coupler could be allowed.
FIGURE 8 is a separate view of lock-lifter, assem
So a primary object of present invention resides in in
bled with its operating lever and lock.
creasing the strength of the coupling gear, without mak
ing it unduly heavy.
FIGURE 9 shows side elevation of coupler according
the invention, with transition arrangement moored in
Another object is to assure straight line transmission 30 to
unopcrative position.
of traction and buf?ng forces, as directly as possible.
FIGURE 10 is a plan view of same, sectioned along
A further object is to ensure most adequate distribution
X—X of FIGURE 9, showing part of transition gear
of material or metal between the elements of the cast
extended.
ings assembly which constitute the coupler, so that each
FIGURE 11 gives separate side elevation of transition
part sustains its fair share of the load, strain equalization 35 arrangement.
The automatic coupler 1 is essentially composed of
box-like casting 2 containing the mechanism and rear
Wardly terminating in the shank or drawbar 3 (whence it
important part of stress transmission within the knuckle,
considered as a curved link, so that this important ele 40 is also comprehensively called drawbar in USA terminol
ogy) by means of which it is connected to the vehicle
ment, which is also the component part destined to con
frame through a draft gear adapted to cushion shocks in
centrate service wear, will act as a safety feature for pro
being pushed as far as consistent with normalized dis
tribution of stresses and the necessities of operation.
Another particular of the invention is to localize an
traction and in buff.
Front end 4 of this box-like casting 2 has to be rather
widely open at 8 in order to allow swinging movement of
45
the knuckle 5, the nose ~12 of which when open forms, to
vibration, to provide multiple overlapping safety features
gether with the guard arms 6 of coupler casting, an open
for an increased security of operation, and to build a
ing apt to meet and coaxialize with a like opening of an
strong coupler aslight as possible.
approaching similarly disposed assembly, both progres
Means to this end essentially consist in localizing an
sively closing on and by one another, until the locks 11
important part of stress transmission within the knuckle,
of both couplers ?x knuckles latchlike in closed position
considered as a curved link under traction or buff, and in
in which the opposed inner surfaces of the pair of noses
correspondingly modifying co-operating parts of coupler
‘12 are disposed in engaging relation to prevent separation
to best answer service requirements.
of the knuckles from each other.
The knuckle has also been designed to concentrate the
The vertical central portion 4 of the front face of the
inevitable wear occuring in service, but its active outside
coupler casting box, after gently pushing the opposite
contour (the well-known 11'’ 10A pro?le of Association
knuckle into closed position, as soon as this latter can
of American Railroads) has been developed as an assem
recede no further, has to take up the remaining impact
bly of smoothly-blended curves in order to minimize fric
force of the mating vehicle, and consequently acts as a.
tional abrasion. It is also formally intended that, in case
buffer to the opposing knuckle.
of brutal overstress the knuckle should fail before per
In order that bull-‘mg forces may be well centered, the
manent injury accrue to more expensive elements: yet its
tecting the assembly.
Finally, it is also intended, in view of the heavier and
speedier tra?ic producing a higher level of shock and
guard arm 6, preferably comprises a powerful solid horn,
protruding to the right of the normal buf?n g face 4 when
facing the coupler. The guard arm is dimensioned ade~
assembly.
On the other hand, quickness and ease of replacement 65 quately to resist some shock abuse, and cooperates with
the knuckle 5 which is rotatably hinged on the vertical
in case of damage or excessive shape reduction or distor
pin 7 between two (an upper 9 and a bottom 10) salient
sion is desirable, and this constitutes a supplementary
wings at the left of the boiling face of the mating as
object of the invention.
sembly.
Particulars of the above will be apparent from the de
It is well known, in order to relieve the knuckle pivot
scription given of annexed FIGURES 1 to 11, in all of
pin 7 of the stresses caused by buff and traction forces,
which each reference number given is used to nominate
to provide both top and bottom of the knuckle and inside
one same constituent element throughout. For the sake of
resistance is the limiting factor for the ultimate strength
which it is desired to increase-of the automatic coupler
faces of the knuckle-carrying wings 9, 10 of the coupler
3,097,751
4
casting 2 with mutually corresponding lugs substantially
knuckle nearer the location of pivot as well as their
concentric to the fulcrum, and closely engaging one an
other when coupling is being effected, whilst some notable
especially valuable if tolerances can be so arranged that
counterparts within the coupler casting, has been found
pairs of corresponding ledges and lugs make contact suc
freedom is intentionally foreseen between the pivot pin
cessively as they are reached when proceeding from the
and its bores in the knuckle and the wings. In this Wt tail of the knuckle towards the pivot. It will be under
fashion, transmission of forces is almost totally effected
stood that increasing loads acting on nose 12 of knuckle
between the knuckle and both the wings, and moreover
will stress said knuckle, especially its weakest hind parts;
the lugs situated in the wings or ‘in their immediate neigh
these will have tendency to stretch, so that ledge 17 will
bourhood are rather easily accessible for ?tting or adjust
come to bear against its counterpart in the coupler cast
ment if required.
ing 2, which will take up a part of the load; and finally
This possibility of adjustment, helpful in old days as
protection 16 will also engage its corresponding seat in
allowing correction of casting imperfections or faults,
the wings, giving the latter an opportunity to come to the
constitutes a point of danger when coupler elements are
rescue.
subjected to high stress requirements. Fitting, however
Knuckle 5 may also according to the invention, catch
skillfully carried out in the cramped surroundings offered
‘with its extreme tail end 28 behind a lug 29 inside of
by the inside of coupler casting 2, could at best be a
box part of coupler casting, thus extending on a third
removal of obtrusive salients and was unable to create
side the hook-like arrangement linking it to the former
the snug application of corresponding surfaces intended to
for direct transmission of forces. Even the lock-touch
transmit stress. Contacts took place on ridges and points,
ing side of knuckle can be shaped as at 30 in order to
soon ?attened out under load with resulting excessive play
coact with ledge 31 on lock 11, giving a four~side mutual
between parts. Real relief of strains on pivot 7 by lugs
engagement. This latter disposition, of course, will only
16 and 17 on knuckle could only be obtained when the
be effective as ‘far as:
art of casting had progressed sufhciently to insure precise
(a) The lock, vertically bridging gap 8 in front strik
mating of correspindong surfaces with one another with
ing face 4 of coupler, is apt to resist the ?exural strain
in tolerance limits which ‘for rough castings are narrow
now exerted upon it.
and only obtainable through diligent use of perfect mold
(b) Said bearing stresses can be taken up by solid walls
ing practice and accurate gauge-checking of parts.
Bu?ing forces, as said above, mainly taken up on the
centre face of coupler casting, only partly a?’ect lateral
wings, and moreover, due to the adoption of continuous
braking, buf?ng ‘forces tend to become in normal cases
more progressive than they used to be. ‘On the contrary,
tractive stresses increase with train loads; therefore, the
deposition of such protection lugs on the coupler cast
ing wings is apt to overstress said wings locally, also to
cause lateral expansion as the knuckle inserts its own lug
carrying hub wedge-like between wings, because said wings
cannot be braced against one another by intermediate
on top and bottom sides 32, 33 of ‘gap 8.
In the known art, lock 11 was essentially intended as
a compression-stressed member, for assuring knuckle un
imovably in locked position by filling the space between
face 34 on guard arm and substantially parallel face 35
on knuckle: when lock 11 is completely lifted, edge 36
on knuckle is free to swing out through gap 8 in front
face of coupler casting 2, thus releasing the mutual grasp
of the knuckles: gap 8 extends into guard arm 6 just
enough to make this possible. Thence, in known cou
plers, lock 11 exerts on knuckle a compression reaction
transverse to the direction of pull, and to ‘maintain equilib
tractional struts. In the following, tractive stresses will
rium of system a complementary reaction is needed acting
40
be mainly considered.
in direction to pivot 7. The result was a severe stressing
In the known art, the knuckle, receiving the direct
of coupler head wings, the knuckle thus acting only as a
stress of traction or buff, acted as a double-arm-lever,
just reversing direction of forces and imposing on coupler
casting 2 a reaction of substantially equivalent strength,
in the direction from lock 11 to lateral Wings 9 and 10.
It appears to be a worthwhile improvement, when, accord
ing to the invention, a traction exerted on nose 12 of
knuckle is transmitted by said knuckle, acting as a curved
link, to points situated symmetrically and as near as pos
sible to the draft ‘gear, which is to be the ?nal recipient
of the load, without substantially in?uencing wings 9
and 10. It has been proved by strain gauge measurements
under static load that ?nal stresses in the vicinity of the
wings are reduced over 50 percent.
According to the invention, this serious improvement
is brought by disposing broadly extended lugs 22, 23 on
top and bottom portions of the knuckle tail, which must
for other reasons have a notable arcuate extension. These
lugs can thus have a considerable area of contact with
their respective counterparts 24, 26 and 25, 27 inside
coupler head casting without needing too notable a height,
due to their extension over a long are.
Opening 8 in
coupler front wall 4 (buffing area) does not require to be
excessively widened. Lugs, solidly braced, offer a sturdy
resistance to ?exure. Their implantation in the proximity
of the root of coupler shank has the advantage of al
most direct transmission of effort to said shank by means
of a box-like, continuous structure, instead of (as was
the case previously), immediately through an intricate
system of walls, which in the neighbourhood of points of
application (wings) is rather weakened by the big open
ing for the knuckle.
Maintaining, together with the new arrangement (22,
23, with their correlatives 24, 25, 26, 27) also the pre
viously used protections such as 16 and 17 situated on
stress-reversing lever linkage.
Quite a different picture obtains with the arrangement
according to the invention. Thanks to arcuate lugs 22,
23 and their derivatives coacting with their counterparts
Within the coupler head casting 2, traction is directly trans
ferred to the root of the shank 3, and as stated above, the
coupler casting is seriously relieved of strain, whilst the
‘knuckle is not notably overstressed.
In FIGURE 2, where the contour of knuckle nose has
been shown in dotted lines, tractive load on knuckle may
be roughly imagined to be transmitted to the centre of
ledge 26, along line 37, forming an angle a with axis line
of coupler.
In FIGURE 3, also representing one of the inner views
of coupler casting 2, ‘an alternative shape of lug 24 has
been represented, markedly shortened in its extension
towards guard ‘arm face 34.
Here the transmission of
pull may be considered to happen along line 38, making
with axis line an angle a’, which is greater than or in
FIGURE 2.
Of course, FIGURES 2 and 3 with or different from a‘
should not be construed as referring to the same coupler:
it is ‘an essential requirement of good design that as far
as possible all correlative part be equally, i.e. symmetrical
ly stressed, and therefore a construction as symmetrical
as possible is a ?rst necessity.
In cases where, due
to stringent operational conditions, symmetry in shapes
cannot be observed ‘it is ‘imperative to seek adequate com
pensation in sections.
Now reverting to angles or and a’, as characteristic of
two coupler constructions, we perceive that from one side
a small or gives an almost straight-line axial transmission,
but from ‘the other a big it’ brings chord 38 much nearer
5
3,097,751
6
to the neutral ?bre of the curved link, thus reducing
required, strictly serves only to maintain the coupler
elements together in this open position.
Section MN through knuckle hub is most severely
stressed, the N side being under traction, the M side
under compression: on static breaking tests, rupture ini
tiates on 1N side. Pivot hole, in known art, centrally
?exural strains on the knuckle. Grossly, increasing a will
relieve the knuckle and load the coupler casting more
severely. Having, in accordance with FIGURE 2, almost
halved strains on coupler head, the above consideration
will provide those skilled in the ant with a welcome
choice for compensation. Conversely, with increasing a,
the lock ‘and also the wings of coupler casting will be
more heavily loaded.
Known locks have occasionally shown traces of begin
ning collapse under extreme stresses. Therefore, accord
sing to FIGURE 7, the lock 11 is a solid block of adequate
section ‘and made of steel of suf?cient hardness. Since
situated in the hub, is required to accommodate a 1%"
standard pin. A pin of % " diameter appears satisfactory
10
for the purpose intended, and with hole location within
the usual disposition in outside tangential position, will
procure on extra thickness of metal on the tractive side
of hub, without reducing the compressed area, which can
‘the lock has to present an internal slot 40 for accom
safely sustain about 30% extra unit load; so that an
modating the trigger or lock lifter 41, the invention is
carried into effect by disposing said slot sideways of the
location of buckling stresses, reducing its size to the ut
improved balance of strains is obtained. In other Words,
referring for example to the knuckle hub section M-—N as
shown in FIGURE 4, the pivot pin hole may be reduced
most. Lock lifter 41 after FIGURE 8 is made as thin as
from a standard 1% inch diameter to a 3%: inch diameter,
and the axis of the hole shifted laterally outwardly (up
consistent with its accessory but important functions of
wardly in FIGURE 4) toward the compression side of
safety ?or preventing the lock from jumping loose under
the elTect of traffic vibrations. For this same object, the 20 the knuckle hub. In this manner, an additional % inch
'lock, in closed position, lodges its ledge 42 beneath a pro
truding ridge 43 on rear face of coupler casting, so as
to offer a supplementary security any unlocking tendency
not caused by wilful actuation of uncoupling gear.
Safety of locked position is assured by the longitu
dinally slotted head 44 of trigger 41 engaging by gravity
beneath ledge 45 in coupler casting 2: thus any ascension
of the lock-tnigger assembly in the relative positions as
represented in FIGURE 7, is precluded even if the lock,
normally pressed between guard arm and knuckle faces
34 and 35, under vibrations of trai?c with momentary
release of pressure and upward jerks, had tendency to
creep upwards. This will be prevented by the barrier
constituted by trigger head 44 catching against ledge 45,
unless trigger 41 be positively lifted in a continuous move
ment so that by virtue of oblique slot in head 44, trigger
is added to the tension side of the knuckle hub cross
section M—N, and ‘the compression side of the cross sec~
tion rem-rains the same. It will thus be understood that
in accordance with one aspect of the invention the pivot
pin hole is located eccentrically with respect to the knuckle
.hub, in the sense that the tension side or N side of the
hub cross section is of a greater lateral dimension than
the compression or M side of the cross-section.
The pivot pin holes in the knuckle-carrying wings 9
and 10 may also be shifted laterally outwardly in a fash
ion similar to that described above regarding the hole
in the knuckle itself, as indicated by the location of the
pivot pin hole in FIGURE 10. This off-centre disposi
tion of pivot 7, as represented on FIGURE 10, also pro
cures an improvement in coaxialising capacity of cou
pler, since the knuckle can now swing out to an extreme
position more remote from coupling axis before incur
ring the danger that the push reaction any part of the
will rotate around its resting points 46, so that ledge 42
will avoid fouling ridge 43. According to the invention, 40 opposite coupler may exert on it should fall outside the
pivotal area and as a consequence fail to produce the in
ridge 43 and ledge 42 would co-operate for safety in the
case trigger 41 should fail to drop into full-down position
wardly directed moment required for closure and correct
head disappear within lock 11, which lifted eccentrically,
on closing of knuckle, which is very improbable indeed
since trigger 41 has ample play within its slot and around
its axle 47, ‘and is moreover weighted by the lever 48
actuating it, by means of eyelet 49.
The knuckle, now working as a nearly independent
curved link for assuring transmission of traction in an
approximately straight line, can be dimensioned in closer
approximation to the theoretical problem of stability with
out however losing sight of several con?icting facts:
locking of knuckles. Due to this feature, coupling ca
pacity, i.e. the distance which may exist between the axis
of two couplers engaging with one another from knuckle
side, may be increased by twice the displacement of pivot
centre away from coupler axis line, an advantage not to
be disregarded.
In a general way, optimum stress repartition would re
quire the rear lugs, and also the knuckle-carrying wings,
to be positioned symmetrically above and below the
sundry essential sections of the curved link are limited
horizontal central plane of shank, which should also
by the measurements of standard AAR coupling contour
preferably contain the centre of locking area 35 of
which have to be followed to enable coupling; they are
knuckle. This, however, is not always possible: space
moreover forcibly weakened by the pivot pin bore; al
left available beneath intercommunication gangways of
though the knuckle structure ought to have a break
vehicles may impose drastic reductions in height of cou
strength of the order of size of the coupler head, it is
pler above central traction plane, also mechanical neces
apposite, both from economy, safety and quickness of
sities of the inner mechanism of couplers may impose
renewals viewpoints, that this element, designed to con
limitations in either sense. However, each time the
centrate wear and consequently intended as a light, quiclc 60 equilibrium of loads is disturbed, equalization of stress
ly interchangeable spare part, should also in case of ex
should be sought by an apposite increase in section of
cessive stresses, be the ?rst to fail, before more expen
the member sustaining the higher load.
sive elements sustain permanent strain injury.
Conditions of this order typically arise when, for pur
It is clear, considering the curved beam in ?exion, that
poses of conversion (i.e. changing over from old type
the deletion-stressed ?bre of same should be as smooth
like hook and screw coupling to the automatic central
‘and continuous as possible, carefully avoiding any con
buffer) an extensible shackle and screw coupling gear in
?guration likely to produce a notch effect: rounded edges
accordance
with FIGURE 11 has to be incorporated into
and gradual transitions are imperative, as far as they
a normal automatic coupler.
do not unfavourably effect the design of correlative ele
The transition gear according to the invention com
ments in the coupler head.
0n the other hand, the presence of the pivot pin bore 70 prises a shackle 51 suitable to be slung over the normal
hook of opposing vehicle, carrying an internally thseaded
entails a considerable weakening of an important section
nut
52 outwardly journalled between ?anges of said
of the knuckle hub under ?exion. This pin, since the
shackle by two trunnions, said nut engaging a hollow
knuckle must be introducible into the coupler casting in
tube 53 outwardly threaded over its entire length and ter
just one de?nite position for assembly and disassembly if
minating by a handle 54 allowing to rotate it. Inside,
3,097,751
7
near the handle end, said tube 53 carries an internal
63, 64 which curve hook-like around double trunnion,
the whole forming a box-like columnar block strongly
thread of reverse sense to the outer one, which engages
strutted rearwardly as a substitute for the normal struc
in nut fashion with ‘a similarly threaded solid screw 55,
ture of bottom striking face 4 in an ordinary coupler.
terminating in a cross-wise placed double trunnion 56 at
Gear-carrier has also been cut away at 66 in order to af
its end farthest from shackle. Said double trunnion reg Cr ford possibility of continuing ‘as far as possible bottom
isters with the inside cavity inside a transition-gear car
wall of coupler box casting 2 by which wing 10 is
rier, a steel casting 57 allowing angular movement in the
joined to the shank.
plane of FIGURE 11. The gear carrier 57 itself termi
Articulation of double trunnion 58 is brought in the
nates likewise by a double trunnion 58, adaptable to a
vertical sense as near as possible to horizontal central
recess 59 provided within the bottom part of striking face 10 plane of automatic coupler, which entails some dissym
4 of coupler head 2 of FIGURE 10.
tmetry of knuckle lock face, appositely discharging wing
The transition gear represented by FIGURE 11 appears
10 whilst wing 9 which is more loaded can be strengthened
of more intricate design than the normal shackle ar
rangement, which comprises two nuts and only one screw
adequately.
portion having inversely threaded ends.
coupler head before knuckle 5 is adapted in its position;
This shackle can give liberty for hitching and for short
ening of headstock distances required in traffic, because
Double trunnion ‘58 is hooked into its lodgement 59 in
and conditions are such that as long as the knuckle is
?tted double trunnion 58 is unable to escape, its passage
both its ends are attached pretty near the headstocks of
vehicles to be attached. When however an automatic
coupler is present on one of the vehicles to be coupled,
dormant part of shackle cannot be ?xed as far back as
the permanent articulation at the rear of hook, because
being always covered by some portion of knuckle tail
this would entail removing about the bottom half of
avoid untoward rubbing of threaded parts 55, and to pre
vent unwelcome closure of knuckle, thus supporting the
action of spring 70 coiled around pivot 7 in order to keep
knuckle normally open.
coupler casting.
The position according to the inven
tion and shown in FIGURES 9 and 10 has been devel
oped as the best possible for reducing lateral sway in
curves suf?ciently to avoid interference with knuckle or
coupler parts, for allowing gear to be safely moored out
of harm‘s way in order to free the room required for
sector.
Gear carrier 57 is provided with salient lugs 66 which in
the course of transitional traction register with corres
ponding surfaces on bottom knuckle hub in order to
It will thus be seen that thanks to these measures an
automatic coupler may be constructed of seriously in
creased strength, and furthermore adapted to the peculari
automatic performance, without endangering the strength 30 ties of exacting service. Especially for the case of transi—
of the automatic coupler as such.
It should be understood i but a vehicle intended to meet
a car ?tted with the hook arrangement should have side
buffers, since hook-equipped stock is designed to receive
tion an automatic coupler may be adapted to take a screw
coupling of normal strength for intermediary period,
whilst the automatic portion which is to survive is fully
adequate to future increased tra?ic.
bul?ng stresses on the two side buffers, and not in centre 35
The invention is not to be undrestood as restricted to
of headstock. Contacting buffers should keep vehicles
the details illustrated and described but may be ‘modi?ed
far enough apart to avoid any fouling between coupler
within the scope of appended claims without departing
knuckle and opposite hook, whilst the transition gear
from the spirit and scope of the invention.
should permit to obtain sui?cient length for the end 40
I claim:
shackle to be hitched manually over the opposite hook;
1. An automatic coupling mechanism comprising a
afterwards the screw gear is to be shortened in order to
coupler casting for connection with a car structure through
give the required precornpression of buffers. For this
a compressible draft gear or the like, a pivot pin posi
reason, recourse was had to the hollow screw with the
tioned within said coupler casting, a knuckle rotatable
object of allowing to reach minimum distance between
around said pivot pin, ?rst corresponding ribs formed on
the rear of said coupler casting and the rear of said
headstocks.
Moreover, within the narrow compass of coupler head
knuckle respectively and adapted, when engaged, to afford
2, a strong and compact ?xation had to be developed for
functioning of said knuckle as a curved link for trans
the transition gear, without reducing the strength as such
mitting to said rear of said coupler casting the major por
of the automatic coupler, which having to survive after
tion of the pulling forces applied to the mechanism, second
conversion, has to expect heavier loads from the evolu
corresponding ribs formed on said coupler casting and
tion ‘of traf?c. This was done by means of the double
trunnion traction arrangements 56 and 58. Those ar
rangements (1) give broad ?exibility in the vertical plane,
required for general use mobility and also in conjunc
tion with articulation of nut 52 to allow gear to be safely
hitched to hook 6-5 for liberating inside of contour re
said knuckle respectively and disposed rearwardly of
said pivot pin and forwardly of said ?rst ribs, said second
corresponding ribs being spaced apart so as to be adapted
to engage and thus transmit pulling forces to said casting
in response to engagement and yielding of said ?rst ribs,
and third corresponding ribs formed on said coupler cast
quired for automatic operation. (2) give a slight trans
ing and said knuckle respectively and disposed forwardly
verse mobility, their bearing faces in traction being feebly
of said pivot pin, said third ribs being spaced apart further
toroidal in conjunction with the small play permitted lat 60 than said second ribs so as to be adapted to engage and
erally by the slots of their containing pockets and transi
thus transmit pulling forces to said casting in response to
tion radii. (3) have their areas notably relieved towards
yielding of said ?rst and second corresponding ribs.
the trunnion ends, so as to give a maximum aptitude to
2. An automatic coupling mechanism comprisng a
coupler casting for connection with a car structure through
?exibly resist dynamic stresses.
Containing pockets are in principle designed on sim
a compressible draft gear or the like, said coupler casting
ilar lines with surface conditions to match, stress having
been laid on maintaining continuous lateral walls.
Whereas the lateral walls of gear carrier 57 are adapted
for transmission of such tractive efforts as may be borne
by the transition screw gear, walls 60 and 61 of ?xed 70
pockets 59 have supplementarily to hold up the strength
of striking face 4 of coupler head, which would appear
to be weakened by the transverse cut made through it
for the passage of screw arrangement. Longitudinal walls
60, 61 take a ?rm seating on back face 62, also of extra
thickness, and walls 60, 61 are moreover braced by ledges
having knuckle-carrying wing means at one of its sides
and a guard arm at its other side, a knuckle having a hub
portion, a pivot pin for rotatably mounting said knuckle
at its hub portion carried by said wing means, said pivot
pin being offset laterally outwardly with respect to the
center of said knuckle hub so as to provide a larger cross
sectional area at the inside portion of said hub which is
subjected to tension when tractive forces are applied to
said knuckle and to increase the coupling capacity of
said coupler.
3,097,751
10
3. An automatic coupling mechanism comprising a
coupler casting for connection with a car structure through
a compressible draft gear or the like, said coupler casting
having knuckle-carrying wing means at one of its sides and
vertical lug at its said one side adapted to be engaged by
the tail end at one side of said knuckle, said knuckle
having a vertical locking face at the other side of its tail
a guard arm at its other side, a pivot pin carried by said
wing means for positioning the same within said coupler
casting, a knuckle rotatable around said pivot pin, said
knuckle as its rear having integral upper and lower lugs
knuckle and an inside vertical surface of said other side
substantially concentric with the axis of said pivot pin,
said coupler casting at its rear having integral arcuate
ledges conforming to and engageable with said lugs of
said knuckle, and said coupler casting having an integral
vertical lug at its said one side adapted to be engaged by
the tail end at one side of said knuckle.
end, a lock of a substantially solid mass ‘adapted to be
disposed between said vertical locking face of said
of said coupler casting, lock actuating means of sub
stantially less mass than said lock, and means connecting
said lock actuating means with said lock for positioning
the latter in its locking and unlocking positions.
7. For use in conjunction with railway car automatic
mechanism, transition gear mechanism comprising a
shackle adapted to be hitched over a component of an ad
jacent car, a threaded nut journalled in said shackle, a
4. An automatic coupling mechanism comprising a 15 hollow tube threaded in said nut, a handle for rotating
coupler casting for connection with a car structure through
said threaded tube in said nut, said tube being internally
a compressible draft gear or the like, said coupler casting
threaded in reverse direction to the threading of said nut,
having knuckle-carrying wing means atone of its sides and
a screw threaded into said tube, said screw having a
a guard arm at its other side, a pivot pin carried by said
double trunnion at its outer end, a transition gear carrier
wings for positioning the same within said coupler cast 20 for
receiving the said double trunnion of said screw, and
ing, a knuckle rotatable around said pivot pin, said knuckle
said transition gear carrier having a double trunnion for
at its rear having integral upper and lower lugs sub
attachment of the transition gear means in a recess of an
stantially concentric with the axis of said pivot pin, said
automatic coupler casting.
coupler casting at its rear having integral arcuate ledges
8. For use in conjunction with railway car automatic
conforming to and engageable with said lugs of said 25
coupling mechanism, transition gear mechanism com
knuckle, said coupler casting having an integral vertical
prising a shackle adapted to be hitched over a component
lug at its said one side adapted to be engaged by the tail
of an adjacent car, an internally threaded nut connected
end at one side of said knuckle, said knuckle having a
to said shackle, a hollow tube threaded in said nut, a
vertical locking face at the other side of its tail end, a
handle for rotating said threaded tube in said nut, said
lock adapted to be disposed between said locking face and 30 tube
being internally threaded in reverse direction to the
an inside surface of said other side of said coupler casting
threading
of said nut, a screw threaded into said tube,
and said locking face and said lock having interengaging
and means for connecting said screw to an automatic
vertically extending lug and ledge elements, respectively.
coupler casting,
5. An automatic coupling mechanism comprising a
9. An automatic coupling mechanism comprising a
coupler casting for connection with a car structure through 35
coupler
casting for connection with a car structure through
a compressible draft gear or the like, said coupler casting
a compressible draft gear or the like, said coupler casting
having knuckle-carrying wing means at one of its sides
having knuckle-carrying wing means at one of its sides and
and a guard arm at its other side, a pivot pin carried by
a
‘guard arm at its other side, a pivot pin carried by said
said wing means for positioning the same within said
coupler casting, a knuckle rotatable around said pivot pin, 40 wing means for positioning the same within said coupler
casting, a knuckle rotatable around said pivot pin, said
said knuckle at its rear having integral upper and lower
knuckle having a vertical locking face at one side of its
lugs substantially concentric with the axis of said pivot
tail end, a lock adapted to be disposed between said
pin, said coupler casting at its rear having integral arcuate
vertical locking face and an inside vertical surface of an
ledges conforming to and engageable with said lugs of said
knuckle, said coupler casting having an integral vertical
lug at its said one side adapted to be engaged by the tail
end at one side of said knuckle, said knuckle having a
vertical locking face at the other side of its tail end, a
45
adjacent side of said coupler casting for locking said
knuckle against rotation, said lock having an upwardly
protruding ledge at its rear top edge, said coupler casting
having a ba-ckwall provided with a ?rst depending ridge,
means for mounting said lock to dispose said ledge under
lock adapted to ‘be disposed between said vertical locking
face of said knuckle and an inside vertical surface of 50 said ?rst ridge to prevent accidental unlocking thereof, a
second depending ridge on said backwall of said coupler
said other side of said coupler casting for locking said
casting, and lock lifting means operatively associated with
knuckle against rotation, said lock having an upwardly
said lock and disposed under said second ridge when in its
protruding ledge at its rear top edge, said coupler casting
lowered position so as to further provide against accident
having a backwall provided with a depending ridge, and
al unlocking of said lock.
means for mounting said lock to dispose said ledge under
said ridge in abutting relation as said lock approaches its
References Cited in the file of this patent
locking position.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
6. An automatic coupling mechanism comprising a
709,338
Lennon ______________ __ Sept. 16, 1902
coupler casting for connection with a car structure through
a compressible draft gear or the like, said coupler cast 60
ing having knuckle-carrying wing means at one of its sides
and a guard arm at its other side, a pivot pin carried by
said wing means ‘for positioning the same within said
coupler casting, a knuckle rotatable around said pivot
pin, said knuckle at its rear having integral upper and 65
lower lugs substantially concentric with the axis of said
pivot pin, said coupler casting at its rear having integral
arcuate ledges conforming to and engageable with said lugs
of said knuckle, said coupler casting having an integral
1,104,516
Krakau ______________ __ July 21, 1914
1,203,319
1,614,518
1,615,946
1,696,040
1,876,816
1,989,027
Durbin ______________ __ Oct. 31,
Willison ______________ __ Jan. 18,
Kinne ________________ __ Feb. 1,
Kelso _______________ __ Dec. 18,
Wittmer ______________ __ Sept. 13,
Smith ________________ -_ Jan. 22,
2,548,479
Kayler _______________ .__. Apr. 10, 1951
1916
1927
1927
1928
1932
1935
FOREIGN PATENTS
[667,581
Great Britain __________ __
5, 1952
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