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Патент USA US3097770

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July 16, 1963
J. F. DEMPSEY ETAL
3,097,761
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DISPENSING MOTOR FUEL
' Filed Dec. 19, 1957
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July 16, 1963
J. F. DEMPSEY ETAL
3,097,761
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DISPENSING MOTOR FUEL
Filed Dec. 19, 1957
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INVENTOR.
JAMES F_ DEMPSEY
BY FRANK R. SHUMAN,JR.
QMO- 5PM .
ATTORNEY
United States Patent
"ice
1
3,097,761
Patented July 16, 1963
2
These ?gures [are indicative of relative magnitude only.
3,097,761
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DISPENSING
MOTOR FUEL
James F. Dempsey, Claymont, Del., and Frank R. Shu
The actual numbers in a given case would depend on
the units used and other factors. The increment of cost
between stocks A and C is greater than that between
stocks C and B, because of the fact that, the higher the
man, Jr., Media, Pa., assignors to Sun Oil Company,
octane level, the greater the cost per octane number of
Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of New Jersey
further increasing the octane number.
Filed Dec. 19, 1957, Ser. No. 703,808
7 Claims. (Cl. 222—1)
In FIGURE 2, an illustrative diagram is given, repre
senting the differences in manufacture of the respective
This invention relates to the dispensing of a plurality 10 stocks. Stock E is obtained by subjecting straight run
of motor fuels of different octane rating at a service sta
naphtha to reforming conditions in reformer 3 to pro
tion for automobiles or other dispensing location.
1 duce a 90 octane product. Stock C is obtained by sub
In a prior art system for dispensing motor fuel, a
jecting straight run naphtha to reforming conditions in
plurality of, e.g. six, grades of motor fuel, each having
reformer 2 to produce a 100 octane product. Stock A
different octane number, are dispensed at a single service 15 is obtained by subjecting straight run naphtha to reform
station. The intermediate grades are ‘formed by blending
ing conditions in reformer '1 to produce 1a 110 octane
in ditferent proportions two motor ‘fuel stocks whose
product. The “reforming” in this case may involve a
octane numbers constitute the upper and lower limits
series of processes for conversion of hydrocarbons to
respectively of the octane numbers obtainable in the
higher octane products. Any suitable known conditions
system. This system has recognized important advan 20 can be emplyed in each reforming process. The dif- '
tages, such as the provision of intermediate ‘grades while
ferences in conditions to produce the differences in prod
eliminating separate transportation and storage facilities
uct octane rating can readily be chosen by a person
for those grades.
skilled in the art. This feature is known in the art. The
This system has however certain disadvantages which
invention resides, not in reforming or otherwise convert
will appear from the following description and which ‘are 25 ing hydrocarbons to different octane levels per se, but in
eliminated according to the invention while retaining in
substantial measure the advantages of the prior ‘art system.
The invention involves the use of three motor fuel
stocks, each having different octane number, to produce
dispensing in a particular 'manner the products thereby
obtained.
Because of factors inherent in the nature of straight
run petroleum hydrocarbons, it is more di?icult to in
a plurality of fuel grades each having different octane 30 crease their octane number by a second increment of 10
number. One of the grades is provided by either the
units, for example, than it is to increase their octane num
intermediate octane stock, the highest octane stock or a
ber by a ?rst increment of 10' units. Therefore the unit
blend of the two. Another grade, having lower octane
cost is greater for the octane numb-er increments at higher
number than that of the ?rst-named grade, is provided
octane level, and a 'curve ACE as in FIGURE‘ l results.
by either the intermediate octane stock, the lowest octane 35
Lines 10, ‘11 and 112 in FIGURE 2 are symbolic of
stock, or a blend of the two. Any desired number of
the transportation of stoclcs A, C and E from a re?ning
additional grades, constituting one of the stocks or a blend
of the intermediate octane stock with one of the other
two stocks, can also be dispensed. At least one of the
grades is a blend of the intermediate octane stock with
one of the other two stocks.
It has been proposed in the prior art to prepare at a
dispensing location a blend of two ‘or more fuels. Thus
location or locations to a dispensing location.
Any of
the usual means of transportation, e.g. truck, ship, pipe
line, etc. may be employed. At the dispensing location,
the stocks are placed in separate containers, and at least
one blend of two of the stocks is prepared for dispensing
to motorists. For purpose of illustration, FIGURE 2
represents the blending of stocks A and C, for example
for example, three stoclcs each having different octane
in equal quantities, to produce grade B’ having about
45
number may be blended and the resulting blend dispensed
1:05 octane, and the blending of stocks C and E, for
to the customer. But the proir :art has not suggested
the use of three blending stocks to provide at least two
gr-ades comprising one or more two-stock blends.
Prior
to the present invention, the bene?ts of such operation,
as compared with prior art operation, were not recog
nized.
It would ‘appear that the use of three stocks in a blend
ing system would be detrimental, since transportation and
example in equal quantities, to produce grade D’ having
about 95 octane. The blends can be formed at any stage
of the dispensing operation. They can be formed in stor
age tanks and dispensed through different pumps. They
can be formed just prior to passage through the dispensing
nozzle into the fuel tank of an automobile. They can be
formed at any desired intermediate stage of the dispensing
operation.
'
storage facilities would have to be supplied for the third
A preferred operation is to form the blends just prior
stock. This disadvantage is more than balanced however 55 to passage through the dispensing nozzle. In FIGURE
by the subsequently described advantages which are
3, a dispensing nozzle 30, communicating with a valve
gained.
32, is schematically illustrated. A lever 34 is adapted to
The invention will be further described with reference
open ‘and shut the valve 32 by hand pressure in the con~
to the drawing. FIGURE 1 is a chart showing a typical
ventional manner. Communicating with the valve body
60
relationship between manufacturing cost and octane num
are lines 36, 38 and 40 through which one or more of
ber of motor fuel. FIGURE 2 is a schematic diagram
the stocks A, C and E is pumped by suitable conven
illustrating manufacturing, transportation and dispensing
tional means not shown upon opening of valve 32. Prior
according to one embodiment of the invention. FIGURE
to opening valve 32, the valves in lines 36, 38 and 40
3 is a schematic illustration of dispensing apparatus ac
are set in the proper manner to deliver the desired fuel.
cording to one embodiment of the invention. FIGURE 65 The valves in lines 36, 38 and 40 are preferably located
‘4 is a chart showing a typical blend-octane curve for
as near as practicable to the valve 32.
Any of the un
‘blends of two fuels having different octane number.
blended components can be delivered by opening the
Consider a system wherein the three stocks (A, C and
valve in the line'delivering that component and closing
E) have octane ratings of, say, 110, 100 and 90 respec 70 the valves in the other two lines. Blend B’ can be de
tively. As shown in FIGURE 1, the manufacturing cos-ts
livered by opening the line 36 and line 38 valves and
of these stocks are 100, 70 and 60 units respectively.
closing the line'40 valve, and delivering stocks A and C
3,097,761
4
stocks A and E, assuming that octane numbers of blends
are additive. This assumption will be further discussed
subsequently. In going from three stocks to four or ?ve,
the magnitude of the saving is illustrated by the difference
simultaneously to valve 32 at equal rates controlled and
metered by suitable means. Blend D’ can be delivered
in similar manner with the line 38 and line 40 valves
open and the line 36 valve closed.
Any suitable means can be employed to blend two
in cost of 95 and 105 octane fuels between points D and
B for the ?ve-stock system for example and points D’
and B’ for the three-stock system. Points B’ and D’ are
through a dispensing nozzle. The particular such means
on the dashed lines CB’A and ED’C respectively, which
employed do not constitute the invention, but rather the
are the approximate cost-octane lines for grades obtained
combination of such means with the other apparatus fea
tures and the dispensing by any such means of particular 10 by blending stocks C and A on the one hand and stocks
E and C on the other. It is seen that the magnitude of
combinations of fuel stocks or blends.
the saving is much less in going from three stocks to
It is not essential that all grades of fuel be dispensed
larger numbers of stocks than in going from two stocks
through the same nozzle as shown in FIGURE 3, though
to three stocks. Therefore, the additional transportation
this feature is preferred. If desired, each grade can be
dispensed through a different nozzle. Alternatively; 15 and storage facilities required for more than three stocks
are not justi?ed.
grades derived from two stocks, e.g. A and C, can‘ be
It is essential that at least one blend of two fuel stocks
dispensed through one nozzle, and grades derived from
be dispensed at the dispensing location. Otherwise the
two other stocks, e.g. C and E, can be dispensed through
close matching of octane rating of the fuel with octane
a second nozzle. The means for regulating the dispens—
ing and pricing, etc., in the case of each nozzle can be 20 requirements of individual automobiles cannot be ob~
tained. The rapid increase in octane requirement of
similar for example to those disclosed in‘ E. T. Young
automobiles has increased the range of octane require
United States application Serial No. 548,907, ?led No
ments of the automobiles in use and made it impossible
vember 25, 1955, now Patent No. 2,977,970. Any other
to obtain close matching with three fuel grades or less.
suitable means can be employed.
The advantages of manufacturing and transporting 25 The excessive manufacturing costs of a two fuel blend
‘ing system are made particularly high when the neces
three rather than two motor fuel stocks are illustrated
sary octane spread between the two blending stocks is
by the following table which shows, on the basis of the
increased. Such increase is characteristic of motor fuels
case above postulated, the cost of producing the various
at the present time. The highest octane component, which
‘grades intermediate between 90 and 110 octane.
30 is needed as such only in very small quantities, if at all,
must be produced in large quantities for a two-stock
Two stocks
Three stocks
blending system, since it is a component of every blend,
stocks in controlled proportions just prior to passage
Octane
Stock
Compo
Grade
Compo
Grade
00st;
sition
cost
sitlon
00st;
even down to the next to the lowest octane grade. The
three-stock system eliminates this undesirable feature in
35 large measure, since it permits omitting the highest octane
component from numerous grades. For example, in the
illustrative operation described previously, the highest
octane component A is a component of only two of the
?ve grades.
Average.
80
76 40
In the preceding discussion, it was assumed that octane
numbers blend linearly. This assumption is usually only
approximately true. An actual blend-octane curve rep
The saving in manufacturing cost obtained in the three
resenting an average of many determinations is shown in
stock system is usually greater even than that indicated
FIGURE 4. The ‘solid line AHE is a plot of actual octane
by the average ?gures 80 and 76, since the volume of
sales of the intermediate grades is usually greater than 45 numbers obtained by blending 105 octane component A
with about 94 octane component E in various proportions.
that of the terminal grades, and it is in the intermediate
grades that the saving is obtained.
In actual re?nery practice, high octane motor fuels
The octane numbers of stocks A and E in FIGURE 4
duct a process of the same general type, which gives a
product having higher octane number, and blend back
to the invention.
There are indications in the prior art that, in some cases
the stocks A and E.
the line AC’E down to the line ACE or below. There
from two stocks to three is illustrated in FIGURE 1 by
the difference in cost of 100 octane ‘fuel between point C
for the three-stock system and point C' for the two-stock
system. The point C’ is on the dashed line AC'E which
to the invention in such cases. However, the advantages
of the invention ‘are greater when the relationship shown
in FIGURE 4, which seems to be typical of blends having
octane number of at least 90, exists.
do not correspond exactly with those of stocks A and E
in FIGURE 1, but FIGURE 4 illustrates a principle which
are produced by a plurality of processes such as reform
applies to stocks A and E in both ?gures. The dashed
ing, alkylation, cracking, etc. Straight run hydrocarbons
line AH’E in FIGURE 4 is a stranght line illustrating
are often subjected to a plurality of processes designed
the linear assumption. The graph shows that an inter
to increase octane rating. The motor fuels which are
unediate octane blend, e.g. a 100 octane blend, requires
marketed are often blends of products of different proc
more of component A, and consequently costs more,
esses. Anti-knock additives such as tetraethyl lead are
usually employed. Yet, however complex the prepara 55 than would be expected on the linear assumption. Appli
cation of this fact to FIGURE 1 would result in changing
tion may be, the principle illustrated in FIGURES 1
the line AC’E in that ?gure to provide a slight convex
and 2 generally applies. From the standpoint of manu
upward curvature. This would increase the distance be
facturing cost, it is more advantageous to produce a
tween points on that line and points on line ACE, and
product having given octane number by conducting a
process which gives that product directly than to con 60 therefore increase the advantage of operation according
involving the blending of 80 octane fuel for example
with a low octane stock. Therefore it is more advan
with a lower octane fuel, opposite curvature to that in
tageous to obtain the stock C for example by blending
re?nery streams having octane number relatively close 65 FIGURE 4, i.e. convex upward instead of concave up
ward curvature, characterizes the actual blend-octane
to 100 octane, e.g. in the range from 95 to 105 octane,
curve. Even in such cases, the curvature is usually not
than by blending re?nery streams having a wider spread
suf?ciently great to bring, when applied to FIGURE 1,
in octane number and corresponding relatively closely to
The saving in manufacturing cost obtained in going 70 fore, an advantage still results from operation according
is the cost-octane line for grades obtained by blending 75
The advantages according to the invention are obtained,
3,097,761
not only when dispensing fuels A, B’, C, D’ and E as
shown in FIGURE 1 for example, but aiso when dispens
ing various other combinations of fuels derived from the
three stocks A, C and E. Examples of such combina
tions are the ‘following: the two-grade combination B’ and
D’; the three-grade combination B’, C and D’; the three
grade combination B’, D’ and E; the four-grade combina
tion B’, C, D’ and G; the ?ve-grade combination F, B’,
C, D’ and G; the two-grade combination G and B’; the
6
3. Process according to claim 1 wherein the third
stream has octane number below the octane numbers of
the ?rst two streams.
4. Process according to claim 1 wherein the third
stream is dispensed alone.
5. Process according to claim 1 wherein the third
stream is dispensed in a blend with that one of the ?rst
two streams which has octane number closest to the
octane number of the third stream.
6. Process for dispensing motor fuel which comprises:
two-grade combination F and G; etc. The grade G is a 10
placing in a separate container each of three motor fuels
blend of stocks C and E containing a greater proportion
having different octane number; supplying motor fuel to
of stock E than in blend D’. The grade F is a blend ‘of
a ?rst dispensing zone in two separate streams supplied
stocks A and C containing a ‘greater proportion of stock
respectively from the container holding the fuel with the
A than in blend B’.
Equal volume blends are preferred according to the 15 highest octane number of the three fuels and from the
container holding the fuel having the intermediate octane
invent-ion, but other proportions can be used. A person
number of the three fuels; blending the two streams in
skilled in the art can readily determine suitable proportions
continuous ?ow to obtain a blend; directly dispensing the
for obtaining a desired octane number from available
blend in continuous ?ow from the ?rst dispensing zone,
blending stocks.
Preferably the difference in octane number between 20 the two streams constituting the sole supply of motor
fuel to the ?rst dispensing zone; supplying motor fuel to
stocks A and E is at least 6 units, more preferably at
a second dispensing zone in two separate streams supplied
least 12 units. Preferably the difference in octane num
respectively from the container holding the fuel having
ber between stock C and either of stocks A and E is
the lowest octane number of the three fuels and from the
at ‘least 2 units, more preferably at least 4 units.
container holding the fuel having the intermediate octane
25
The invention claimed is:
number of the three fuels; blending the latter two streams
1. Process for dispensing motor fuel which comprises:
in continuous ?ow to obtain a blend; directly dispensing
supplying motor fuel to a dispensing zone in two separate
the resulting blend in continuous flow from the second
streams having different octane numbers; blending said
dispensing zone, the latter two streams constituting the
streams in continuous ?ow to obtain a blend; directly
dispensing the blend in continuous ?ow from the dispens 30 sole supply of motor fuel to the second dispensing zone.
7. Apparatus for dispensing motor fuel which com
ing zone; subsequently supplying motor fuel to the dis
prises three conduits in parallel, all communicating with
pensing zone in a third stream having octane number
outside the range between the octane numbers of the
a valve housing, ?ow rate controlling means communicat
?rst two streams; dispensing a fuel containing the third
ing with each of said conduits and adapted to deliver a
stream from the dispensing zone; the three streams con 35 metered quantity of liquid through each conduit, a valve
stituting the sole supply of motor fuel to the dispensing
in each of said conduits directly upstream from said hous
zone; maintaining the dispensing zone closed to the stream
ing, a dispensing nozzle directly downstream from said
having the highest octane number of the three streams
housing, and valve means in said housing adapted to per
'whenever the stream having the lowest octane number of
mit liquid flow from said conduits into said nozzle when
the three streams is supplied to the dispensing zone; and 40
open and to prevent such flow when closed.
maintaining the dispensing zone closed to the stream
having the lowest octane number of the three streams
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
whenever the stream having the highest octane number
UNITED STATES PATENTS
of the three streams is supplied to the dispensing zone.
2. Process according to claim 1 wherein the third 4 2,039,534
Holmes _______________ __ May 5, 1936
stream has octane number above the octane numbers of
Ortner _______________ __ June 18, 1957
2,796,196
the ?rst two streams.
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