Патент USA US3097770код для вставки
July 16, 1963 J. F. DEMPSEY ETAL 3,097,761 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DISPENSING MOTOR FUEL ' Filed Dec. 19, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 g ,o, / A //?/ ,/I / / / l1O / / / /1. / // , I / . _ . _ // /Iz/ ,l o / 300. O 9 l 7 QO 0O /F/,/ x1 /8 z/ // 1J / // / / / I ./ E/I Z I, l, 1,00 z , a” I 1 ID .60 llO Octane Number Fig. 2 Straight Run Hydrocarbons Reform /IO Reform Reform ll/ B Mm . K m mm MusA TNPOMTSDN“AMENmu .Ym. YQ ER.. July 16, 1963 J. F. DEMPSEY ETAL 3,097,761 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DISPENSING MOTOR FUEL Filed Dec. 19, 1957 CEA + v 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Rm cm m O 4_v IOI — QmzpoEbhu-SgmoZ I00 o Volume Percent Component A INVENTOR. JAMES F_ DEMPSEY BY FRANK R. SHUMAN,JR. QMO- 5PM . ATTORNEY United States Patent "ice 1 3,097,761 Patented July 16, 1963 2 These ?gures [are indicative of relative magnitude only. 3,097,761 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DISPENSING MOTOR FUEL James F. Dempsey, Claymont, Del., and Frank R. Shu The actual numbers in a given case would depend on the units used and other factors. The increment of cost between stocks A and C is greater than that between stocks C and B, because of the fact that, the higher the man, Jr., Media, Pa., assignors to Sun Oil Company, octane level, the greater the cost per octane number of Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of New Jersey further increasing the octane number. Filed Dec. 19, 1957, Ser. No. 703,808 7 Claims. (Cl. 222—1) In FIGURE 2, an illustrative diagram is given, repre senting the differences in manufacture of the respective This invention relates to the dispensing of a plurality 10 stocks. Stock E is obtained by subjecting straight run of motor fuels of different octane rating at a service sta naphtha to reforming conditions in reformer 3 to pro tion for automobiles or other dispensing location. 1 duce a 90 octane product. Stock C is obtained by sub In a prior art system for dispensing motor fuel, a jecting straight run naphtha to reforming conditions in plurality of, e.g. six, grades of motor fuel, each having reformer 2 to produce a 100 octane product. Stock A different octane number, are dispensed at a single service 15 is obtained by subjecting straight run naphtha to reform station. The intermediate grades are ‘formed by blending ing conditions in reformer '1 to produce 1a 110 octane in ditferent proportions two motor ‘fuel stocks whose product. The “reforming” in this case may involve a octane numbers constitute the upper and lower limits series of processes for conversion of hydrocarbons to respectively of the octane numbers obtainable in the higher octane products. Any suitable known conditions system. This system has recognized important advan 20 can be emplyed in each reforming process. The dif- ' tages, such as the provision of intermediate ‘grades while ferences in conditions to produce the differences in prod eliminating separate transportation and storage facilities uct octane rating can readily be chosen by a person for those grades. skilled in the art. This feature is known in the art. The This system has however certain disadvantages which invention resides, not in reforming or otherwise convert will appear from the following description and which ‘are 25 ing hydrocarbons to different octane levels per se, but in eliminated according to the invention while retaining in substantial measure the advantages of the prior ‘art system. The invention involves the use of three motor fuel stocks, each having different octane number, to produce dispensing in a particular 'manner the products thereby obtained. Because of factors inherent in the nature of straight run petroleum hydrocarbons, it is more di?icult to in a plurality of fuel grades each having different octane 30 crease their octane number by a second increment of 10 number. One of the grades is provided by either the units, for example, than it is to increase their octane num intermediate octane stock, the highest octane stock or a ber by a ?rst increment of 10' units. Therefore the unit blend of the two. Another grade, having lower octane cost is greater for the octane numb-er increments at higher number than that of the ?rst-named grade, is provided octane level, and a 'curve ACE as in FIGURE‘ l results. by either the intermediate octane stock, the lowest octane 35 Lines 10, ‘11 and 112 in FIGURE 2 are symbolic of stock, or a blend of the two. Any desired number of the transportation of stoclcs A, C and E from a re?ning additional grades, constituting one of the stocks or a blend of the intermediate octane stock with one of the other two stocks, can also be dispensed. At least one of the grades is a blend of the intermediate octane stock with one of the other two stocks. It has been proposed in the prior art to prepare at a dispensing location a blend of two ‘or more fuels. Thus location or locations to a dispensing location. Any of the usual means of transportation, e.g. truck, ship, pipe line, etc. may be employed. At the dispensing location, the stocks are placed in separate containers, and at least one blend of two of the stocks is prepared for dispensing to motorists. For purpose of illustration, FIGURE 2 represents the blending of stocks A and C, for example for example, three stoclcs each having different octane in equal quantities, to produce grade B’ having about 45 number may be blended and the resulting blend dispensed 1:05 octane, and the blending of stocks C and E, for to the customer. But the proir :art has not suggested the use of three blending stocks to provide at least two gr-ades comprising one or more two-stock blends. Prior to the present invention, the bene?ts of such operation, as compared with prior art operation, were not recog nized. It would ‘appear that the use of three stocks in a blend ing system would be detrimental, since transportation and example in equal quantities, to produce grade D’ having about 95 octane. The blends can be formed at any stage of the dispensing operation. They can be formed in stor age tanks and dispensed through different pumps. They can be formed just prior to passage through the dispensing nozzle into the fuel tank of an automobile. They can be formed at any desired intermediate stage of the dispensing operation. ' storage facilities would have to be supplied for the third A preferred operation is to form the blends just prior stock. This disadvantage is more than balanced however 55 to passage through the dispensing nozzle. In FIGURE by the subsequently described advantages which are 3, a dispensing nozzle 30, communicating with a valve gained. 32, is schematically illustrated. A lever 34 is adapted to The invention will be further described with reference open ‘and shut the valve 32 by hand pressure in the con~ to the drawing. FIGURE 1 is a chart showing a typical ventional manner. Communicating with the valve body 60 relationship between manufacturing cost and octane num are lines 36, 38 and 40 through which one or more of ber of motor fuel. FIGURE 2 is a schematic diagram the stocks A, C and E is pumped by suitable conven illustrating manufacturing, transportation and dispensing tional means not shown upon opening of valve 32. Prior according to one embodiment of the invention. FIGURE to opening valve 32, the valves in lines 36, 38 and 40 3 is a schematic illustration of dispensing apparatus ac are set in the proper manner to deliver the desired fuel. cording to one embodiment of the invention. FIGURE 65 The valves in lines 36, 38 and 40 are preferably located ‘4 is a chart showing a typical blend-octane curve for as near as practicable to the valve 32. Any of the un ‘blends of two fuels having different octane number. blended components can be delivered by opening the Consider a system wherein the three stocks (A, C and valve in the line'delivering that component and closing E) have octane ratings of, say, 110, 100 and 90 respec 70 the valves in the other two lines. Blend B’ can be de tively. As shown in FIGURE 1, the manufacturing cos-ts livered by opening the line 36 and line 38 valves and of these stocks are 100, 70 and 60 units respectively. closing the line'40 valve, and delivering stocks A and C 3,097,761 4 stocks A and E, assuming that octane numbers of blends are additive. This assumption will be further discussed subsequently. In going from three stocks to four or ?ve, the magnitude of the saving is illustrated by the difference simultaneously to valve 32 at equal rates controlled and metered by suitable means. Blend D’ can be delivered in similar manner with the line 38 and line 40 valves open and the line 36 valve closed. Any suitable means can be employed to blend two in cost of 95 and 105 octane fuels between points D and B for the ?ve-stock system for example and points D’ and B’ for the three-stock system. Points B’ and D’ are through a dispensing nozzle. The particular such means on the dashed lines CB’A and ED’C respectively, which employed do not constitute the invention, but rather the are the approximate cost-octane lines for grades obtained combination of such means with the other apparatus fea tures and the dispensing by any such means of particular 10 by blending stocks C and A on the one hand and stocks E and C on the other. It is seen that the magnitude of combinations of fuel stocks or blends. the saving is much less in going from three stocks to It is not essential that all grades of fuel be dispensed larger numbers of stocks than in going from two stocks through the same nozzle as shown in FIGURE 3, though to three stocks. Therefore, the additional transportation this feature is preferred. If desired, each grade can be dispensed through a different nozzle. Alternatively; 15 and storage facilities required for more than three stocks are not justi?ed. grades derived from two stocks, e.g. A and C, can‘ be It is essential that at least one blend of two fuel stocks dispensed through one nozzle, and grades derived from be dispensed at the dispensing location. Otherwise the two other stocks, e.g. C and E, can be dispensed through close matching of octane rating of the fuel with octane a second nozzle. The means for regulating the dispens— ing and pricing, etc., in the case of each nozzle can be 20 requirements of individual automobiles cannot be ob~ tained. The rapid increase in octane requirement of similar for example to those disclosed in‘ E. T. Young automobiles has increased the range of octane require United States application Serial No. 548,907, ?led No ments of the automobiles in use and made it impossible vember 25, 1955, now Patent No. 2,977,970. Any other to obtain close matching with three fuel grades or less. suitable means can be employed. The advantages of manufacturing and transporting 25 The excessive manufacturing costs of a two fuel blend ‘ing system are made particularly high when the neces three rather than two motor fuel stocks are illustrated sary octane spread between the two blending stocks is by the following table which shows, on the basis of the increased. Such increase is characteristic of motor fuels case above postulated, the cost of producing the various at the present time. The highest octane component, which ‘grades intermediate between 90 and 110 octane. 30 is needed as such only in very small quantities, if at all, must be produced in large quantities for a two-stock Two stocks Three stocks blending system, since it is a component of every blend, stocks in controlled proportions just prior to passage Octane Stock Compo Grade Compo Grade 00st; sition cost sitlon 00st; even down to the next to the lowest octane grade. The three-stock system eliminates this undesirable feature in 35 large measure, since it permits omitting the highest octane component from numerous grades. For example, in the illustrative operation described previously, the highest octane component A is a component of only two of the ?ve grades. Average. 80 76 40 In the preceding discussion, it was assumed that octane numbers blend linearly. This assumption is usually only approximately true. An actual blend-octane curve rep The saving in manufacturing cost obtained in the three resenting an average of many determinations is shown in stock system is usually greater even than that indicated FIGURE 4. The ‘solid line AHE is a plot of actual octane by the average ?gures 80 and 76, since the volume of sales of the intermediate grades is usually greater than 45 numbers obtained by blending 105 octane component A with about 94 octane component E in various proportions. that of the terminal grades, and it is in the intermediate grades that the saving is obtained. In actual re?nery practice, high octane motor fuels The octane numbers of stocks A and E in FIGURE 4 duct a process of the same general type, which gives a product having higher octane number, and blend back to the invention. There are indications in the prior art that, in some cases the stocks A and E. the line AC’E down to the line ACE or below. There from two stocks to three is illustrated in FIGURE 1 by the difference in cost of 100 octane ‘fuel between point C for the three-stock system and point C' for the two-stock system. The point C’ is on the dashed line AC'E which to the invention in such cases. However, the advantages of the invention ‘are greater when the relationship shown in FIGURE 4, which seems to be typical of blends having octane number of at least 90, exists. do not correspond exactly with those of stocks A and E in FIGURE 1, but FIGURE 4 illustrates a principle which are produced by a plurality of processes such as reform applies to stocks A and E in both ?gures. The dashed ing, alkylation, cracking, etc. Straight run hydrocarbons line AH’E in FIGURE 4 is a stranght line illustrating are often subjected to a plurality of processes designed the linear assumption. The graph shows that an inter to increase octane rating. The motor fuels which are unediate octane blend, e.g. a 100 octane blend, requires marketed are often blends of products of different proc more of component A, and consequently costs more, esses. Anti-knock additives such as tetraethyl lead are usually employed. Yet, however complex the prepara 55 than would be expected on the linear assumption. Appli cation of this fact to FIGURE 1 would result in changing tion may be, the principle illustrated in FIGURES 1 the line AC’E in that ?gure to provide a slight convex and 2 generally applies. From the standpoint of manu upward curvature. This would increase the distance be facturing cost, it is more advantageous to produce a tween points on that line and points on line ACE, and product having given octane number by conducting a process which gives that product directly than to con 60 therefore increase the advantage of operation according involving the blending of 80 octane fuel for example with a low octane stock. Therefore it is more advan with a lower octane fuel, opposite curvature to that in tageous to obtain the stock C for example by blending re?nery streams having octane number relatively close 65 FIGURE 4, i.e. convex upward instead of concave up ward curvature, characterizes the actual blend-octane to 100 octane, e.g. in the range from 95 to 105 octane, curve. Even in such cases, the curvature is usually not than by blending re?nery streams having a wider spread suf?ciently great to bring, when applied to FIGURE 1, in octane number and corresponding relatively closely to The saving in manufacturing cost obtained in going 70 fore, an advantage still results from operation according is the cost-octane line for grades obtained by blending 75 The advantages according to the invention are obtained, 3,097,761 not only when dispensing fuels A, B’, C, D’ and E as shown in FIGURE 1 for example, but aiso when dispens ing various other combinations of fuels derived from the three stocks A, C and E. Examples of such combina tions are the ‘following: the two-grade combination B’ and D’; the three-grade combination B’, C and D’; the three grade combination B’, D’ and E; the four-grade combina tion B’, C, D’ and G; the ?ve-grade combination F, B’, C, D’ and G; the two-grade combination G and B’; the 6 3. Process according to claim 1 wherein the third stream has octane number below the octane numbers of the ?rst two streams. 4. Process according to claim 1 wherein the third stream is dispensed alone. 5. Process according to claim 1 wherein the third stream is dispensed in a blend with that one of the ?rst two streams which has octane number closest to the octane number of the third stream. 6. Process for dispensing motor fuel which comprises: two-grade combination F and G; etc. The grade G is a 10 placing in a separate container each of three motor fuels blend of stocks C and E containing a greater proportion having different octane number; supplying motor fuel to of stock E than in blend D’. The grade F is a blend ‘of a ?rst dispensing zone in two separate streams supplied stocks A and C containing a ‘greater proportion of stock respectively from the container holding the fuel with the A than in blend B’. Equal volume blends are preferred according to the 15 highest octane number of the three fuels and from the container holding the fuel having the intermediate octane invent-ion, but other proportions can be used. A person number of the three fuels; blending the two streams in skilled in the art can readily determine suitable proportions continuous ?ow to obtain a blend; directly dispensing the for obtaining a desired octane number from available blend in continuous ?ow from the ?rst dispensing zone, blending stocks. Preferably the difference in octane number between 20 the two streams constituting the sole supply of motor fuel to the ?rst dispensing zone; supplying motor fuel to stocks A and E is at least 6 units, more preferably at a second dispensing zone in two separate streams supplied least 12 units. Preferably the difference in octane num respectively from the container holding the fuel having ber between stock C and either of stocks A and E is the lowest octane number of the three fuels and from the at ‘least 2 units, more preferably at least 4 units. container holding the fuel having the intermediate octane 25 The invention claimed is: number of the three fuels; blending the latter two streams 1. Process for dispensing motor fuel which comprises: in continuous ?ow to obtain a blend; directly dispensing supplying motor fuel to a dispensing zone in two separate the resulting blend in continuous flow from the second streams having different octane numbers; blending said dispensing zone, the latter two streams constituting the streams in continuous ?ow to obtain a blend; directly dispensing the blend in continuous ?ow from the dispens 30 sole supply of motor fuel to the second dispensing zone. 7. Apparatus for dispensing motor fuel which com ing zone; subsequently supplying motor fuel to the dis prises three conduits in parallel, all communicating with pensing zone in a third stream having octane number outside the range between the octane numbers of the a valve housing, ?ow rate controlling means communicat ?rst two streams; dispensing a fuel containing the third ing with each of said conduits and adapted to deliver a stream from the dispensing zone; the three streams con 35 metered quantity of liquid through each conduit, a valve stituting the sole supply of motor fuel to the dispensing in each of said conduits directly upstream from said hous zone; maintaining the dispensing zone closed to the stream ing, a dispensing nozzle directly downstream from said having the highest octane number of the three streams housing, and valve means in said housing adapted to per 'whenever the stream having the lowest octane number of mit liquid flow from said conduits into said nozzle when the three streams is supplied to the dispensing zone; and 40 open and to prevent such flow when closed. maintaining the dispensing zone closed to the stream having the lowest octane number of the three streams References Cited in the ?le of this patent whenever the stream having the highest octane number UNITED STATES PATENTS of the three streams is supplied to the dispensing zone. 2. Process according to claim 1 wherein the third 4 2,039,534 Holmes _______________ __ May 5, 1936 stream has octane number above the octane numbers of Ortner _______________ __ June 18, 1957 2,796,196 the ?rst two streams.