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Патент USA US3097841

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July 16, 1963
H. L. SMITH, JR
3,097,831
MUFFLE FURNACE
Filed Aug. 51, 1960
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July 16, 1963
H. L. SMITH, JR
3,097,831
MUFFLE FURNACE
Filed Aug. 51, 1960
6 Sheets-Sheet 2
COMBUSTlO/y
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INVENTOR
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July 16, 1963
3,097,831
H. L. SMITH, JR
MUFFLE FURNACE
6 Sheets-Sheet 3
Filed Aug. 51. 1960
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BY
July 16, 1963
H. 1_. SMITH, JR
MUFFLE FURNACE
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6 Sheets-Sheetl 4
med Aug. 51. 1960
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July 16, 1963
3,097,831
H. 1_, SMITH, JR
MUFFLE FURNACE
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
Filed Aug. 3l. 1960
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BY
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July 16, 1963
3,097,831
H. L. SMITH, JR
MUFFLE FURNACE
Filed Aug. 3l, 1960
6 Sheets-Shee’rI 6
INVENTOR
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BY
United States Patent O ”ÍCC
3,097,831
Patented July 16, 1963
2
1
rfhe provision of such a run, or vertical muffle zone,
poses the very significant problem of easily replacing the
structural elements constituting the partitions thereof, the
need Ifor such replacement being inherent where tempera
3,097,831
MUFFLE FURNACE
Horace L. Smith, Jr., Richmond, Va., assignor, by mesne
assignments, to Burlington Industries, Inc., Greensboro,
tures of the order of 1000‘°-150‘0° F. are utilized.
N.C., a corporation of Delaware
In
this connection, the -diiiiculty and extended down time
attending renewal of brick furnace linings is well knovsm.
Filed Aug. 3,1, 1960, Ser. No. 53,192
3 Claims. (Cl. 263-3)
Therefore, as a salient feature of the present invention,
This invention relates to mufñe furnaces for thermal
treatment of sheet material. More particularly it relates
to such furnaces for use in the thermal desizing of a glass
fabric web.
-In the manufacture of glass fabric, the individual fila
ments are coated with an organic size and/or lubricant
to enable formation' of yarn and weaving of the latter.
However, it is necessary to remove this material follow
ing |formation of the fabric to enable coloring or finish
I contemplate the formation of the partitions deñning the
Yweight through met-al fatigue. Thus, upright furnaces
30 ent temperature conditions in each stage as desired to
mufñe zone of :a series of units, referred to herein as
plates, suspended one from another with the uppermost
unit or plate mounted at the upper end of the muffle
zone. Because the partitions should be excellent radia
tors, and must possess appreciable tensile strength by
reason of their suspension, the individual plates are pref
erably Iformed of metal. By reason of this novel con
struction, replace-ment of a part of all of the partition is
a simple matter, it being necessary only to disconnect
ing of the goods. Desizing is effected by burning or
each plate from the plate immediately above it and to
vaporizing the size, and in this connection, it is known
to utilize a closed oven into which rolls of fabric are 20 form the new partitions by suspending new plates one
from the other.
placed for many hours and the size vaporized. How
As a further important feature of the present inven
ever, this" expedient is costly and slow. It has also been
tion, I construct my furnace so that the material web
proposed to utilize a horizontal furnace through which
being treated ‘actually .passes through several vertically
the rfabric is continuously advanced in open width and
aligned heating stages or zones. Each stage is similarly
25
the size burned therefrom, but to achieve increased de
equipped with combustion chambers, exhaust means for
sizing speeds to keep pace with other improvements in
drawing off the products of combustion and exhaust
,the -treatment of glass fabrics, the horizontal furnaces
means for drawing oif the vapors in the respective muille
have been lengthened to the point where with the pass
zones. It is thus possible accurately to maintain differ
age of time the furnace sags appreciably under its own
have been proposed, wherein the Ifabric moves in a ver
tical path.
It has recently been discovered that a cleaner and
physically stronger fabric can beg'achieved by vaporizing
the size from the fabric in open width as distinguished
from actual burning thereof at or adjacent the fabric
surface. The details of that novel desizing process are
set forth in the appli-cation of Edwin L. Lotz, entitled
achieve maximum effects upon the material while main
taining maximum physical strength, and at the same time
properly crimping the `fabric: to improve the hand thereof.
There has thus been outlined rather broadly the more
important features of the invention in order that the
following detailed description may be fully understood,
and in order that the present contribution to the art may
be better appreciated. There are, of course, »additional
features of the invention described hereinafter which
YProcess for Desizing of Glass Fabric, Serial No. 53,034,
form the subject of certain of the appended claims. Those
ñled on August 31, 1960; now Patent No. 3,012,845,
skilled in the art will appreciate that the conception upon
issued on December 12, 1961.
which this disclosure is based may readily be utilized as
It is a purpose of this invention to provide a novel
`a basis -for the design of structures other than those spe
muffle furnace which may be used -to carry out the novel
ciiically shown and described for carrying out the several
»Lotz desizing process.
purposes of the invention. -It is important, therefore,
It will be appreciated by those familiar with the ther
that the claims be regarded as including such equivalent
.mal desizing of glass that where the heat is generated by
constructions as do not depart from the spirit an'd scope
the combustion of fuel it is important to prevent direct
of the invention.
Contact between the fabric and the gas flame, for exam
A specific embodiment of the invention 'has been
ple, lest the fabric be damaged by partial fusion. It has
also "been found that a chemically cleaner fabric can be 50 chosen for purposes of illustration and description, and
is shown in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
'obtained if the products of fuel combustion are prevented
from contacting the glass being desized. Accordingly,
continuous desizing is carried out in a muiiie furnace,
and this invention is »directed to an improved furnace of
Ul CFI
that type.
In accordance with the present invention, I provide a
Vertical m-ufñe comprising 'a lpartition which separates the
vertical run` of the furnace from the heat generating
means and combustion chambers. In its preferred em
bodiment, the furnace actually embodies a vertical run 60
defined on two sides by such partitions be'hind each of
which is »a c-ombustion chamber. These partitions serve
to protect a glass fabric, for example, from direct con
tact with the flame `and the contaminating products of 65
combustion, while absorbing heat from the combustion
chambers and radiating to the fabric.
Means are pro
vided for exhausting the products of combustion from
the combustion chambers. Independent means are pro
FIG. l is .a front elevational View of two similar three
stage furnaces in accordance with the present invention
arranged in tandem, and illustrating the path of web
travel;
FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view of the furnaces of
FIG. 1 ;
FIG. 3 is tan elevational view taken along the line
Z’s--S` of FIG. l;
FIG. `4 is «a fragmentary side elevational view of a
portion of the furnace broken away to illustrate various
features of the invention;
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along the line 5-5
of FIG. 4;
gFIG. 6 is an enlarged view of a portion of the fur
nace as shown in FIG. 5 and illustrating a fuel burner;
FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken along the line 7-7
of FIG. 5;
FIG. 8 is a sectional view taken along the line 8--8
vided for removing the gaseous products formed by 70 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 9 is a vertical sectional view illustrating the ar
vaporization of the size from the fabric in the vertical
rangement of muffle plates in the furnace;
run.
3,097,831
35
4
FIG. 10 is a perspective view showing the manner of
suspension of an uppermost muñle plate;
provided for drawing off vaporized size at selected points
FIG. 1l is a fragmentary perspective view illustrating
details of suspension of the upper plate.
to and separate from those already described in con
nection with the products of fuel combustion, and com
Referring now «to the drawings in detail, and more par
ticularly to FIGS. l and 2` thereof, a pair of similar
vertical muñle furnaces 10 and 11 are arranged in tan
dem «through which a web 12 of fabric to be treated passes
as indicated by the arrows in FIG. 1. It is to be under
stood that one such furnace rn asuyflice and constitutes
the present invention. In view of the similarity of the
furnaces, a detailed description of one only will suñîce.
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the furnace is provided
along the fabric run.
These duct means are in addition
prise exhaust 39 fitted into opposed, lateral passages 40,
one at each side of the run 26 at the top of each stage.
The ducts 39 at each side of the furnace are connected
to vertical flue manifolds `41 (FIGS. 2 and 3) which dis
charge the vaporized size at ia Suitable location.
With the foregoing arrangement, it will be seen that
the combustion gas and vapor-ized size exhaust systems
are completely independent, and there is no possibility
of flame reaching the web 12. Furthermore, a major
at the bottom and top with suitable web feeding and
portion of the size vaporized from the fabric in each
guiding means indicated schematically at 14 and 15, re 15 stage is quickly removed from the vicinity of the fabric
spectively. Damper means are provided at the lower
in that stage, which assures more thorough cleaning of
end of the furnace «to permit control of a draft through
the material.
the muilie zone. These damper means may, for ex
It has been stated that the muñle plates must present
ample, comprise butterfly plates 13a and 13b operable
radiating surfaces and at the same time be resistant to
by any convenient means (not shown).
the destructive effects of prolonged elevated tempera
Referring .to FIGS. 3, 4 and 5, the furnace actually
ture. For these reasons, I prefer to form the plates of
comprises a housing 10 in three stages designated 16a,
one of the heat resistant steels, “Inconel” or “Incaloy,”
10b, and 16C disposed in vertical alignment, each having
for example. While ceramics might be employed, the
refractory walls 16 formed of ñre brick, for example,
aforementioned metals are preferred because they have
which may in turn be lprovided with suitable exterior 25 a longer life and are not fragile.
metal plates 17. Each stage is supported between corre
As shown in FIGS. 9 to 11, the plates 32 which com
sponding pairs of arches 19a, 19h, 20a, Ztib and 21a, 2lb,
prise the Inutile are elongate, fiat members with their uprespectively, and each of these arches is carried at its ends
per and lower marginal regions turned back on opposite
by structural members 22 and 24 which take the hori
sides to form oppositely directed upper and lower hooks
zontal tand vertical components of the load respectively. 30 42 and 44, respectively, whereby the plates may be sus
These members 22 and `24 supporting each stage are in
turn supported by suitable framing (not shown) so that
each stage of the furnace is independent of the others
as respects its Weight and expansion and contraction.
Thus, »as many stages as are necessary may be vertically
arranged. Expansion joints are provided in each stage,
as indicated at 23 in FIG. 4.
Each stage includes a pair of combustion chambers
25 separated by a central, vertical fabric run 26. In the
pended one from another as shown in FIGS. 5 and 9.
The plates are reinforced in the regions of the hooks by
spaced reinforcing webs 45 which may be welded in
place. It will be noted that at least two of these rein
forcing webs 45a at the top of the plates and preferably
near each end thereof are somewhat larger than the
others and are each formed with an opening 46 for a
purpose described later.
As shown in FIGS. 5 and 9 to 11, the opposed upper
outer wall of each of the combustion chambers 25 are 40 plates in each stage engage a support 47 which may be
mounted `a plurality of burners 27, each joined to mani
in the form of a channel member set above the upper
folds 27a carrying a combustible mixture of fluid fuel
arch in its respective stage and having an upturned ñange
and air, for example. As shown schematically in FIGS.
49 for receiving the upper hook 42 of the top muffle plate.
3 and 4, the fuel burners are preferably arranged in
The support 47 is preferably formed of metal and its
alternate spaced rows of three and four each to assure
uniform heating throughout the chambers. Each burner
may of course be equipped With a control valve 29 for
regulating flow therethrough. Sight openings 36 and
thermo-couple receptacles 31 may be located at convenient
points in the Walls of each stage, as illustrated in FIGS.
3 and 4.
The fabric run 26 is actually a muflle zone disposed be
tween the combustion chambers 25.
As stated above,
flange 49 is preferably reinforced by a secondary flange
5t) spaced therefrom and welded to the surface of the
support, as are rigidifying members 51. The upper hook
42 of the upper muffle plate is recessed as to 52 to receive
and engage members 51. Thus, the weight load of the
mufiie plates of each stage is taken by the upper support
ing arch and structural support members for that stage
only.
Referring now to FIGS. 7 and 8, it will be seen that
the mufñe plates 32 are somewhat Wider than the inner
the fabric web 12 from direct contact with the burner
transverse dimension of the furnace, and the opposed
flames @and from the products of fuel combustion. As
furnace walls at the side edges of the muflle plates are
shown in FIGS. 5, 7 and 8, the muffle or run 26 is defined
recessed as at 54 to receive the vertical marginal region
on two sides by the refractory walls of the furnace and
of the plates. These recesses 54 are of such ydepth rela
on its other «two sides by a series of novel muflle plates
tive to the Width of the plates as to enable the plates to
32 assembled in a manner to be described hereinafter. 60 be cocked vertically, as shown in `broken lines in FIG. 4,
Referring now to FIGS. 1, 3 and 8, it will be seen
and removed from the recesses at any level in the furnace.
that duct means are provided for drawing off the products
From the foregoing description, it will be seen that
of fuel combustion from combustion chambers 25. Thus,
when it becomes necessary to change the plates 32, the
at the «top` of each stage and on each side of the furnace,
same may be accomplished merely by lowering a man or
exhaust passages 34 «are provided for each combustion 65 a scaffold into the muñie to unhook the lower muñie plate
chamber, and these passages extend Ithrough the furnace
from the one above it, cock it, and remove it from the
wall 16 which forms a part of the respective combustion
recesses 54, and hook it by one of the openings 46 in
chamber. Suitable exhaust ducts 35 fit into these passages
several of the reinforcing webs to lines 60 (FIG. 4) for
and conduct the produc-ts of combustion to flue mani
withdrawal from above.
folds 36, one manifold serving the combustion chambers 70
It will also be seen that I contribute by my invention
on each side of Ithe furnace, and merging into a main
a furnace in which each stage is a complete unit in itself,
flue 37 near the top of the furnace (FIGS. 1 and 2).
both structurally and operationally, so that different con
It will be seen that except for the exhaust, each com
ditions may be maintained in each stage.
bustion chamber is completely enclosed.
I claim:
Turning now to FIGS. 2, 3 and 7, duct means are
1. In a furnace of the class described, a housing, means
the walls of the muñie zone or run 26 serves to protect
3,097,831
3. In a furnace of the class described, a housing, means
dividing said housing into a plurality of zones vertically
disposed relatively to one another, said housing having
dividing said housing into a plurality of zones vertically
disposed relatively to one another, said housing having
vertical recesses in opposed side walls thereof in each of
vertical recesses in opposed side walls thereof in each of
said zones, means for advancing a material web to be
said zones, means for advancing a material web to be
treated vertically through said zones, spaced partitions
treated vertically through said zones, spaced partitions
in each zone deiining a vertical muñie run for said ad
in each zone deiining a vertical muflle run for said ad
vancing material web, heat generating means positioned
vancing material web, heat generating means positioned
in each zone between said housing and each of said
spaced partitions, said partitions each comprising a plu~
rality of plates formed with cooperating means whereby
each such plate supports the next adjacent lower plate,
said cooperating means permitting separation of adjacent
in each `zone between said housing and each of said
10
plates by vertical movement of the lower plate to be re
moved relatively to the next adjacent upper plate, said
plates extending transversely of their respective zones and
spaced partitions, said partitions each comprising a plu
rality of plates formed with cooperating means whereby
each such plate supports the next adjacent lower plate,
said cooperating means permitting separation of adjacent
plates by vertical movement of the lower plate to be re
moved relatively to the next adjacent upper plate, said
into said vertical recesses in the opposed housing side walls
thus shielding the material from the atmosphere in the
vicinity of the heat generating means, said plates being
so dimensioned relatively to the w-idth of the respective
plates extending transversely of their respective zones
ing same to said material as it is advanced through said
absorbing heat generated by said heat generating means
and into said vertical recesses in the opposed housing
side walls thus shielding the material from the atmos
phere in the vicinity of the heat generating means, said
zones and the depth of the recesses as to enable said plates 20 plates being so dimensioned relatively to the Width of the
respective zones and the depth of the recesses as to enable
to be cocked in a vertical plane and then removed from
said plates to be cocked in a vertical plane and then re
said recesses and said housing, said partitions absorbing
moved from said recesses and said housing, said partitions
heat generated by said heat generating means and radiat
heating zones, exhaust means communicating with each 25 and radiating same to said material as it is advanced
through said heating zones, exhaust means communi
zone of said run, and means for exhausting the products
cating with each zone of said run at the upper region
of combustion produced by said heat generating means
thereof and exhausting vaporized products from said run
in the respective zones.
at each side of said material, and means independent of
2. ln a furnace of the class described, a housing hav
ing vertical recesses in opposed side walls thereof, means 30 said exhaust means for exhausting the products of com
bustion produced by said heat generating means in the
for advancing a material web to be treated vertically
respective zones.
through said housing, heat generating means for raising
the temperature within said housing to a desired level,
References Cited in the file of this patent
a series of heat radiating plates having mutually co
UNITED STATES PATENTS
operating means at the upper and lower edges thereof 35
rendering adjacent plates removably dependent one from
154,843
another and separable by vertical movement of a lower
1,947,546
1,991,016
2,067,085
2,156,008
plate relative to the next upper adjacent plate, said plates
when assembled forming a vertical partition in said hous
ing and separating said advancing material from said heat 40
generating means, said plates extending across said hous
ing and into said vertical recesses and being so dimen
sioned relatively to the width of said furnace and the
depth of said recesses as to enable said plates to be cocked
45
in a vertical plane and removed from said recesses.
Colby _______________ __ Sept. 8, 1874
Reading _____________ __ Feb. 20,
Fahrenwald __________ __ Feb. l2,
Hawke _______________ __ Jan. 5,
Bowland _____________ __ Apr. `25,
3,002,733
1934
1935
1937
1939
Barnes _______________ __ Oct. 3, 1961
446,957
Germany ____________ _.. Feb. 10, 1920
FOREIGN PATENTS
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