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July 16, 1963 J. D. HILL ETAL 3,097,989 MANUFACTURE OF SLIP-RESISTANT PAPER Filed Dec. 28, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 gig. 1. INVENTOR. ‘IL/6h." D- H!” and BY Dean -J. Cain. W “W July 16, 1963 J. D. HILL ETAL 3,097,989 MANUFACTURE OF SLIP-RESISTANT PAPER Filed Dec. 28, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 ave-9.2. INVEN TOR. Justin D. Hill and BY Dean J. Cazn. July 16, 1963 3,097,989 J. D. HILL ETAL MANUFACTURE OF SLIP-RESISTANT PAPER Filed Dec. 28, 1959 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. Juslin D. Hill and BYDeon J. Cain. ‘4/24 ATTORNEYS. United States Patent 0 T’ice 7 3,097,989 K Patented ,July 16, 1963 1 2 for treating the paper and applying particles thereto dur 3,097,989 MANUFACTURE OF SLIP-RESISTANT PAPER Justin D. Hill and Dean J. Cain, Lawrence, Kans., assignors to The Lawrence Paper Company, Law rence, Kans., a corporation of Kansas Filed Dec. 28, 1959, Ser. No. 862,374 7 Claims. (Cl. 162-135) ing the calendaring thereof. . FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the water and treat ment box. ' ' FIG. 4 is a plan view of the water and treatment box. FIG. 5 is a rear view of the water and treatment box, with portions broken away to illustrate the structure therein. This invention relates to the manufacture of paper and FIG. 6 is an enlarged transverse sectional view through paper products, and more particularly to the manufac 10 the water and treatment box and a portion of a calender ture of a novel, slip-resistant paper for use in combining roll. same into corrugated ?berboard or paper containers. FIG. 7 is a fragmentary perspective view of a four-ply Paper packages, containers and the like fabricated from paperboard made in accordance with the present inven hag papers, kraft papers, corrugated ?berboard and other tion. types of cellulosic materials, as are used for packaging 15 Referring more in detail to the drawings: and shipping of various foodstuffs, articles and the like, 1 designates a papermaking machine wherein ?brous possess the inherent disadvantage of slipping and sliding pulp and water is delivered to a beater 2 and is then fed against each other when being transported by hand trucks, to a Jordan or similar machine 3' where it is further re various carriers and the like, and also even while in stor age. This characteristic of the packages or containers re sults in shifting of loads, toppling of stacks, spillage, dam age to containers and the goods therein, and also results in accidents to handling personnel. Attempts have been made to overcome this difficulty as, for example, in the employment of containers treated with a form of adhesive on the outer surfaces, use of creped paper in the fabrica tion of the container, coating the container or portions thereof with various sprays and other material having ?ned. The mixture from the Jordan is delivered to- a 20 stock chest 4 from which it flows by gravity or otherwise to cylinders v5, 6‘, 7 and 8 of paper web forming equip ment, said cylinders each having a vat 9 for receiving the mixture. The ?ow to the vat 9 of the respective cylinders may be controlled by any of the well known means, such 25 as a gate valve (not shown) in the conduits between the stock chest and the vats. The papermaking operation fol lows the conventional practice wherein the cellulosic ?bers are picked up in laminations on the wet felts from friction characteristics, or otherwise treating the paper to which the paper web 11 travels through standard equip provide a less smooth surface. However, it has been 30 ment and processes wherein it is moved through the usual found that it is desirable to have smooth calendered sur presses and dryers. While the process ‘and apparatus il faces on such papers ‘and containers in order to have lust-rated is for the making of multi-ply paper, the present satisfactory printing characteristics, and such smooth sur process is not limited to such multi-ply paper but can be faces tend to reduce moisture absorption and penetration applied to other conventional papermaking processes into the papers. The papers and containers variously 35 wherein the paper Web 11 is calendered. treated as above are not entirely satisfactory, either for In the illustrated process, the layers of ?bers are picked the reasons of economy, poor printing characteristics, in up on the wet felt from which they travel through the usual su?icient slip resistance, poor handling characteristics and rolls to the press rolls and dryers (not shown). The other reasons depending upon the particular treatment layers 11’ from the four cylinders are formed in the course 40 and resulting characteristics of the paper. of their travel into a single sheet 11 of paper and moved The principal objects of the present invention are to to a calender stack 12 having a plurality of rolls as, for provide a novel, slip-resistant paper for packaging iarticles example, 13', 14 and 15, where the layers of the paper or for fabrication into board and/or containers that will are further bonded together by the compressing action of eliminate the aforementioned difficulties; to provide a the calender stacks. The paper strip from the calender process for the manufacture of slip-resistant paper Where 45 stack may be rolled or otherwise processed as desired. As in the paper is treated and has the anti-slip characteristic in conventional practice, the rolls of the calender stack as it comes from the calender rolls of a papermaking machine whereby the slip-resistant quality is obtained economically and conveniently without additional han are urged toward one another to compress the paper strip therebetween, and also said rolls are rotated at different speeds as, for example, the roll 14 is rotated at a slightly dling or processing; to provide a slip-resistant paper with a 50 faster speed than the rolls 13‘ and 15, whereby there is oalendered surface for low moisture penetration and good a slippage between the surface 16 of the roll 14 and the printing characteristics; to provide a manufacture of slip paper strip 11 as said paper strip moves over said roll. resistant paper without detrimentally affecting the Mullen In the‘ illustrated structure, the paper strip is fed over the test from that normally obtained from substantially the roll 13 and downwardly and rearwardly over the roll same paper not having the slip-resistant characteristic; 55 14, and then forwardly between the rolls 14 and 15. and to provide the manufacture of slip-resistant paper in A water box 17 is suitably supported adjacent the which discrete particles are substantially uniformly dis calender roll 14 at the paper outlet or forward side persed at the surface of the paper during calendering of thereof, said water box being an elongated container of a the paper, and said paper retain its ability to be rolled, length slightly greater than the width of the paper strip 60 combined into corrugated paperboard, or otherwise proc 11 to apply water and material to the calender roll 14 essed to form containers, packages and the like without for transmission to the paper strip for the full width there loss ‘of the anti-slip characteristic. of, as later described. The water box has a bottom Other objects and advantages of this invention will be wall 18, end Walls 19 extending upwardly from the come apparent from the ‘following description taken in 65 bottom wall, and a front wall 20‘ extending upwardly connection with the accompanying drawings ‘wherein are from the bottom wall and connecting the end walls 19. The rearward edges 21 and 22 of the bottom wall 18 and set forth by way of illustration and example certain em the end walls 19 respectively are shaped to ?t closely to bodiments of this invention. the peripheral surface 16 of the calender roll 14 where FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a portion of appa ratus for making slip-resistant paper in accordance with 70 by the roll and the water box walls cooperate to de?ne a trough 23 containing a supply of water and treatment the present invention. vFIG. 2 is an enlarged diagrammatic view of apparatus material. In the illustrated structure, a ?exible sheet 3,097,989 4 of canvas or the like 24 extends for the length between the end walls 19 with a portion 25 overlying the bottom wall 18 and secured thereto by a batten strip 26, the sheet 24 being of ‘suitable width that a portion 27 there of extends from the edge 21 of the bottom wall and up wardly therefrom to lie against the periphery 16 of the calender roll 14. The ?exible strip preferably terminates below the level 28 of liquid adapted to be contained in erate with the valve 48 to properly proportion the water and granular material between the water box 17 with the excess of the flow being discharged from an open end 50 of the duct 47 into a collecting or return tank 31 which also receives the overflow from the water box 17 through the duct 30. The return tank has an agitator 51 therein to maintain the water and granular material in constant movement and the granular material in sus pension in the water. The water and granular material the trough 23 as regulated by an over?ow 29' which extends through the bottom wall and communicates with 10 are drawn from the return tank 31 through a duct 52 by a motor-driven pump 53 and is delivered thereby to a duct 30‘ for delivery to a collecting tank 31 for recir the supply tank 45 through a duct 54, said pump 53 main culation as later described. A baf?e member 32 is pref taining circulation of the water and granular material to erably suitably secured to the upper edge of the water box further aid in maintenance of the suspension of the gran forward wall 20 and extends upwardly therefrom to serve ular material in the water. as a splash baffle to prevent liquid from splashing from the trough forwardly therefrom. The water box 17 is continuously supplied during the making of the paper with treating material and water through an inlet pipe 33 communicating through ducts If desired, a size material can be added to the water in the mixing tank 42‘ whereby it is carried with the water mixture and applied to the paper from the water box 17. It is preferred that a conventional size material be added 34 with a suitable source of supply, said treating mate 20 to the water as it is found that such size material will raise the Mullen test of the paper about 10 percent over the rial preferably consisting of granular material such as diatomaceous earth having a particle size of 1 to 10 mic Mullen test of paper not treated with a size material, and while size material tends to give a high gloss ?nish to the rons, said particles preferably being of irregular shape with substantially 95 percent passing through a 325-mesh water and make same slicker, it is found that even with screen. It has been found to be preferable to let the 25 the size added to the Water, suspension of granular mate treatment material and water mixture delivered to the rial as is applied to hard sized calendered board or paper, water box be of the ratio of 1 pound of said granular par the discrete particles of diatomaceous earth are dispersed ticles or diatomaceous earth to 1 gallon of water. As over the surface of the paper and embedded therein the water and granular particles are delivered and sub— whereby the paper surface has a nice, smooth looking ?n stantially maintained at a suitable level in the water box, 30 ish with good printing characteristics but that the paper is slip-resistant. and the roll 14 rotated in the calender stack, with paper being calendered therein, the water and granular particles It is common practice in testing the slip-resistance of are applied to the periphery 16 of the roll 14 and move paper to use an adjustable inclined plane having a ?xed plate of suitable material such as wood fastened thereto ‘upwardly therewith as at 35 and are applied to the paper strip 11 as said strip moves between the rolls 13' and 14, 35 and equipped with an angle-measuring scale. A piece of and said particles wiped and embedded into the surface paper, either the control or treated paper, is fastened in 36 of said paper strip as it is being calendered. The a suitable manner to the ?xed plate, and a second piece of particles of diatomaceous earth or other granular material paper treated in the same manner is mounted on a slide are maintained in suspension in the water box through member as, for example, another plate of suitable material agitation. In the illustrated structure, the agitation to 40 such as steel, which is free to slide on the ?xed plate. maintain the particles in suspension is provided by means This second piece of paper and the steel or movable plate of air preferably delivered under 30 to 50' pounds per are mounted on the paper covered ?xed plate when the square inch of pressure through a line 37 from a source latter is in a horizontal position. The movable plate is preferably of steel and has a weight of 150 grams or is of air pressure, for example, a motor-driven compressor 38, through a manifold or discharge pipe 39 extending weighted to provide a total of 150 gram weight therefor. lengthwise of the water box near the roll 14. The air The angle of the inclined plane is gradually and slowly is preferably delivered through a connection 40 approx increased until the movable weighted paper begins to slide imately midway the length of the manifold, and said mani or move down the inclined plane. The angle at which fold has a plurality of jet ori?ces 41 spaced along the said movement begins is the angle of slip. length thereof and directed in opposite directions, pref 50 Sheets of hard sized, high calendered kraft paper com erably in a plane substantially parallel with the bottom monly has an angle of slip of approximately 17 degrees. wall 18, some of the jets being directed toward the roll 14 and other jets being directed toward the front wall 20 to maintain substantially all of the water and material in the water box in agitation and prevent settling of the diatomaceous earth. The supply of the water and granular material is pref erably provided by mixing water and said granular mate Bag papers and outer liners of corrugated board that are calendered commonly have an angle of slip of approx imately 19 to 23 degrees. With the present process, tests of paper of the same composition and calendered to sub stantially the same degree, the control or untreated paper had an angle of slip of approximately 23 degrees, and papers treated by an application of diatomaceous earth of a particle size 95 percent of which would pass through rial, such as diatomaceous earth, in the ratio of 1 pound of diatomaceous earth to 1 gallon of water in a mixing 60 a 325-mesh screen and applied to the paper surface at the tank 42 provided with an agitator or mixer 43 which is rate of approximately 1/16 pound per 1,000‘ square feet of rapidly operated to thoroughly disperse the granular par paper surface had an angle of slip of 33 degrees. It has been found that diatomaceous earth or other granular or ticles throughout the water and maintain said particles in siliceous material having irregularly shaped particles of a suspension. The mixture of water and particles flows from the tank 42 through a valve controlled duct 44 to 65 size to pass through a screen of from 250- to 400-rnesh will provide excellent slip-resistance when applied to the a supply tank 45 which has an agitator 46 operating there in to maintain the granular material in suspension in the paper surface at a rate of approximately 1/10 to 1/20 of a water. The mixture of water and granular material flows pound to 1,000 square feet of said surface, it being pre ferred that the rate be approximately .0625 pound per from the supply tank 45 through a duct 47 at a rate greater than is required to supply the waterbox 17, said 70 thousand square feet of paper surface, or .0000625 pound duct 47 having communication with the duct 34 for deliv per square foot of surface, and when the paper is treated ery of the water and granular material to the water box. in this manner, it is satisfactory to handle and has good A valve 48 is arranged in the duct 34 to regulate the printing characteristics, and when used for covering arti quantity of the material delivered to said water box. The cles, otherwise packaging of same, or when combined duct 47 has a valve 49 therein which is adjusted to coop 75 into corrugated board with the treated surface on the 5 3,097,989 6 exterior thereof, containers made from said board have a slip-resistance as indicated ‘by the above test results and reduce or eliminate the danger of shifting of loads and chanically in said paper, said particles being of a size to pass through a ‘250- to 400-mesh screen and in an amount approximately 1/1o to 1,130 of a pound to 1,000 square feet of said surface, said outer surface with the the like commonly experienced with conventional paper in such packages. The treatment of the paper is performed during the paper manufacture at the calender stack simultaneously with the calendering of the paper, thereby providing an economical manufacturing process from which the slip particles therein being sized calendered. 5. In a process of producing paper sheet, the steps comprising, collecting ?bers in a web, pressing said ?bers into a thin sheet, calendering said sheet to further com press same and smooth one surface thereof, treating resistant paper is obtained without additional handling or 10 said one surface of said sheet at the starting of the calen processing, the paper sheet, as received from the calender dering thereof by applying to said sheet surface an aqueous suspension consisting essentially of discrete par ing rolls, having granular particles 55 embedded in the surface 36, as illustrated in FIG. 7, whereby the irregular ticles of diatomaceous earth at a rate of approximately surfaces of the particles have engagement with the ?bers 1/10 to 1&0 pound to 1,000 square feet of said surface of the paper sheet to retain substantially all of the parti 15 whereby said particles are wiped and partially embedded cles on the paper and thereby prevent said paper from mechanically into said one surface -by the calendering having a dusty appearance which would be present if the thereof. particles would separate from the paper. With appli 6. In a process of producing paper sheet, the steps com cants’ paper, the particles on the surface are dispersed prising, collecting ?bers in a Web, pressing said ?bers with spaces 56 therebetween, wherein the exposed paper 20 into a thin sheet, treating ‘one surface of said sheet by surface is ample to receive printing ink and thereby pro applying to said sheet surface an aqueous suspension con vide good printing characteristics. sisting essentially of diatomaceous earth at a rate of ap It is to be understood that while we have illustrated proximately 1AO to 1/20 pound to 1,000 square feet of said and described certain forms of our invention, it is not to surface, said diatomaceous earth being discrete particles be limited to the speci?c forms or arrangements of parts 25 of 10' to 1 micron size, and immediately calendering said herein described and shown except insofar as such limita sheet as it is treated to wipe and partially embed the tions are included in the claims. particles in dispersed relation in said one surface and What We claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: compress and smooth said one surface. 1. A paper sheet characterized by a slip-resistant sur 7. In the process of producing a paper sheet having face, said sheet being composed of paper ?bers with an 30 slip-resistant characteristics, the steps comprising, collect outer surface, and a deposit on said surface consisting of ing ?bers in a web, pressing said ?bers into a thin sheet, slip-resistant particles consisting essentially of discrete par passing said sheet between rotating surfaces having dif ferent peripheral speeds whereby there is relative move ticles of 'diatornaceous earth dispersed and partially em bedded mechanically in said paper, said particles being ment of one of said rotating surfaces and a surface of present on said surface in an amount approximately .0001 35 the sheet contacting same to wipe and smooth said surface to .00005 pound per square foot of surface, said outer surface with the particles partially embedded therein be of the sheet, maintaining an aqueous suspension con sisting essentially of a quantity of water and diatomaceous ing calendered. earth at said one rotating surface adjacent the contact 2. A paper sheet characterized by a slip-resistant sur thereof with said sheet to continuously apply a portion face, said sheet being composed of paper ?bers with an of said quantity to said one rotating surface, said diatoe outer surface, and a deposit on said surface consisting of maceous earth being discrete particles of 10 to 1 micron slip-resistant particles consisting essentially of discrete size and applied at a rate of 1/10 to 1/20 pound to 1,000 particles of diatomaceous earth dispersed and partially em square feet of said surface, discharging jets of air into bedded mechanically in said paper, said particles being ir said quantity of ‘water and di'atomaceous earth to main regularly shaped ~and of a size to pass through a 250- to 45 tain an aqueous suspension whereby said particles are dis 400-mesh screen and present on said surface in an persed on said one rotating surface and wiped onto the amount approximately .0001 to .00005 pound per square contacting surface of the sheet and partially embedded foot of surface, said outer surface with said particles par therein as said sheet surface is smoothed by said one tially embedded therein being hard sized calendered. 3. A paper sheet characterized by a slip-resistant sur rotating surface. 50 face, said sheet being composed of paper ?bers with an outer surface, and a deposit on said surface consisting of slip~resistant particles consisting essentially of discrete par ticles of diatonrace'ous earth dispersed and partially em bedded mechanically in said paper, said particles being 55 irregularly shaped and of 10 to 1 microns in size and present on said surface in an amount approximately 1A0 to 1/20 of a pound per 1,000 square feet of surface, said outer surface with the particles partially embedded there in being hard sized calendered. 4. A packaging material characterized by a slipere sistant surface, said material being composed of a multi layer paper having an outer layer with an outer surface, and a deposit on said surface consisting of slip-resistant References Cited in the ?le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,725,647 1,857,497 1,857,498 Kirschbraun __________ __ Aug. 20, 1929 Clapp _______________ __ May 10, 1932 Clapp _______________ __ May 10, 1932 1,989,709 2,643,048 2,647,069 2,872,094 3,005,727 O’Neil ________________ __ Feb. 5, Wilson ______________ __ June 23, Stericker ____________ __ July 28, Leptien ______________ __ Feb. 3, Stiles ________________ __ Oct. 24, 1935 1953 1953 1959 1961 OTHER REFERENCES “Decalite Bulletin F—50,” The Dicalite Company, New York, 1943, page 2. particles consisting essentially of discrete particles of di 65 Quinn et al.: “Diatomaceous Silica in Paper,” Paper atomaceous earth dispersed and partially embedded me Trade Journal, March 2, 1944, pages 12, 14, and 16.