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Патент USA US3097999

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July 16, 1963
J. D. HILL ETAL
3,097,989
MANUFACTURE OF SLIP-RESISTANT PAPER
Filed Dec. 28, 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
gig. 1.
INVENTOR.
‘IL/6h." D- H!” and
BY Dean -J. Cain.
W “W
July 16, 1963
J. D. HILL ETAL
3,097,989
MANUFACTURE OF SLIP-RESISTANT PAPER
Filed Dec. 28, 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
ave-9.2.
INVEN TOR.
Justin D. Hill and
BY Dean J. Cazn.
July 16, 1963
3,097,989
J. D. HILL ETAL
MANUFACTURE OF SLIP-RESISTANT PAPER
Filed Dec. 28, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOR.
Juslin D. Hill and
BYDeon J. Cain.
‘4/24
ATTORNEYS.
United States Patent 0 T’ice
7
3,097,989
K Patented ,July 16, 1963
1
2
for treating the paper and applying particles thereto dur
3,097,989
MANUFACTURE OF SLIP-RESISTANT PAPER
Justin D. Hill and Dean J. Cain, Lawrence, Kans.,
assignors to The Lawrence Paper Company, Law
rence, Kans., a corporation of Kansas
Filed Dec. 28, 1959, Ser. No. 862,374
7 Claims. (Cl. 162-135)
ing the calendaring thereof.
.
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the water and treat
ment box.
'
'
FIG. 4 is a plan view of the water and treatment box.
FIG. 5 is a rear view of the water and treatment box,
with portions broken away to illustrate the structure
therein.
This invention relates to the manufacture of paper and
FIG. 6 is an enlarged transverse sectional view through
paper products, and more particularly to the manufac 10 the water and treatment box and a portion of a calender
ture of a novel, slip-resistant paper for use in combining
roll.
same into corrugated ?berboard or paper containers.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary perspective view of a four-ply
Paper packages, containers and the like fabricated from
paperboard made in accordance with the present inven
hag papers, kraft papers, corrugated ?berboard and other
tion.
types of cellulosic materials, as are used for packaging 15
Referring more in detail to the drawings:
and shipping of various foodstuffs, articles and the like,
1 designates a papermaking machine wherein ?brous
possess the inherent disadvantage of slipping and sliding
pulp and water is delivered to a beater 2 and is then fed
against each other when being transported by hand trucks,
to a Jordan or similar machine 3' where it is further re
various carriers and the like, and also even while in stor
age. This characteristic of the packages or containers re
sults in shifting of loads, toppling of stacks, spillage, dam
age to containers and the goods therein, and also results
in accidents to handling personnel. Attempts have been
made to overcome this difficulty as, for example, in the
employment of containers treated with a form of adhesive
on the outer surfaces, use of creped paper in the fabrica
tion of the container, coating the container or portions
thereof with various sprays and other material having
?ned. The mixture from the Jordan is delivered to- a
20 stock chest 4 from which it flows by gravity or otherwise
to cylinders v5, 6‘, 7 and 8 of paper web forming equip
ment, said cylinders each having a vat 9 for receiving the
mixture. The ?ow to the vat 9 of the respective cylinders
may be controlled by any of the well known means, such
25 as a gate valve (not shown) in the conduits between the
stock chest and the vats. The papermaking operation fol
lows the conventional practice wherein the cellulosic
?bers are picked up in laminations on the wet felts from
friction characteristics, or otherwise treating the paper to
which the paper web 11 travels through standard equip
provide a less smooth surface. However, it has been 30 ment and processes wherein it is moved through the usual
found that it is desirable to have smooth calendered sur
presses and dryers. While the process ‘and apparatus il
faces on such papers ‘and containers in order to have
lust-rated is for the making of multi-ply paper, the present
satisfactory printing characteristics, and such smooth sur
process is not limited to such multi-ply paper but can be
faces tend to reduce moisture absorption and penetration
applied to other conventional papermaking processes
into the papers. The papers and containers variously 35 wherein the paper Web 11 is calendered.
treated as above are not entirely satisfactory, either for
In the illustrated process, the layers of ?bers are picked
the reasons of economy, poor printing characteristics, in
up on the wet felt from which they travel through the usual
su?icient slip resistance, poor handling characteristics and
rolls to the press rolls and dryers (not shown). The
other reasons depending upon the particular treatment
layers 11’ from the four cylinders are formed in the course
40
and resulting characteristics of the paper.
of their travel into a single sheet 11 of paper and moved
The principal objects of the present invention are to
to a calender stack 12 having a plurality of rolls as, for
provide a novel, slip-resistant paper for packaging iarticles
example, 13', 14 and 15, where the layers of the paper
or for fabrication into board and/or containers that will
are further bonded together by the compressing action of
eliminate the aforementioned difficulties; to provide a
the calender stacks. The paper strip from the calender
process for the manufacture of slip-resistant paper Where 45 stack may be rolled or otherwise processed as desired. As
in the paper is treated and has the anti-slip characteristic
in conventional practice, the rolls of the calender stack
as it comes from the calender rolls of a papermaking
machine whereby the slip-resistant quality is obtained
economically and conveniently without additional han
are urged toward one another to compress the paper strip
therebetween, and also said rolls are rotated at different
speeds as, for example, the roll 14 is rotated at a slightly
dling or processing; to provide a slip-resistant paper with a 50 faster speed than the rolls 13‘ and 15, whereby there is
oalendered surface for low moisture penetration and good
a slippage between the surface 16 of the roll 14 and the
printing characteristics; to provide a manufacture of slip
paper strip 11 as said paper strip moves over said roll.
resistant paper without detrimentally affecting the Mullen
In the‘ illustrated structure, the paper strip is fed over the
test from that normally obtained from substantially the
roll 13 and downwardly and rearwardly over the roll
same paper not having the slip-resistant characteristic; 55 14, and then forwardly between the rolls 14 and 15.
and to provide the manufacture of slip-resistant paper in
A water box 17 is suitably supported adjacent the
which discrete particles are substantially uniformly dis
calender roll 14 at the paper outlet or forward side
persed at the surface of the paper during calendering of
thereof, said water box being an elongated container of a
the paper, and said paper retain its ability to be rolled,
length slightly greater than the width of the paper strip
60
combined into corrugated paperboard, or otherwise proc
11 to apply water and material to the calender roll 14
essed to form containers, packages and the like without
for transmission to the paper strip for the full width there
loss ‘of the anti-slip characteristic.
of, as later described. The water box has a bottom
Other objects and advantages of this invention will be
wall 18, end Walls 19 extending upwardly from the
come apparent from the ‘following description taken in 65 bottom wall, and a front wall 20‘ extending upwardly
connection with the accompanying drawings ‘wherein are
from the bottom wall and connecting the end walls 19.
The rearward edges 21 and 22 of the bottom wall 18 and
set forth by way of illustration and example certain em
the end walls 19 respectively are shaped to ?t closely to
bodiments of this invention.
the peripheral surface 16 of the calender roll 14 where
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a portion of appa
ratus for making slip-resistant paper in accordance with 70 by the roll and the water box walls cooperate to de?ne
a trough 23 containing a supply of water and treatment
the present invention.
vFIG. 2 is an enlarged diagrammatic view of apparatus
material. In the illustrated structure, a ?exible sheet
3,097,989
4
of canvas or the like 24 extends for the length between
the end walls 19 with a portion 25 overlying the bottom
wall 18 and secured thereto by a batten strip 26, the
sheet 24 being of ‘suitable width that a portion 27 there
of extends from the edge 21 of the bottom wall and up
wardly therefrom to lie against the periphery 16 of the
calender roll 14. The ?exible strip preferably terminates
below the level 28 of liquid adapted to be contained in
erate with the valve 48 to properly proportion the water
and granular material between the water box 17 with the
excess of the flow being discharged from an open end
50 of the duct 47 into a collecting or return tank 31
which also receives the overflow from the water box 17
through the duct 30. The return tank has an agitator
51 therein to maintain the water and granular material
in constant movement and the granular material in sus
pension in the water. The water and granular material
the trough 23 as regulated by an over?ow 29' which
extends through the bottom wall and communicates with 10 are drawn from the return tank 31 through a duct 52
by a motor-driven pump 53 and is delivered thereby to
a duct 30‘ for delivery to a collecting tank 31 for recir
the supply tank 45 through a duct 54, said pump 53 main
culation as later described. A baf?e member 32 is pref
taining circulation of the water and granular material to
erably suitably secured to the upper edge of the water box
further aid in maintenance of the suspension of the gran
forward wall 20 and extends upwardly therefrom to serve
ular material in the water.
as a splash baffle to prevent liquid from splashing from
the trough forwardly therefrom.
The water box 17 is continuously supplied during the
making of the paper with treating material and water
through an inlet pipe 33 communicating through ducts
If desired, a size material can be added to the water
in the mixing tank 42‘ whereby it is carried with the water
mixture and applied to the paper from the water box 17.
It is preferred that a conventional size material be added
34 with a suitable source of supply, said treating mate 20 to the water as it is found that such size material will raise
the Mullen test of the paper about 10 percent over the
rial preferably consisting of granular material such as
diatomaceous earth having a particle size of 1 to 10 mic
Mullen test of paper not treated with a size material, and
while size material tends to give a high gloss ?nish to the
rons, said particles preferably being of irregular shape
with substantially 95 percent passing through a 325-mesh
water and make same slicker, it is found that even with
screen. It has been found to be preferable to let the 25 the size added to the Water, suspension of granular mate
treatment material and water mixture delivered to the
rial as is applied to hard sized calendered board or paper,
water box be of the ratio of 1 pound of said granular par
the discrete particles of diatomaceous earth are dispersed
ticles or diatomaceous earth to 1 gallon of water. As
over the surface of the paper and embedded therein
the water and granular particles are delivered and sub—
whereby the paper surface has a nice, smooth looking ?n
stantially maintained at a suitable level in the water box, 30 ish with good printing characteristics but that the paper
is slip-resistant.
and the roll 14 rotated in the calender stack, with paper
being calendered therein, the water and granular particles
It is common practice in testing the slip-resistance of
are applied to the periphery 16 of the roll 14 and move
paper to use an adjustable inclined plane having a ?xed
plate of suitable material such as wood fastened thereto
‘upwardly therewith as at 35 and are applied to the paper
strip 11 as said strip moves between the rolls 13' and 14, 35 and equipped with an angle-measuring scale. A piece of
and said particles wiped and embedded into the surface
paper, either the control or treated paper, is fastened in
36 of said paper strip as it is being calendered. The
a suitable manner to the ?xed plate, and a second piece of
particles of diatomaceous earth or other granular material
paper treated in the same manner is mounted on a slide
are maintained in suspension in the water box through
member as, for example, another plate of suitable material
agitation. In the illustrated structure, the agitation to 40 such as steel, which is free to slide on the ?xed plate.
maintain the particles in suspension is provided by means
This second piece of paper and the steel or movable plate
of air preferably delivered under 30 to 50' pounds per
are mounted on the paper covered ?xed plate when the
square inch of pressure through a line 37 from a source
latter is in a horizontal position. The movable plate is
preferably of steel and has a weight of 150 grams or is
of air pressure, for example, a motor-driven compressor
38, through a manifold or discharge pipe 39 extending
weighted to provide a total of 150 gram weight therefor.
lengthwise of the water box near the roll 14. The air
The angle of the inclined plane is gradually and slowly
is preferably delivered through a connection 40 approx
increased until the movable weighted paper begins to slide
imately midway the length of the manifold, and said mani
or move down the inclined plane. The angle at which
fold has a plurality of jet ori?ces 41 spaced along the
said movement begins is the angle of slip.
length thereof and directed in opposite directions, pref 50
Sheets of hard sized, high calendered kraft paper com
erably in a plane substantially parallel with the bottom
monly has an angle of slip of approximately 17 degrees.
wall 18, some of the jets being directed toward the roll
14 and other jets being directed toward the front wall 20
to maintain substantially all of the water and material
in the water box in agitation and prevent settling of the
diatomaceous earth.
The supply of the water and granular material is pref
erably provided by mixing water and said granular mate
Bag papers and outer liners of corrugated board that are
calendered commonly have an angle of slip of approx
imately 19 to 23 degrees. With the present process, tests
of paper of the same composition and calendered to sub
stantially the same degree, the control or untreated paper
had an angle of slip of approximately 23 degrees, and
papers treated by an application of diatomaceous earth
of a particle size 95 percent of which would pass through
rial, such as diatomaceous earth, in the ratio of 1 pound
of diatomaceous earth to 1 gallon of water in a mixing 60 a 325-mesh screen and applied to the paper surface at the
tank 42 provided with an agitator or mixer 43 which is
rate of approximately 1/16 pound per 1,000‘ square feet of
rapidly operated to thoroughly disperse the granular par
paper surface had an angle of slip of 33 degrees. It has
been found that diatomaceous earth or other granular or
ticles throughout the water and maintain said particles in
siliceous material having irregularly shaped particles of a
suspension. The mixture of water and particles flows
from the tank 42 through a valve controlled duct 44 to 65 size to pass through a screen of from 250- to 400-rnesh
will provide excellent slip-resistance when applied to the
a supply tank 45 which has an agitator 46 operating there
in to maintain the granular material in suspension in the
paper surface at a rate of approximately 1/10 to 1/20 of a
water. The mixture of water and granular material flows
pound to 1,000 square feet of said surface, it being pre
ferred that the rate be approximately .0625 pound per
from the supply tank 45 through a duct 47 at a rate
greater than is required to supply the waterbox 17, said 70 thousand square feet of paper surface, or .0000625 pound
duct 47 having communication with the duct 34 for deliv
per square foot of surface, and when the paper is treated
ery of the water and granular material to the water box.
in this manner, it is satisfactory to handle and has good
A valve 48 is arranged in the duct 34 to regulate the
printing characteristics, and when used for covering arti
quantity of the material delivered to said water box. The
cles, otherwise packaging of same, or when combined
duct 47 has a valve 49 therein which is adjusted to coop 75 into corrugated board with the treated surface on the
5
3,097,989
6
exterior thereof, containers made from said board have a
slip-resistance as indicated ‘by the above test results and
reduce or eliminate the danger of shifting of loads and
chanically in said paper, said particles being of a size
to pass through a ‘250- to 400-mesh screen and in an
amount approximately 1/1o to 1,130 of a pound to 1,000
square feet of said surface, said outer surface with the
the like commonly experienced with conventional paper
in such packages.
The treatment of the paper is performed during the
paper manufacture at the calender stack simultaneously
with the calendering of the paper, thereby providing an
economical manufacturing process from which the slip
particles therein being sized calendered.
5. In a process of producing paper sheet, the steps
comprising, collecting ?bers in a web, pressing said ?bers
into a thin sheet, calendering said sheet to further com
press same and smooth one surface thereof, treating
resistant paper is obtained without additional handling or 10 said one surface of said sheet at the starting of the calen
processing, the paper sheet, as received from the calender
dering thereof by applying to said sheet surface an
aqueous suspension consisting essentially of discrete par
ing rolls, having granular particles 55 embedded in the
surface 36, as illustrated in FIG. 7, whereby the irregular
ticles of diatomaceous earth at a rate of approximately
surfaces of the particles have engagement with the ?bers
1/10 to 1&0 pound to 1,000 square feet of said surface
of the paper sheet to retain substantially all of the parti 15 whereby said particles are wiped and partially embedded
cles on the paper and thereby prevent said paper from
mechanically into said one surface -by the calendering
having a dusty appearance which would be present if the
thereof.
particles would separate from the paper. With appli
6. In a process of producing paper sheet, the steps com
cants’ paper, the particles on the surface are dispersed
prising, collecting ?bers in a Web, pressing said ?bers
with spaces 56 therebetween, wherein the exposed paper 20 into a thin sheet, treating ‘one surface of said sheet by
surface is ample to receive printing ink and thereby pro
applying to said sheet surface an aqueous suspension con
vide good printing characteristics.
sisting essentially of diatomaceous earth at a rate of ap
It is to be understood that while we have illustrated
proximately 1AO to 1/20 pound to 1,000 square feet of said
and described certain forms of our invention, it is not to
surface, said diatomaceous earth being discrete particles
be limited to the speci?c forms or arrangements of parts 25 of 10' to 1 micron size, and immediately calendering said
herein described and shown except insofar as such limita
sheet as it is treated to wipe and partially embed the
tions are included in the claims.
particles in dispersed relation in said one surface and
What We claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
compress and smooth said one surface.
1. A paper sheet characterized by a slip-resistant sur
7. In the process of producing a paper sheet having
face, said sheet being composed of paper ?bers with an 30 slip-resistant characteristics, the steps comprising, collect
outer surface, and a deposit on said surface consisting of
ing ?bers in a web, pressing said ?bers into a thin sheet,
slip-resistant particles consisting essentially of discrete par
passing said sheet between rotating surfaces having dif
ferent peripheral speeds whereby there is relative move
ticles of 'diatornaceous earth dispersed and partially em
bedded mechanically in said paper, said particles being
ment of one of said rotating surfaces and a surface of
present on said surface in an amount approximately .0001 35 the sheet contacting same to wipe and smooth said surface
to .00005 pound per square foot of surface, said outer
surface with the particles partially embedded therein be
of the sheet, maintaining an aqueous suspension con
sisting essentially of a quantity of water and diatomaceous
ing calendered.
earth at said one rotating surface adjacent the contact
2. A paper sheet characterized by a slip-resistant sur
thereof with said sheet to continuously apply a portion
face, said sheet being composed of paper ?bers with an
of said quantity to said one rotating surface, said diatoe
outer surface, and a deposit on said surface consisting of
maceous earth being discrete particles of 10 to 1 micron
slip-resistant particles consisting essentially of discrete
size and applied at a rate of 1/10 to 1/20 pound to 1,000
particles of diatomaceous earth dispersed and partially em
square feet of said surface, discharging jets of air into
bedded mechanically in said paper, said particles being ir
said quantity of ‘water and di'atomaceous earth to main
regularly shaped ~and of a size to pass through a 250- to 45 tain an aqueous suspension whereby said particles are dis
400-mesh screen and present on said surface in an
persed on said one rotating surface and wiped onto the
amount approximately .0001 to .00005 pound per square
contacting surface of the sheet and partially embedded
foot of surface, said outer surface with said particles par
therein as said sheet surface is smoothed by said one
tially embedded therein being hard sized calendered.
3. A paper sheet characterized by a slip-resistant sur
rotating surface.
50
face, said sheet being composed of paper ?bers with an
outer surface, and a deposit on said surface consisting of
slip~resistant particles consisting essentially of discrete par
ticles of diatonrace'ous earth dispersed and partially em
bedded mechanically in said paper, said particles being 55
irregularly shaped and of 10 to 1 microns in size and
present on said surface in an amount approximately 1A0
to 1/20 of a pound per 1,000 square feet of surface, said
outer surface with the particles partially embedded there
in being hard sized calendered.
4. A packaging material characterized by a slipere
sistant surface, said material being composed of a multi
layer paper having an outer layer with an outer surface,
and a deposit on said surface consisting of slip-resistant
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,725,647
1,857,497
1,857,498
Kirschbraun __________ __ Aug. 20, 1929
Clapp _______________ __ May 10, 1932
Clapp _______________ __ May 10, 1932
1,989,709
2,643,048
2,647,069
2,872,094
3,005,727
O’Neil ________________ __ Feb. 5,
Wilson ______________ __ June 23,
Stericker ____________ __ July 28,
Leptien ______________ __ Feb. 3,
Stiles ________________ __ Oct. 24,
1935
1953
1953
1959
1961
OTHER REFERENCES
“Decalite Bulletin F—50,” The Dicalite Company, New
York,
1943, page 2.
particles consisting essentially of discrete particles of di 65 Quinn et al.: “Diatomaceous Silica in Paper,” Paper
atomaceous earth dispersed and partially embedded me
Trade Journal, March 2, 1944, pages 12, 14, and 16.
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