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July 16, 1963
w. w. MEDLINSKI ETAL
3,098,228
NAVIGATION SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 5, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
July 16, 1963
w. w. MEDLlNsKl ETAL
3,098,228
NAVIGATION SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 5, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTORS
W/LL/AM W MEDL/NSK/
MOR M_.HODGM /v
¿y
July 16, 1963
w. w. MEDLlNsKl ETAI.
3,098,228
NAVIGATION SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 5, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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INVENTORS
W/LL/AM I/V MEDL/NSK/
@L HODGMAN
BY
A TraQA/E y
July 16, 1963
w. w. MEDLlNsKl ETAL
3,098,228
NAVIGATION SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 5, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
STAT I ON
INBOUND
OUTBOUND
FIG. 6
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INVENTORS
W/LL/AM 144 MEDL/NSK/
MOREV ¿.HODG/V/ÁN
FIG. 7
By Í ///"
AÍ'ÍÓRNY
3,093,228
ate» - t
Patented July 16, 1963
2
vFIGURE 3 is a schematic showing a portion of the
data smoother of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 4 is a schematic showing the ratio changer
of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 5 is a schematic showing the softener circuit
of FIGURE »1;
FIGURE 6 is a diagram showing approaches of a craft
in capturing and tracking the beam with and without
the novel navigation system; and
FIGURE 7 A and B are diagrams showing signal
amplitude in the cone of confusion and the path of the
craft through the cone of confusion using the novel
3,098,223
NAVIGATHÜN SYSTEM
Wiliiam W. Mediinshi, Paterson, and Morey L. Hodgman,
Westwood, NJ., assignors to The Bendix Corporation,
a corporation of Belaware
Fiied Sept. 5, 1958, Ser. No. 759,170
30 Qiaiins. (Ci. 343-107)
The invention relates to navigation systems and more
particularly to navigation systems responsive to radio
beams for guiding aircraft along the beam.
One object of the present invention is to provide a
navigation system for automatically guiding a craft to
navigation system.
The novel navigation system constructed according to
intercept, capture and track a radio beam.
the invention and shown in FIGURE r1 comprises a radio
receiver 2 which receives signals from a radio transmit
ting station and provides direct current signals corre
Another object of the invention `is to guide the craft
in a rapid approach to the beam upon engagement of
the radio equipment at a substantial distance from the
beam and then guide the craft to approach the beam
A further object is to avoid transients by automatically
rendering the system less sensitive to large signal ampli
tudes caused by irregularities in the beam and particu
sponding in polarity and amplitude to the direction and
displacement of the craft »from the radio beam. The
direct current signals from the radio receiver are ampli
fied and modulated by an amplifier and modifier 4.
The modulated signals from ampliiier and modifier 4
are applied to a limiter `6 which is adjusted automatically
for two operating limits in accordance with the ampli
tude of the radio signal for first intercepting the beam
larly in the cone of confusion over the transmitter sta
tion.
at a higher limit and then tracking the beam at a lower
limit. A relay '8 operated by a sensor 10 connected to
gradually and thereafter track the beam.
Another object of the invention is to compensate for
wind forces on the craft as the craft approaches and
tracks the beam.
radio receiver 2 adjusts the operating limits for the
intercept and tracking modes. Relay 8 is a self-locking
relay and operates when the radio signal decreases to
a predetermined amplitude and remains operable, even
though the radio signal subsequently becomes 'greater
than the predetermined amplitude, until the system is
The invention contemplates a navigation system -for
guiding a craft to capture and track a radio beam, com
prising radio means for providing signals corresponding
to the displacement of the craft from the beam, direc
tion responsive means for providing signals correspond
ing to the heading of the craft relative to the direction
of the beam, means responsive to the signals for guiding
disengaged.
the craft, and means responsive to the displacement sig 35
Sensor 1t) may be controlled by other signal sources 11
nals for changing the ratio of the signals relative to one
another.
in addition to signals from radio receiver 2, such as rlis
tance fr-om the transmitter station, velocity of the craft,
The amplitude of the heading signal may be increased
'and beam rate, in any combination, depending lon the type
and the amplitude of the displacement signal may be
of aircraft on which the navigation system is used. On
decreased or the amplitude of only one of the signals 40 aircraft whose cruise speed does not substantially vary
may be changed relative to the other to obtain the de
when flying a radio beam, sensor 10 may be actuated by
sired result. With this arrangement, when the craft is
beam displacement only. If the cruise speed of the =aira substantial distance from the beam and the radio equip
craft varies `substantially when rlying a radio beam and
rnent is engaged the craft rapidly approaches the beam
at a substantially large angle until the craft comes within 45 it is desirable to minimize bracketing at all distances from
the transmitter within the aircnaft’s maneuvering limits,
a predetermined distance of the beam, then the angle of
then sensor 10 should be controlled by »distance signals
approach decreases gradually and the craft captures the
as well as beam displacement signal-S. If the cruise speed
beam and thereafter tracks the beam.
of the aircraft varies substantially when flying a radio
Wind can be compensated for by Washing out the head
ing signal or by integrating the displacement signal or 50 beam then sensor It? should be controlled by lairspeed, or
by Doppler Radar signals.
preferably ground speed, in addition to beam displace
Transients may be avoided by using a data smoother
having two time constants and controlled by the radio
displacement signals to render the system less sensitive
rnent. If the cruise speed of the aircraft is substantially
Iconstant when flying a radio beam and bracketing must
be minimized at all distances from the transmitter within
to large signal amplitudes than to small signal amplitudes. 55 the aircraft’s maneuvering limits, then sensor -10‘ should be
Abrupt changes in amplitude may be caused by irregu
controlled by signals corresponding to rate of displacement
larities in the beam and particularly in the cone of con
of the craft from the beam as well as beam displacement
fusion over the transmitter station.
signals.
The foregoing and other objects and advantages of the
The limited signal from limiter r6 is fed to a data smooth
er
or lag circuit 12 which modifies the input exponentially
sideration of the detailed description which follows, taken
and has two time constants adjusted automatically by a
together with the accompanying drawings wherein one
relay 14 connected through a contact 16 of relay it to
embodiment of the invention is illustrated by way of eX
sensor
10. Relay 14 ‘operates only in the tracking mode
ample. It is to be expressly understood, however, that
the drawings are for illustration purposes only and are 65 after relay 8 closes contact i6 and preferably at a larger
radio signal amplitude than is required to operate relay
not to be construed as defining the limits of the invention.
SÍ With this arrangement data smoother 12 is adjusted
In the drawings, FIGURE 1 is a block diagram show
to one or the other of its time constants in accordance
ing a navigation system constructed according to the in
with the amplitude of the radio signals to avoid transients
vention;
70 caused by sudden changes in amplitude of the radio sig
FIGURE 2 is a schematic showing the limiter of FIG
nal. It will be observed that limiter 6 is connected in the
URE l;
invention will appear more fully hereinafter from a con
60
3,098,228
3
4
circuit before data smoother 12 to ñrst limit the ampli
tude of the signals before applying the signals to the data
beam. This approach is undesireable because rapid beam
capture is necessary, especially during Instrument Flight
Rules conditions when trañic is controlled along specific
smoother. With this arrangement the lower time con
stant of the data smoother can be made quite low without
routes.
In FIGURE 2 is shown a schematic diagram of limiter
sacrificing signal filtering and this limits the phase shift of
the signals and results in more stable ltra-cking of irregular
beams and tight tracking of regular beams. This arrange
6 which receives the modulated radio signal from am
pliñer and modiñer 4 across primary winding 34 of a
transformer 36 having its secondary winding 3S connected
ment also limits maximum rate of change of craft attitude
well within passenger comfort.
A ratio changer 13 receives an-d ‘adds algebraically the
output of data smoother ‘1-2 and a signal corresponding to
heading of the craft relative to the direction of the beam
from a heading sensor 20. The ratio of the signal ampli
tudes m-ay be changed by relay 8 in accordance with the
across a potentiometer 40 for adjusting the signal am
plitude. The limiter includes a pair of resistors 42, 44
connected to a pair of diodes 46, 48 and through a
resistor 50 to a direct current biasing source.
The signal
from potentiometer 40 is applied through a resistor 52
to the limiting circuit just described and the output
amplitude of the radio signal Aby increasing the ampli
appears across a transformer 54 and potentiometer 55
tude of the heading signal relative to the radio signal and
by reducing the amplitude of the radio signal relative to
the heading signal, `or by changing the amplitude of only
and is applied to data smoother 12. One limit of opera
tion is obtained when resistors 42 and 44 are connected
one of the signals relative to the other.
other limit of operation is obtained when resistors 42 and
44 are connected to ground through a resistor 56 by
to the direct current source through resistor 50 and an
The combined heading and radio signals from the ratio
changer are applied to a softener circuit 22 which may be
closing relay contact 58 upon energization of relay 8,
made to conduct exponentially during switching opera
tions by relay 8 to avoid transient responses. The signals
when the radio signal has decreased to a predetermined
amplitude.
FIGURE 3 shows a schematic diagram of the pream
from softener circuit 22 are combined algebraically with
other signals from sources 24, such as rate of turn, attitude
or any other signals desired for controlling operation of
pliñer portion of data smoother 12 which comprises a
vacuum tube 60 having a grid 62 receiving the signal from
potentiometer 55 of limiter 6. The cathode 64 of the
tube is connected to ground through resistor 66 and
through resistor 68 and relay contact 70 to provide the
the craft, and with signals from a heading corrector 26
which receives either radio or heading signals or Doppler
Radar signals or combinations of these signals to correct
for wind forces on the craft.
The heading corrector may be an integrating or wash
out circuit and is connected through a contact 28 of relay
8 to the signal chain so that the heading corrector is ef
data smoother with a higher time constant. When the
radio signal increases to a predetermined value, for ex
ample 65 microamperes, relay 14 opens contact 70 so that
the cathode is connected to ground through resistoi- 66
fective only in the capturing and tracking modes after
relay »8 is actuated, that is, after the ampli-tude of the
radio `signal has decreased to the predetermined amplitude.
only to provide a higher time constant substantially twice
that of the low time constant for the data smoother. The
higher time constant of the data smoother should be great
enough to adequately attenuate cone of confusion signals,
The signal sum from softener circuit 22, other signal
sources 24 and heading corrector 26 may be applied to
aircraft guiding means, such as an autopilot 30 or a flight
yet low enough for stability when recapturing the beam
from beam displacements greater than is required to
operate relay 14. As explained above, relay 14 operates
only in the tracking mode after relay 8 closes contact 16
director 32, to guide the craft automatically or manually
to intercept, capture and track the radio beam.
If the ratio changer is connected in the radio signal cir
cuit between amplifier an‘d modiñer 4 and limiter 6 and
the change in ratio between the heading signal and the
40
radio signal is made by decreasing the amplitude of the
45 14 in response to the amplitude of the radio signal the
in FIGURE 1.
By providing data smoother 12 with two time constants
and by controlling the time constants by operating relay
radio signal only, then data smoother 12 acts as a softener
craft will not respond to abnormal irregularities or abrupt
during the switching operation to avoid transients and soft
changes in the radio beam, particularly those encountered
ener circuit 22 is not necessary.
in the cone of Iconfusion over the transmitter station. As
In FIGURE 6 the path -of a craft 2’ using a navigation
`shown in FIGURE 7A, as the craft passes through the
system constructed according to the present invention is 50 cone of confusion the amplitude of the radio signal varies
shown at A. In the example shown, the radio is engaged
abruptly and if the- craft were not equipped with data
at a point where the radio signal is between 75 and 150
smoother 12 having two time constants, the craft would
microamperes and the craft turns from its present head
follow the dotted line path through the cone of confusion,
ing until the radio signal and heading signal substantially
as shown in FIGURES 7B. However, as shown in FIG
balance one another and then the craft approaches the 55 URE 7A, when the amplitude of the radio signal exceeds
beam at substantially a 45° angle until the radio signal
65 microamperes relay 14l operates and changes the time
is reduced to approximately 75 microamperes, whereupon
the radio signal decreases below the limiting voltage of
limiter 6 and the heading signal predomin-ates. The craft
again changes course until the radio signal is approximate 60
ly `40 microamperes, at which time the craft approaches
constant -of data smoother 12 so that the craft is less
sensitive to such changes in the radio signal and follows
the beam at approximately a 30° angle and relay 8 oper
the solid line path through the cone of confusion as shown
in FIGURE 7B.
The attenuation of limiter 6 and data smoother 12 using
the faster time constant of the data smoother is adequate
ates and changes the ratio of heading signal and radio
for normal beam tracking, vbut insufficient when passing
signal. The craft then continues to change course as
shown at a’ and gradually approaches the radio beam cen
through the cone of confusion because a persistent output
to automatic pilot 30 or flight director 32 results in an
«ter and thereafter tracks beam center :as shown at a”.
unsatisfactory change in heading of thel craft. For this
The rapid approach of the craft 2’ to the beam along a
reason, the data smoother is provided with a slower time
constant operable when the beam error exceeds 6-5 micro
ent invention is in contrast to the slow approach of a
amperes and limiter 6 is connected in the circuit before
craft 1’ along a path B using a conventional navigation 70 data smoother 12.
system as shown in FIGURE 6. The radio of the con
In some instances it might be desirable to combine the
ventional navigation system is engaged as before at a
present system for attenuating radio -signals in the cone
path A using a navigation system according to the pres
point where the radio signal is between 75 and 150 micro
amperes and the craft slowly approaches the beam along
a path B at a relatively small angle until it reaches the
of confusion with the To-Frorn arrangements now in use
wherein the To-Frorn flag sensor disconnects the radio
signals from the navigation system in the cone of con
3,098,228
6
5
a relatively lange angle so that the craft rapidly approaches
fusion upon actuation of the rlío-From flag. Under these
circumstances the present system would attenuate radio
the beam. When the icraft is within a relatively short
distance of beam center the craft is guided to approach
beam center more gradually and track beam center. The
navigation system compensates -for wind forces on the
craft when the craft closely approaches and tracks the
beam. Transients are avoided by automatically rendering
signals above 65 microamperes until the To-From flag
was actuated to disconnect the radio signals from the
navigation system. This is a decided improvement over
the systems now in use where the heading of the craft is
changed substantially from its proper course by irregulari
the system less sensitive to large `signal amplitudes caused
by irregularities in the beam and particularly in the cone
ties in the :beam in the cone of confusion before the To
From flag sensor disconnects the radio signals from the
system.
FIGURE 4 shows a diagram of ratio changer 18 for
of confusion over the transmitter station.
Although but a single embodiment of the invention has
been illustrated and `described >in detail, it is to be express
ly understood that the invention is not limited thereto.
Various changes may also be made in the design and ar
increasing the amplitude of the heading signal and decreas
ing the amplitude of the radio signal. The radio signal
from data smoother 12 is applied to input 72 and through
relay contact 74 of relay 8 to one primary winding 76
0f a transformer 78.
rangement of the parts without departing from the spirit
and scope of the invention as the same will now be under
Resistors 80 and 82 provide a re
stood by those skilled in the art.
What is claimed is:
1. A navigation system for guiding a cra-ft to intercept,
provides a return path to ground. The signals are 20 capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio means
for providing signals corresponding to the `displacement
summed by transformer 78 and the signal sum appears
of
the craft from the beam, a data smoother receiving the
across secondary winding 92. of the transformer and is
displacement signals and having means for varying its
applied to softener circuit 22.
time constant, direction responsive means for providing
When the radio signal decreases to the predetermined
signals corresponding to the heading of the craft relative
value, shown in FIGURE 6 as approximately 40 micro
to the direction of the beam, means connected to the
amperes, relay ä operates contacts '74 and 88 to change
data smoother and to the heading responsive means and
the ratio of the amplitude of the radio signal to the head
responsive to the sign-als for guiding the craft, and means
ing signal. Input 72 receiving the radio signal then is
responsive to the displacement signals for changing the
connected through resistor S@ and contact 74 to primary
time
const-ant of the `data smoother when the displacement
winding 76 of transformer 78. The heading signal is ap 30
turn path to ground. The heading signal is applied to
input 84 and through resistor 86 and relay contact S8
to primary winding 90 of transformer 78. Resistor 91
signals »attain a predetermined amplitude.
plied directly through contact 38 to primary winding 90 of
2,. A navigation system for »guiding a craft to intercept,
capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio means
transformer 78.
While the arrangement shown and described increases
for providing signals corresponding to the displacement
the amplitude of the heading signal and decreases the
of the craft from the beam, a data smoother receiving the
amplitude of the radio signal, it should be understood that 35 displacement
`signals and having means for changing its
to change the signal ratio only one of the signal ampli
time
constant,
direction responsive means for providing
tudes need be changed relative to the other to accomplish
signals corresponding to the heading of the craft relative
the same result, that is, the amplitude of the heading sig
to the direction of the beam, means receiving the displace
nal may be increased while the amplitude of the radio si-g
nal remains constant or the amplitude of the radio signal 40 ment signals from the data smoother and the heading
signals from the direction responsive means for guiding
may be decreased While the amplitude of the heading sig
the craft, means for changin-g the ratio of the displ-acement
and heading signals relative to one another, land means re
nal remains constant. «Only one contact 74 or 88 of relay
S need be used under these circumstances.
sponsive to the displacement signals for operating the time
Softener circuit 22 is shown schematically in FIGURE 5
and comprises a vacuum tube 94 having a grid 96 con
«constant changing means yof the data smoother and for
parallel to ground. The signal from ratio changer 18 is
operating the ratio changer when the displacement signals
attain predetermined values.
determined amplitude relay 8 operates contacts 104 and
displacement signals and limiting the amplitude of the
signals and having means yfor changing its limiting ampli
nected through a biasing resistor 98 and condenser 100 in
45
3. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
applied to 4grid 96 and the output appears across trans
cept, capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio
former 102. Contacts 104 and 106 of relay 8 connect a
nneans for providing signals corresponding to the displace
condenser `108 to a direct current source to change the 50
«ment of the craft from the beam, a limiter receiving the
condenser. When the radio signal decreases to the pre
106 to disconnect condenser 10S from the direct current
source and to connect condenser y108 in parallel with bias
rtude, a data smoother connected to the limiter and re
ing resistor 98 and the condenser i160'. The condenser 55 ceiving the limited displacement signals and having means
for changing its time constant, direction responsive means
slowly discharges and changes the gain of tube 94 eX
for providing Isignals corresponding to the heading of the
ponentially to soften the effects of switching to a new
craft relative to the direction of the beam, means re
signal ratio in ratio changer 18 `for guiding the craft on a
ceiving the displacement signals from lthe data smoother
new course.
and the heading `signals from the direction responsive
The navigation system described herein after engage
lment solves a complete beam navigation problem by corn 60 means for vguiding the craft, and means responsive to the
displacement signals for operating the limiting -amplitude
pensating for cross winds, attenuating normal beam liuc
changing means of the limiter and ‘for operating the
tuations and automatically attenuating the spurious cone
time constant changing means of the data smoother when
of confusion signals without 4further 'attention on the
the displacement signals attain predetermined values.
part of the pilot. The navigation system may be used with
4. A navigation system for guiding a craft to intercept,
an automatic pilot to automatically guide the lcraft to inter 65
capture,
and track a radio beam, comprising radio means
cept, capture and track the radio beam or it may be used
with a flight director to enable the human pilot to manu
ally guide the craft to intercept, capture and track the
beam. The navigation system has two modes of opera
tion, the intercept mode which provides rapid closure to F O
beam center, and the tracking mode which provides stable
tracking Kof beam center, and the navigation system auto
matically switches from one mode to the other. The
ap-proach to the beam, when the radio equipment is en
for providing signals corresponding -to the displacement
of the craft from the beam, a limiter receiving the dis
placement signals and limiting the amplitude of the
signals and having means for changing its llimiting
amplitude, direction responsive means for providing
signals corresponding to the heading of .the craft relative
to the direction of the beam, ratio changing means for
changing the ratio of the displacement and heading signals
gaged at a substantial distance »from the beam, is made at 75 relative to one another, a softener circuit for avoiding
3,098,228
7
S
transients connected to the ratio changing means and
heading signals to a second fixed ratio to capture and
track the beam.
8. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
cept, capture, and track a radio be-am, comprising radio
means for providing signals corresponding to the displace
ment of the craft from the beam, direction responsive
operable when the ratio of Ithe displacement and heading
signals is changed, means connected to the softener circuit
and responsive to the signals for guiding the craft, means
for compensating for Wind forces on the craft comprising
a signal correcting circuit for providing corrective signals
to the guiding means, relay means openable when the dis
placement signals attain a predetermined amplitude
substantially greater than zero for operating the limited
amplitude changing means of the limiter, for operating
»the ratio changer to change the ratio of the displacement
and heading signals, for operating the softener circuit,
and for connecting the heading corrector lto the guiding
means providing :signals corresponding to the heading of
lthe craft relative to the direction of the beam, means for
combining the signals at one fixed ratio while the craft
intercepts the beam, means responsive to the signals for
guiding the craft, a speed sensor for providing signals
corresponding to the speed of the craft, means for chang
ing .the ratio of the displacement and‘ heading signals
means.
relative to one Ianother, and means responsive to the dis
5. A navigation system for guiding a craft to intercept
and track a radio beam, comprising radio means for
placement signals and to the speed signals for operating
the craft from the beam, a limiter receiving the displace
ment signals and limiting the amplitude of the signals and
having means for changing its limiting amplitude, a data
the ratio changing means to change the ratio of the dis
placement and heading signals to a second fixed ratio to
capture and track the beam.
9. A navigation system for guiding a craft to intercept,
capture and track a radio beam, comprising radio means
smoother connected to the limiter and responsive to the
for providing signals corresponding to the displacement
limited displacement signals and having means for chang
ing its time constant, direction responsive means for pro
viding signals corresponding to the heading of the craft
providing signals corresponding to the heading of the
providing signals corresponding to the displacement of
relative to the direction of the beam, ratio changing means
for changing the ratio of the displacement and heading
signals relative to one another, a softener circuit for
avoiding transients connected to the ratio changing means
of the craft from the beam, direction responsive means
craft relative to the direction of the beam, means for
combining the signals at one fixed ratio While the craft
intercepts the beam, means responsive to the signals for
guiding the craft, a speed sensor for providing signals
corresponding to the speed of the craft, means‘for chang
ing «the ratio of the displacement and heading signals
and operable when the ratio of the displacement and
heading signals is changed, means connected to the soft 30 relative to one another, and means responsive to the dis
placement signals and to the speed signals for operating
ener circuit and responsive to the signals for guiding the
craft, means for compensating for wind forces on the
the ratio changing means lwhen the sum of the displace
cnaft comprising a signal correcting circuit for providing
corrective signals .to the guiding means, first relay means
operable when the displacement signal attains a prede
ment and speed signals drops to a predetermined ampli
‘tude substantially greater than zero to change the ratio
of the displacement and heading signals to a second ñxed
termined amplitude substantially greater than Zero for
ratio to capture and track the beam.
10. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
cept and track a radio beam, comprising radio means for
changing the limiting amplitude of the limiter, for operat
ing the natio changer to change the ratio of the displace
ment and heading signals, for operating the softener
providing signals corresponding to the displacement of
circuit, and for connecting the heading corrector to the 40 the craft from the beam, direction response means pro
viding signals corresponding to the heading of the craft
guiding means, and second relay means connected to the
ñrst relay means and operable when the displacement
relative to the direction of the beam, means for combin
signal attains a second predetermined amplitude for
ing the signals at one fixed ratio while the craft inter
changing the time constant of the data smoother.
cepts the beam, means responsive to the signals for guid
6. A navigation system for guiding a craft to intercept,
ing the craft, means for providing signals corresponding
capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio means
to the rate of displacement of the craft from the beam,
for providing signals corresponding to the displacement
means for changing the ratio of the displacement and
of the craft from the beam, direction responsive means
heading signals relative to one another, and means re
sponsive to the displacement signals and to the beam rate
for providing signals corresponding to the heading of the
signals for operating the ratio changing means when the
craft relati've to the direction of the beam, means for
sum of the displacement signals and beam rate signals
combining the signals at one ñxed ratio while the cnaft
drops to a predetermined amplitude substantially greater
intercepts the beam, means responsive to the signals for
than zero irrespective of the heading of the craft to change
guiding the craft, means for changing the ratio of the
the ratio of the displacement and heading signals to a
displacement and heading signals relative to one another,
and means for sensing the amplitude of the displacement
second fixed ratio to capture and track the beam.
signals and operating said ratio changing means when
11. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
the displacement signal amplitude drops to a prede
cept, capture, and track a radio beam from a transmitter,
ltermined value substantially greater than zero irrespective
comprising radio means for providing signals correspond
of the heading of the craft to change the ratio of the
ing to the displacement of the craft from the beam, direc
displacement and heading signals to a second ñxed ratio 60 tion responsive means for providing signals correspond
to capture and track the beam.
ing to the heading of the craft relative to the direction
7. A navigation system for guiding a craft to intercept,
of the beam, means for combining the signals at one
capture and track a radio beam, comprising radio means
fixed ratio While the craft intercepts the beam, means re
for providing signals corresponding to the displacement
sponsive to the signals for guiding the craft, means for
providing signals corresponding -to the distance of the
of the craft from 'the beam, direction responsive means
for providing signals corresponding to the heading of
craft from the transmitter, means for changing the ratio
of the displacement and heading signals relative to one
the craft relative to the direction of the beam, means for
combining the signals at one ñxed ratio while the craft
another, and means responsive to the displacement sig
nals and to distance signals for operating the ratio chang
intercepts the beam, means responsive to the signals
for guiding the craft, and means responsive to the dis 70 ing means to change the ratio of the displacement and
heading signals to a second fixed ratio to capture and
placement signals for changing the ratio of the displace
track the beam.
ment and heading signals relative to one another when
the displacement signals attain a predetermined amplitude
12. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
substantially greater than zero irrespective of the heading
cept, capture, and track a radio beam from a transmitter,
comprising radio means for providing signals correspond
of the craft to change the ratio of the displacement and
3,098,228
9
ing to the displacement of the craft from the beam, direc
tion responsive means for providing signals correspond
ing to the heading of the craft relative to the direction of
the beam, means for combining the signals at one fixed
ratio while the craft intercepts the beam, means respon
sive to the signals for guiding the craft, means for pro
viding signals corresponding to the distance of the craft
from the transmitter', means for changing the ratio of the
displacement and heading signals relative to one another,
and means responsive to the displacement signals and t0 lO
distance signals for operating the ratio changing means
when the sum of the displacement and distance signals
drop to a predetermined amplitude substantially «greater
than zero to change the ratio of the displacement and
heading signals to a second fixed ratio to capture and
track the beam.
13. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
cept, capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio
means for providing signals corresponding to the displace
ment of the craft from the beam, direction responsive 20
means for providing signals corresponding to the heading
of the craft relative to the direction of the beam, means
for combining the signals at one iixed ratio while the
the displacement signals when the displacement signal arn
plitude drops to a predetermined value substantially
greater than zero irrespective of the heading of the craft
to change the ratio of the displacement and heading sig
nals to a second fixed ratio to capture and track the beam.
17. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
cept, capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio
means for providing signals corresponding to the displace
ment of the craft from the beam, direction responsive
means for providing signals corresponding to the heading
of the craft relative to the direction of the beam, means
responsive to the signals for guiding the craft, and means
for compensating for Wind forces on the craft comprising
a signal correcting circuit receiving one of the signals and
providing corrective signals to the guiding means, and
means responsive to the displacement signals for render
ing the signal correcting circuit operable when the dis
placement signals decrease to a predetermined amplitude
substantially greater than zero irrespective of the heading
of the craft.
18. A navigation system for guiding a craft to intercept,
capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio means
for providing signals corresponding to the displacement
of the craft from the beam, direction responsive means
craft intercepts the beam, means responsive to lthe signals
for guiding the craft, switching means operable when the 25 for providing signals corresponding to the heading of the
craft relative to the direction of the beam, means respon
displacement signals attain a predetermined value sub
sive to the signals for guiding the craft, and a washout
stantially greater than Zero irrespective `of the heading of
circuit receiving the heading signal and operating said
the craft, and means operable by the switching means for
changing the ratio of the displacement and heading sig
guiding means to compensate for wind forces on the craft,
nals relative to one another to a second fixed ratio to 30 and means responsive to the displacement signals for
capture and track the beam.
14. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
cept, capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio
means for providing signals corresponding to the dis
placement of the craft from the beam, direction respon
sive means for providing signals corresponding to the
heading of the craft relative to the direction of the beam,
rendering the washout circuit operable when the displace
ment signals decrease to a predetermined amplitude sub
stantially greater than zero irrespective of the heading
of the craft.
19. A navigation system for guiding a craft to intercept,
capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio means
for providing signals corresponding to the displacement of
the craft from the beam, direction responsive means for
providing signals corresponding to the heading of the craft
the craft intercepts the beam, means responsive to the
signals for guiding the craft, and means responsive to the 40 relative to the direction of the beam, means responsive
to the signals for guiding the craft, and integrating means
displacement signals for reducing the amplitude of the
means for combining the signals at one fixed ratio while
displacement signals relative to the heading signals When
the displacement signal amplitude drops to a predeter
mined value substantially greater than zero irrespective of
for integrating the displacement signal and operating said
displacement signals for increasing the amplitude of the
heading signals relative to the displacement signals when
the displacement signal amplitude drops to a predeter
signal correcting circuit actuated by Doppler Radar signals
and providing corrective signals to the guiding means, and
means responsive to the displacement signals for render
mined value substantially -greater than zero irrespective
of the heading of the craft to change the ratio of the
displacement and heading signals to a second fixed ratio
to capture and track the beam.
16. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
cept, capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio
of the craft.
2l. A navigation system for guiding a craft to intercept,
capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio means
guiding means to compensate for wind forces on the craft,
and means responsive to the displacement signals for ren
the heading of the craft to change the ratio of the dis 45 dering the integrating means operable when the displace
ment signals decrease to a predetermined amplitude sub
placement and heading signals to a second ñxed ratio to
stantially greater than zero irrespective of the heading of
capture and track the beam.
the craft.
l5. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
20. A navigation system for guiding a craft to intercept,
cept, capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio
means for providing signals corresponding to the dis 50 capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio means
for providing signals corresponding to the displacement
placement of the craft from the beam, direction respon
0f the craft from the beam, direction responsive means
sive means for providing signals corresponding to the
for providing signals corresponding to the heading of the
heading of the craft relative to the direction of the beam,
craft relative to the direction of the beam, means respon
means for combining the signals at one fixed ratio while
sive to the signals for guiding the craft, and means for
the craft intercepts the beam, means responsive to the
compensating for Iwind forces on the craft comprising a
signals for guiding the craft, and means responsive to the
means for providing signals corresponding to the displace
ment of the craft from the beam, direction responsive
means for providing signals corresponding to the heading
ing the signal correcting circuit operable when the dis
placement signals decrease to a predetermined amplitude
substantially greater than zero irrespective of the heading
for providing signals corresponding to the displacement
of the craft from the beam, direction responsive means
for providing signals corresponding to the heading of the
craft relative to the direction of the beam, means for com
of the craft relative to the direction of the beam, means
for combining the signals at one fixed ratio while the craft 70 pensating for wind forces on the craft comprising a signal
correcting circuit receiving one of the signals and pro
intercepts the beam, means responsive to the signals for
guiding the craft, and means responsive to the displace
ment signals for reducing the amplitude of the displace
ment signals relative to the heading signals and for in
creasing the amplitude of the heading signals relative to
viding corrective signals corresponding to the wind forces,
means responsive to the signals for guiding the craft,
means for changing the ratio of the radio and heading
signals relative to one another, and means responsive to the
3,098,228
il
l2
displacement signals for operating the ratio changing
greater than zero irrespective of the heading of the craft.
means and the heading corrector when the displacement
26. A method of guiding a craft Ito intercept, capture,
and track `a radio beam, comprising flying the craft While
intercepting the beam 'along -a course determined by
comparing the displacement of the ‘craft from the beam
to the heading of the craft relative to the direction of the
signals drop to a predetermined amplitude substantially
greater than zero irrespective of the heading of the craft.
22. A navigation system for guiding a craft to intercept,
capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio means
for providing signals corresponding to the displacement of
the craft from the beam, a limiter receiving the displace
ment signals and limiting the amplitude of the signals,
means controlled by the displacement signals for changing
the limiting amplitude of the limiter when the displace
ment signals attain a predetermined amplitude substan
tially greater than zero irrespective of the heading of the
craft, direction responsive means for providing signals
corresponding to the heading of the craft relative to the
direction of the beam, means for combining the signals
at one fixed ratio while the craft intercepts the beam,
means responsive to the heading and limited displacement
signals for guiding the craft, and means controlled by the
displacement signals for changing the ratio of the displace
beam in one fixed ratio, changing the one fixed ratio to
a second fixed ratio when the displacement of the craft
from the beam attains a predetermined value substan
tially greater than zero irrespective of the heading of the
craft, and Ithen ñying the craft While capturing Iand track
ing the beam along a course determined by comparing
the displacement of the craft from lthe beam to the head
ing of the craft relative to the direction of the beam in
the second fixed ratio.
27. A method of guiding a craft to intercept, capture,
and track a radio beam, comprising fiying the craft while
intercepting the beam .along a course determined by
comparing the displacement of the craft from the beam
to the >heading of lthe craft relative to the direction of
the beam in one fixed ratio, changing the one fixed ratio
to ya second fixed ratio of less value than the first fixed
ratio when the >displace-ment of the craft from the beam
ment and heading signals to a second fixed ratio relative
to one another when the displacement signals attain the
predetermined amplitude to capture and track the beam.
23. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
attains a predetermined value substantially greater than
cept, capture and track .a radio beam, comprising radio 25 zero irrespective of the heading of the craft, and then
means for providing signals corresponding to the dis
flying the craft while capturing and tracking the beam
placement of the craft from the beam, direction respon
along a course determined by comparing the displace
sive means for providing signals corresponding to the
ment of the craft from the beam to the heading of the
heading of the craft relative to the direction of the beam,
craft relative to the direction of the beam in the second
means for combining the signals at one fixed ratio while 30 fixed ratio.
the craft intercepts the beam, means responsive to the
28. A method of guiding a craft to intercept, capture,
displacement signals for changing the ratio of the signals
and track a radio beam, comprising flying the craft While
relative to one another to a second fixed ratio when the
intercepting the beam ‘along -a course determined by
displacement signals attain a predetermined amplitude
comparing the displacement of the craft from the beam
substantially greater than zero to capture and track the 35 to «the heading of the craft relative to the direction of
beam, a softener circuit for avoiding transients receiving
the beam in one fixed ratio, changing the one fixed ratio
the signals and operable when the ratio of the displace
to a second fixed ratio by reducing the amplitude of the
ment and heading signals is changed, and means con
displacement relative to the heading when the displace
nected to the softener circuit and responsive to the signals
ment ‘of the craft from the beam attains a predetermined
for guiding the craft.
24. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
cept, capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio
means for providing signals corresponding to the displace
ment of the craft from the beam, a limiter receiving the
40 value substantially greater than zero irrespective of the
heading of the craft, and then flying the craft while cap
turing and tracking the beam along a course determined
by comparing the displacement of the craft from the
beam to the heading of the craft relative to the direction
displacement signals yand limiting the amplitude of the
of the beam in the second fixed ratio.
29. A method of guiding a craft to intercept, capture,
and track Ia radio beam, comprising fiying the craft while
intercepting the beam along =a course determined by com
paring the displacement of the craft from the beam to the
spending to the heading of the craft relative to the direc
50 heading of the craft relative to the direction of the beam
tion »of the beam, means for combining the signals at one
in one fixed ratio, changing the one fixed ratio to a sec
fixed ratio while the craft intercepts the beam, means
ond fixed rat-io by increasing the amplitude of the head
signals, means for `changing the limiting amplitude of
the limiter when the displacement signals attain a pre
determined amplitude substantially greater than zero,
direct-ion responsive means for providing signals corre
responsive to the displacement signals and connected ‘to
the limiter and to the direction responsive means for
changing the ratio of the signals to 'a second fixed ratio
ing relative to the displacement when the displacement of
the craft from the beam yattains a predetermined value
relative to one another when the displacement signals 55 substantially greater than zero irrespective of the head
ing of the craft, and then iiying the craft while capturing
attain the predetermined amplitude to capture and track
and tracking the beam along a cou-‘rse determined by
the beam, ‘a softener circuit for avoiding transients con
comparing the displacement of the craft from the beam
nected to the ratio changing means and operable when
to the heading of the craft 4relative to the direction of the
the ratio of the displacement and heading signals is
changed, and means connected to the softener circuit and 60 beam in the second fixed ratio.
30. A method of guiding a craft to intercept, capture,
respons-ive to the signals for guiding the craft.
25. A navigation system for guiding a craft to inter
and track a radio beam, comprising flying the craft while
cept, capture, and track a radio beam, comprising radio
intercepting the beam along »a course determined by com
means for providing signals corresponding to the displace
paring the displacement of the craft from the beam to the
ment of the craft from the beam, direction responsive
heading of the craft relative to the d-irection of the beam
means for providing signals corresponding to the heading
of the craft relative to the direction of the beam, means
in one ñxed ratio, changing the one fixed ratio to a sec
ond fixed ratio by reducing the amplitude Kof the displace
responsive to the signals for guiding the craft, ratio
ment relative to the heading land by increasing the ampli
changing means for combining the displacement and
tude of the heading relative to the displacement when the
heading signals in one fixed ratio when the craft inter 70
`displacement of the craft from the beam attains a prede
cepts the beam and in another fixed ratio when the craft
termined value substantially greater than zero irrespective
captures land tracks the beam, and means for sensing the
of the heading of the craft, and then flying the craft while
amplitude of the displacement signals and operating the
ratio changing means when the displacement signal arn
plitude decreases to a predetermined value substantially
capturing and tracking the beam along a course deter
mined by comparing the displacement of the craft from
3,098,228
14
13
the beam to the heading of the craft relative to the direc
tion of the beam in the second fixed ratio.
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,958,258
2,482,809
2,611 3,350
2,613,352
2,776,428
2,801,059
2,845,623
2,881,990
2,932,023
Kellogg ______ _., ______ __ Oct. 7, 19-52
Kellogg _______________ __ Oct. 7, 1952
1957
1957
1958
1959
1960
FOREIGN PATENTS
Alexanderson _________ __ May 8, 1934
Thompson ___________ __ Sept. 27, 1949
Hassler et a1. __________ __ Ian. 1,
Hecht et al. ____.`__„ ____ __ July 30,
«Iddings ______________ __ July 29,
Kutzler _______________ __ Apr. ‘14,
Haskins __`_._,__________ __ Apr. 5,
516,567
626,124
Great Britain ___________ __ Jan. 5, 1940
Great Britain _________ __ July 1'1, 1949
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