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Патент USA US3098269

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July 23, 1963
_
|-|_ BOMM ET AL
3,098,259
AUTOMATIC DOOR CLOSER
Filed OG'È. 4, 1960
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United States Patent O
1
3,098,259
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Patented July 23, 1963
2
pared lwith the known forms of construction and, con
sequently, can be manufactured at low costs and with im
3,098,259
AUTOMATIC DOOR CLOSER
Heinz Bumm, Ennepetal-Voerde, and Klaus Berghaus,
Voimarstein (Ruhr), Germany, assignors to Dorken &
Mankel KAG., Ennepetal-Voerde, Germany, a firm
proved reliability of operation.
The invention provides an automatic door closer which
comprises in combination a casing, a damping cylinder
enclosed by said casing, a recess at least partially pro
Filed Oct. 4, 1950, Ser. No. 60,492
Claims priority, application Germany Get. 16, 1959
3 Claims. (Cl. 16-59)
jecting into the cross-section of said cylinder, for receiving
a flat spiral spring, a bearing neck projecting into said
recess and forming an undetachable part of said casing,
This invention relates to door closers, and more speci 10 a shaft supported by said bearing neck and loaded by said
fically to an automatic ‘door closer with a casing enclos
ñat spiral spring accommodated in said recess, a control
ing a damping cylinder, which is provided with a recess
means carried by said shaft and undetachably connected
at least partially projecting into the cross-section of the
thereto, a connecting rod for said cont-rol means, a damp
damping cylinder and adapted to receive a fiat spiral
ing piston arranged to be controlled by said control
spring which loads a shaft supported by a bearing neck 15 means through said connecting rod, and a closable mount
projecting into the recess. Such automatic door closers
ing aperture in said casing on the side remote from said
can be manufactured with relatively small external di
bearing neck.
mensions which, however, often `do not yet meet satis
This combination of features results in a construction
factorily tall lpractical requirements. Using the conven
of the door closer which occupies very little space and
tional forms of construction, a further reduction of the 20 is yet reliable in operation. It requires but few parts
dimensions can scarcely be obtained because, in the
known forms of construction, the lbearing neck substan
tially supporting the shaft is formed of a separately manu
factured structural member which is screwed `onto the cas
ing after the shaft has been fitted. This screw connection
requires a relatively ylarge headroom which has a direct
effect on the total height of the device.
An automatic Ydoor closer to -be arranged at the upper
portion of a door is already known which has a cylin
drical casing on which a bearing neck for »a shaft is
integrally formed. The bearing neck is embraced by a
spring shaped as a iiat spi-ral spring which loads the
shaft. However the spring is not accommodated in a
recess of the casing but is located freely above the upper
region thereof and can be covered by a cap. In this form
of construction, the shaft must be inserte-d from the
outer end of the bearing neck and is therefore detachably
coupled with a separately manufactured eccentric form
ing a crank. For this purpose, either a tongue-and-groove
connection or a square coupling region is provided. Such
constructions have not proved successful -in practice be
cause considerable peripheral -forces occur in the region of
the detachable connection of the eccentric with the shaft
and heavily stress the connection. The play necessarily
which can read-ily be manufactured and mounted and
makes it possible considerably to reduce the dimensions,
especially the headroom, as the bottom `of the recess re
ceiving the spring and forming part of the wall of the
25 casing need be only of small thickness, without in any
way impairing the loading capacity. Moreover, the space
containing the drive for the damping piston is easily ac
cessible so that the mounting can be effected in a simple
manner.
30
Various embodiments of the invention are possible.
However, it is recommended to construct the crank in
tegrally formed on the shaft of the door closer as an ec
centric, as in this way considerable savings in head
room can be obtained over the cranks hitherto used, as
35 a rule, in comparable closers and having crank webs
and a crank-pin. Furthermore, it is possible to equip in
a manner known per se the closure member for the
mounting opening arranged in the bottom of the casing
with a step bearing for the tend of the shaft directed to
This, however, is not absolutely necessary as
the shaft can be so reliably guided without difliculty
40 wards it.
in the bear-ing neck integrally -forrned on the casing
that here all -stresses are taken up. The closure member
is preferably constructed as a screw plug which, on
to be provided for the connection because of the provided 45 being mounted, adapts itself to the periphery of the
casing.
detachability increases rapidly due to the heavy stresses
occurring in the operation. This decisively restricts the
A preferred rembodiment of the invention will now
usability of the door closer. Further known is a loft
be described by way of example and with reference
door closer having a shaft which is loaded by a tension
to the accompanying drawing, in which the only FIG
spring.
In this case, the shaft of the door closer con 50 URE is a sectional view of an automatic `door closer
trols by means of two nonrotatably mounted cams a
frame longitudinally shiftable rectilinearly which estab
lishes the connection with a spring. In mounting the
shaft with the structural members associated therewith,
according to the invention.
As shown in this figure, the automatic door closer in
cludes a one-piece casing which substantially encloses a
cylinder 5» lforming a damping device and having Ia piston
ie. the cams and the frame, they are inserted through a 55 `6 within it and is provided on its upper side with a recess
lower closable opening in the casing whereas, for estab
lishing the connection of the frame with the spring, an
other opening is required in the upper part of the wall
7 adapted to receive a flat spiral spring whose outline is
lillustrated :by broken lines. A 4bearing neck -8 integrally
formed on this casing projects into the recess 7 and sup
of the casing, which must likewise be closed. Such a door
ports a shaft 9. The cylinder 5 contains a damping Huid,
closer, however, possesses neither a damping cylinder nor 60 such as oil. The piston 6 has a stepped >longitudinal bore
a recess in the casing partly projecting into the cross
19 in which a hall 20 is -arranged to operate as a iback
section of the cylinder, vfor receiving a iiat spiral spring.
pressure valve which permits a working space 21 of lthe
Furthermore, the aforementioned known door closer has
cylinder 5 to be ñlled with `a pressure lfluid Iwhcn the
no Abearing neck projecting into the recess and supporting
piston 6 returns. The working space 21 is connected
the shaft of the closer, as the shaft is `guided in the 65 by means of a passage (not shown) to the portion of the
upper region through a bearing eye which projects from
the wall of the casing both upwardly and downwardly.
Besides, the shaft does not cooperate with the spring by
means of a crank drive.
cylinder 5 in which the fluid is stored, the cross-section
of this passage being adjustable. Such arrangements are
known per se and, therefore, need not Ibe yfurther ex
plained. 'Mounted on the outer end of the shaft 9 is
It is the object of the invention to provide an automatic 70 a -lever 10 which can be arrested in a known manner in
door closer of the kind described above, which is of
its actual-ly expedient turning position and secured with the
simple construction and of smaller `dimensions as com
aid of a screw member 11. The portion of the shaft 9
3,098,259
4
projecting from the bearing neck 8 into the cylinder 5
2. An automatic door closer comprising, in combina
carries an undetachably connected control means 12
tion, a casing forming a damping cylinder at one end
which is shown 4in the drawing as an eccentric. This con
thereof and having in the region of the other end there
trol means or eccentric 12 is Iarranged to drive the piston
of a depressed portion providing a recess extending trans
6 through the intermediary of a straight connecting rod 5 verse tothe cylinder below the uppermost portion thereof
for receiving a spiral spring, said casing having a bottom
13. However, for lfurther reducing the headroom, the
connecting rod 13 may be bent upwardly along its length
wall portion located opposite said recess and formed with
to permit the recess 7 adapted to receive the flat spiral
an aperture, said bottom wall portion of said casing hav
spring‘particularly deeply to project into the cross-sec
ing a greater thickness than the opposite wall portion
tion of the cylinder, for the control means 12 can then
forming the bottom wall of said recess; a bearing neck
be positioned below the centre line of the cylinder 5 so
projecting into said recess and being integrally formed
that the headroom is further reduced. The free end of
with said casing; a shaft supported at an upper portion
the cylinder 5 is closed in a manner known per se by
thereof by said bearing neck and adapted to be con
Oppositely thereof, a screw
nected to a spiral spring located in said recess so as to be
plug 15 can be mounted in the casing. For mounting the
shaft 9 with the control means 12, an aperture is provided
in a lower wall 16 of the casing, which aperture can be
loaded thereby; an eccentric iixedly mounted on said shaft
means of a screw plug 14.
for rotation therewith; a damping piston slidably mounted
in said damping cylinder; a substantially straight con
closed by means of a screw plug 17 which may carry a
necting rod connecting said eccentric with said piston so
as .to oscillate said piston during turning of said shaft,
step bearing for the shaft 9. However, such a -step bear
ing can, as a rule, be dispensed with. The screw plug 20 said connecting rod having a center line substantially
17 has an upper surface abutting against a bottom sur
aligned with the center line of said piston and located in
face of the eccentric 12 for supporting the same and the
a plane of symmetry of said eccentric; and bearing means
shaft 9. A sleeve 18 is`rotatab1y mounted in a known
manner on the outer shell surface of the bearing neck 8
and serves as a coupling member for the inner end of
having at least the same thickness as said bottom wall
portion of said casing and closing said aperture and sup
porting said shaft and said eccentric, so -that the distance
the tlat spiral spring accommodated in the recess 7. The
sleeve `18 can be coupled with the lever 10 lin a known
manner in selective turning positions. The outer end of
the flat spiral spring can be secured in a known manner
to the side wall of the recess 7.
between said eccentric and said spring recess is smaller
than the distance between said eccentric and the bottom
face of said bottom wall portion of said casing.
3. An automatic door closer comprising, in combina
30 tion, a casing forming a damping cylinder at one end
The invention may be embodied in other specific forms
without departing from the spirit or essential character
istics thereof. The present embodiment is therefore to
thereof and having in the region of the other end thereof
a depressed portion providing a recess extending trans
verse to the cylinder below the uppermost portion thereof
Ifor receiving a spiral spring, said casing being formed in
strictive, the scope of `the invention 4being indicated by 35 a bottom wall portion thereof opposite said recess with
the appended claims rather than by the ‘foregoing descrip
an aperture provided with an inner screw thread, said bot
tion and all changes which come -within the meaning and
tom wall portion of said casing having a greater thickness
range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended
than an `opposite wall portion which fforms the `bottom
to be embraced therein. For example, the outer form
wall of said recess; a bearing neck projecting from said
be considered in all respects as illustrative and not re
of the casing may be modified in various Ways. The con 40 bottom »wall of ysaid recess into the same and being in
trol means 12 may ‘be positioned below the longitudinal
tegrally formed with said bottom wall of said recess; a
axis of the cylinder S and may operate a bent connecting
shaft supported at an upper portion thereof by said bear
rod or a connecting rod eccentrically engaging the pis
ing neck and adapted to »be connected to a spiral spring
ton‘6.
located in said recess so as `to be loaded thereby; an
We claim:
eccentric fixedly mounted on a bottom portion of said
1. An automatic door closer comprising, in combina
shaft for rotation therewith; a damping piston slidably
mounted in said damping cylinder; a substantially straight
tion, a casing forming a damping cylinder at one end
thereof and having in the region of the other end thereof
connecting rod connecting said eccentric with said piston
a depressed portion providing a recess extending trans
so as to oscillate said piston during turning of said shaft,
50
verse to the cylinder below the uppermost portion there
said connecting rod having a center line substantially
of `for receiving a spiral spring, said casing having a bot
aligned with the center line of said piston and located in
tom wall portion located opposite said recess and formed
a plane of symmetry of said eccentric; and a plug formed
with an aperture, said bottom `wall potrion of said casing
with an outer screw thread engaging said inner screw
having a greater thickness ythan the opposite wall portion
thread of said aperture Aand closing the latter, said plug
forming the bottom wall of said recess; a bearing neck
having at least the same thickness as said bottom wall
projecting into said recess and being integrally formed
portion of said casing and having an upper surface abut
with said casing; a shaft supported at an upper portion
ting against a ‘bottom surface of said eccentric for sup
thereof by said bearing neck and adapted to be connected
porting the same and said shaft, so that the distance be
to a spiral spring located in said recess so as to be »loaded
tween said eccentric and said spring recess is smaller
60
thereby; an eccentric tixedly mounted on said shaft for
than the distance .between said eccentric and the bottom
rotation therewith; a damping piston slidably mounted
in said damping cylinder; connecting means connecting
face of said bottom wall portion of said casing.
said eccentric with said pitson so as to oscillate said piston
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
during turning of said shaft; and bearing means having at
least the same thickness as said bottom wall portion of 65
UNITED STATES PATENTS
said casing and closing said aperture and supporting said
shaft and said eccentric, so that the distance between said
eccentric .and said spring recess is smaller than the distance
between said eccentric andthe bottom face of said bottom
wall portion of said casing.
2,930,071
2,956,302
3,011,208
70
Pittenger ____________ „_ Mar. 29, 1960
Rolph et al. __________ __ Oct. 18, -1960
Bomm et al ........... .___ Dec. 5, 1961
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