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Патент USA US3098460

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July 23, 1963
Filed Oct. 11, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
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July 23, 1963
Filed Oct. ~11, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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July 23, 1963
Filed Oct. 11. 1960
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United States Patent O??ce
Patented July 23, 1963
FIGURE 2 is a schematic view of a device illustrating
Ralph V. Wake?eld, Godfrey, and Harry Clark Foster,
East Alton, Ill., assignors to Olin Mathieson Chemical
another embodiment of the present invention;
FIGURE 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of a gas
release mechanism that can be employed in accordance
Corporation, East Alton, Ill., a corporation of Virginia
Filed Oct. 11, 1960, Ser. No. 62,041
1 Claim. (Cl. 102—25)
with the present invention;
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view
of another gas release device that can be employed in
accordance with the present invention;
FIGURE 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of a speci?c
embodiment of the present invention; and
FIGURES 6 and 7 are fragmentary longitudinal sec
tlonal views of additional embodiments of the present
This invention relates to gas liberating devices and more
particularly to such devices adapted to e?ect the sudden
release of compressed gas to serve as a work performing
While such devices are applicable to many
commercial applications, the present invention will be
described with particular reference to blasting cartridges
utilizing a gas under pressure.
Material breaking cartridges using compressed gas to
execute the required work are well known and Widely
used in the mining industry. Such cartridges or blasting
ample 6,000 to 20,000 pounds per square inch, ' '
devices are all reliant upon the sudden release of com
pressed gas to give a quasi explosive effect. The prede 20
cessors of this type of blasting cartridges consisted essen
tially of a cylindrical gas containing cartridge having vent~
ing means. The cartridges were charged with gas under
considerable pressure, sealed and then conveyed to the
face to be worked. The compressed gas Within these 25
cartridges was released by elaborate remote control means.
More recently, the practice has been to place an un
charged cartridge in the bore hole and pump gas through
a suitable conduit into the cartridge in situ. Convention
ally, these cartridges are formed of high strength mate 30
rials and are provided with a relatively weak member
which shears or ruptures so as to liberate the charge of gas
from the cartridge body at a predetermined discharge
FIGURE 2 of the drawing illustrates another embodi
ment in which the tubular cartridge body is provided with
pressure. The shear member can be replaced by a pres
a third gas release means 9 in conjunction with a third
sure responsive automatic valve that is actuated exclusively 35 set of lateral discharge ports 10. Thus the cartridge
by the gas pressure within the cartridge. These valves
illustrated in FIGURE 2 is provided with three sets of
are normally considered advantageous in that they can be
discharge ports 4, 6, and 10, which are normally closed
used repeatedly and the need of replacing the expendable
by gas release means 3, 5, and 9, respectively. Likewise,
member is eliminated.
the cartridge of this embodiment is divided into three
However, all such prior art devices depend exclusively 40 internal chambers 7, 8, and 11, by the gas release means.
on the liberation of substantially all of the gas con?ned
As in the above embodiment, chambers 7, 8, and 11, are
within the cartridge at one location on the longitudinal
in communication with one another by any well known
axis of the bore hole. Thus, the material being working
is subjected to non-uniform forces.
That portion of the
quasi explosive force, whereas that portion of
the material separated therefrom can be broken only by
the force transmitted through the material itself. Such
operation militates against the subsequent size reduction
ber 8. Thus, during charging, the pressures in chambers
7 and 8 are substantially equal.
When the predeter
50 mined discharge pressure has been built up within cham
ber 8, gas release means 5 liberates the gas in chamber 8
through lateral outlet ports 6. The gas is liberated sub
ognized that they do not take advantage of all of the
potential energy of the compressed gas con?ned within
the cartridge.
55 substantial reduction of pressure in chamber 8, the pres
sure responsive gas release means 3 is moved from its
sealing position with respect to lateral
results in the liberation of the charge of compressed gas
within chamber 7 as a work performing medium.
The cartridge illustrated in FIGURE 2 operates in sub
stantially the same manner as that described above.
which compressed gas is liberated as a work
compressed gas within
tubular body 1 is liberated in three increments rather than
medium at spaced intervals along the length of
the bore 65 two. When gas is introduced into the body, it enters
chamber 7, passes through gas release means 3 into
The manner in which these and other objects are accom
chamber 8, and thence through gas release means 5 into
plished in accordance with the present invention will be
chamber 11. Thus, during charging, the pressures with
apparant from the following speci?cation with the draw
in chambers 7, 8, and 11 are substantially equal. When
ing in which:
the predetermined discharge pressure has been obtained
FIGURE 1 is a schematic view of a blasting device 70 in chamber 11, gas release means 9 no longer seals lateral
illustrating an embodiment of the present invention;
exhaust ports 10. Thus, the charge of gas within cham
ber 11 is e?iciently and substantially instantaneously ex
A control piston 35 is slidable within sleeve valve 28
hausted through ports 10 as a work performing medium.
The sudden reduction of pressure in chamber 9 causes
with sufficient space 27‘ between them to permit a how of
compressed gas around the control piston into spring
chamber 36. The control piston is provided with annular
gas release means 5 to unseat from its sealing position
with ports 6. The charges of gas contained within cham
bers 8 and 7 are then seqentially discharged as described
above in connection with FIGURE 1.
flange 37 which rests on sleeve valve 28 and forms a slid
ing ?t with the internal ‘diameter of head cylinder 16.
The control piston is ‘provided with a plug 38 terminating
in a portion 39 of reduced diameter within valve chamber
While in the above embodiments the ?rst increment
40. Valve chamber 40 is in communication with chamber
of gas was liberated ‘at a point remote from the gas inlet
and subsequent gas discharges were progressively closer
41 and chamber 36 through annular space 27 and passage
to the inlet, it will be readily appreciated that this se 10 way 42, and passageway 43, respectively. Ball valve 44 is
normally urged against valve seat 45 by helical spring 46.
quence can be modi?ed in any desired fashion. Thus,
That portion of the control piston remote from sleeve
in utilizing the device in FIGURE 1, the charge of gas in
valve 28 terminates in a tubular section 47 having a cen
chamber 7 can be liberated through ports 4 and this lib
eration followed by the substantial evacuation of cham
tral passageway 48‘.
A control adjusting stem 49 is seated on cylinder plug
ber 8 through ports 6. Likewise, in employing the em
20. A portion 50 of the control adjusting stem is of re
bodiment of FIGURE 2, ports 4 can be opened to evac
duced diameter and is in telescopic engagement with ter
uate chamber 7 followed by evacuation of chamber 8
minal portion 47 of control piston 35. The seal between
through ports 6 and of chamber 11 through ports 10.
control adjusting stem 49 and control piston 35 is com
Alternately, the chambers 7 and 11 can be sequentially
exhausted followed by the discharge of the gas in chamber
8 through ports 6.
Practically any of the well known gas release mecha
nisms can be employed in accordance with the present
pleted by resilient O-ring 51. The control adjusting stem
invention to effect release of the compressed gas from
the chambers within the tubular body. The gas release
means in association with the ports that are initially
opened can be either a rupturable member or reactive
automatic or semiautomatic pressure responsive valve.
The gas release means subsequently activated are prefer
ably pressure responsive valve means.
FIGURES 3, 4, 5, and 6 illustrate gas release means
tween passageways 48 and 53. Control spring 55 extends
from flange 37 of control piston 35 to control spring seat
that can be advantageously employed in accordance with
the present invention.
One type of a gas discharge valve mechanism particu
larly well suited for use as the initially operated discharge
means of the present cartridges is shown in FIGURE 3.
Valve mechanisms of ‘this type are described and claimed
in the copending application, Serial No, 14,440, now
abandoned, ?led March 11, 1960, by Harry Clark Foster.
terminates in a centrally ‘positioned pin 52. The stem has
a passageway 53 substantially throughout its entire length
and one or more ori?ces 54 provide communication be
56. The force of the control spring is readily adjustable
by means of the screw threaded attachment 57 between the
control adjusting stem 49 and spring seat 56. The seal
between cylinder plug 20 and control adjusting stem 49
is completed by resilient O-ring 58 in groove 59 of cylinder
plug 20. Groove 59 is preferably covered ‘by stern thrust
washer 60 on which the control adjusting stem rests.
As shown in FIGURE 3 an elongate tubular body is indi~
cated generally at 12. The end of the body remote from
the gas inlet is screw threadedly attached to an adapter
13 as indicated at 14.
The adapter in turn is screw
threadedly attached as indicated at 15 to a head cylinder
16. The adapter is provided with a groove 17 proximate
one end to accommodate a resilient sealing means such as
O-ring 18 to complete the seal between the adapter 13
and head cylinder 16. The end of the head cylinder re
mote from the adapter terminates in an internally
threaded portion 19 by means of which it is connected to
In operation, compressed gas is introduced into cham
ber 41 through an appropriate gas inlet. The compressed
gas then enters chamber 36 through the annular space
27 about the periphery of the control piston 35 and by
means of passageways 42, valve chamber 40 and passage
Ways 43. Therefore, the pressure in chambers 41 and 36
is substantially equal during the charging of the car
tridge. Thus, during charging of the cartridge, both ends
of the sleeve valve 28 and of the control piston 35 are
subjected to substantially the same pressure.
However, since the effective cross-sectional area of
that end of the sleeve valve facing nose cap 23 is greater
than the effective area exposed at that end of the sleeve
valve in contact with valve seat 31, the valve is normally
urge-d into a closed position. As the pressure increases
within the cartridge, the sealing pressure exerted on sleeve
valve 28 also increases. On the other hand, pressure
responsive control piston 35 has an effective differential
cylinder plug 20. The joint between the head cylinder
cross-sectional area such that an increase in pressure
16 and cylinder plug 20 is sealed by means of resilient
O-ring 21 positioned in groove 22 of the ?xture. The
external portion of the assembly is completed by nose cap
23 which is screw threadedly attached to cylinder plug
urges the control piston away from the ports in the direc
tion of the nose cap 23 in opposition to control spring 55.
As the pressure within chambers 41 and 36 increases,
20 as shown at 24.
The nose cap is provided as shown
with one or more vents 25, and plug 20 is provided with
indentations 62 to accommodate a spanner wrench or
the like.
The head cylinder 16 is provided with a ‘plurality of lat
eral exhaust ports 26 which are normally spanned and
closed ‘by sleeve valve 28, the seal ‘being completed by
O-ring 29 in groove 30 of the head cylinder. Sleeve valve
seat 31 is slidably mounted within head cylinder 16 and is
in sealing engagement with head cylinder 16 by means of
O-ring 32 and groove 33. The end of the sleeve valve
seat in contact with sleeve valve 28 is in the form of a
the control piston is thus gradually forced to the right.
This sliding motion continues until ball valve 44 contacts
pin 52. At this point the seating pressure of ball valve
44 augments the force of control spring 55. The move
ment of the control piston is then interrupted with the
tubular portion 47 of control piston 35 a short distance
from shoulder 64 of control adjusting stem 49. This
position is maintained until the predetermined discharge
pressure is attained. It will be noted that when the control
piston 35 is in this position that ?ange 37 of the control
piston has traveled away from sleeve valve 28. Thus,
sleeve valve 28 is then maintained in ‘a sealing position
with ‘relation to ports 26 only because of its differential
‘modi?ed knife edge 34. Thus, the internal faces of the
effective cross-sectional area.
Upon reaching the predetermined discharge pressure,
sleeve valve and sleeve valve seat are both cylindrical
the ball valve is unseated and the tubular portion of
with the internal diameter of the sleeve valve being
piston 35 abuts shoulder 64 of control adjusting stem 49
slightly smaller than the internal diameter of the sleeve
and spring chamber 36 is vented to the atmosphere
valve seat. It will be readily appreciated that the terminal
through vents 43, passageway 48, vent 54, passageway
portion 34 of sleeve valve seat 31 can assume any desired
53 and vents 25. The effective cross-sectional area of this
con?guration to ‘provide a metal-to-metal seal between
these two members.
venting system is much greater than the eliective cross
urged in a direction toward end cap 70 in opposition to
se-ctional area of the passageway 27 from chamber 41 into
chamber 36. Thus, the pressure in chamber 36 is reduced.
The pressure on the right side of sleeve valve 28 is also
helical spring 77.
suddenly reduced through passageways 42 and pressure
on the left side causes the valve to open, liberating through
This sliding movement of valve 75 and seal ring 84
continues until a predetermined discharge pressure has
been built up in chambers 73 and 74. At this point,
further movement of the metal seal ring 84 is prevented
by its contact with shoulder 86 on sleeve 67. Continued
exhaust ports 26 the charge of compressed gas contained
in chamber 41. After the charge of compressed gas is
movement of the valve 75 causes a separation of the
substantially expelled from chamber 41, sleeve valve 28
valve from the metallic seal ring 84. This separation has
and control piston 35 are returned to their original closed 10 two instantaneous effects; an increase in the effective
FIGURE 4 of the drawing illustrates a simpli?ed and
reliable type of valve assembly that can be utilized in any
position of the cartridges of the present invention. Struc
tures of this type are disclosed and claimed in the c0<
pending application, Serial No. 828,812 now abandoned,
?led July 22, 1959, by Lionel E. Golf. A portion of
the cartridge body is indicated at 66. The end of the
‘body 66 remote from the gas inlet is screw threadedly
attached to sleeve 67 as indicated at 68. The seal between
these two components is completed by resilient O-ring
area of the main valve exposed to the pressure in cham~
ber 73, and a reduction of gas pressure in chamber 74 by
gas being vented through lateral vents 83 and exhaust
ports 76. Thus, the pressure in chamber 74 is reduced
at such a rapid rate that it cannot be balanced by gas
from chamber 73 entering through passageway 82 and
lateral vents 83. The pressure in chamber 73 is thus
suddenly unopposed and valve 75 is forced rapidly away
from lateral discharge ports 76. Any compressed gas
remaining in chamber 74 is exhausted through lateral
vents 83 and exhaust ports 76. With the sudden reduc
tion of pressure within chamber 74, the compressed gas
in chamber 73 is completely ‘and instantaneously released
to the surrounding work face which is to be broken down.
also being completed by resilient sealing means, such as 25
After the compressed gas in chamber 73 has been com
O-ring 72. The interior of the cylindrical body is divided
pletely discharged, the valve is returned to its original
into chambers 73 and 74 by valve 75 which is slidable in
position by helical spring 77 and is then in position for
the body. The valve is normally maintained in a closed
another discharge.
position spanning lateral discharge ports 76 by helical
FIGURE 5 shows in detail a cartridge of the type illus
spring 77 positioned in annular space 78 between sleeve 30 trated in FIGURE 1. The cylindrical body 1 of this car
67 and central extension 79 of end cap 70. The valve is
tridge is composed of a series of cylindrical lengths 89
slidably sealed to the central extension 79 of the end cap
together with interconnecting lengths 98. The body is
by resilient sealing means, such as O-ring 80.
closed at one end by end cap 91. The tubular cartridge
As shown in the drawing, the base portion 81 of the
body is provided with ‘a pair of sleeve valves 92 and 93,
valve is provided with a passageway 82 so as to maintain
which normally span and close lateral exhaust ports 94
the pressure within chambers 73 and 74 substantially
and 95. These valves as shown have a slightly greater
equal while the chambers are being charged with com
effective cross-sectional area on their right hand sides
pressed gas. Valve 75 is also provided with one or more
than on their left hand sides. Thus, during charging the
lateral vents 83 in the area of reduced diameter adiacent
gas pressure within the cartridges urges them to the left
the base of the valve. The valve is normally held in 40 and into a closed position. The valves are provided with
sealing relationship with metallic seal ring 84 which is
passageways 96 and 97 respectively to insure the mainte
slidably sealed to sleeve 67 by suitable resilient means such
nance of substantially equal pressures throughout the
as O-ring 85. Metallic sealing ring 84 is responsive to
cartridge prior to discharge. These valves divide the
the pressures ‘built up within main chamber 73 but is
tubular body 1 into chambers 7 and 8. Valve 92 is slid
restricted in its movement by its abutment with tubular
ably sealed to tubular body 1 by O-ring 98 and valve 93
body 66 and also by shoulder 86 of sleeve 67. As shown
is likewise sealed to the tubular body by O-ring 99.
in the drawing, the sealing ring 84 terminates in a modi
Metallic seal ring 100 is slidable within tubular body 1
?ed knife edge 87 at its point of contact with shoulder
and is sealed thereto by O-ring 101. This ring has a
88 of the sleeve valve.
larger effective cross-sectional area at the left hand end
The internal diameter of metallic seal ring 84 is larger
than at the right hand end and thus, the gas pressure
than the outside diameter of the basal portion 81 of the
within the cartridge urges it toward the right. The metal
valve so as to form a small clearance between these two
lic seal ring terminates in a modi?ed knife edge 102 and
components. If this clearance is made su?lciently large,
forms a metal-toemetal seal with valve 92. Member 89
sul?cient air from chamber 73 will pass therethrough into
is provided with shoulder 103 which cooperates with
chamber 74 so as to equalize the pressure within these
radial extension 104 on metallic seal ring 100 to limit its
two chambers. In such instances, passageway 82 in the
a sliding movement. Spring 105 also serves to maintain the
base portion of the valve 75 can be eliminated.
valve 92 in a closed position and to return the valve to an
This assembly is so designed that the valve 75 has a
operative condition after discharge. This spring is main
greater elfe-ctive area exposed to the gas pressure in cham
tained in position by spring retainer 166.
ber 73 than to the gas pressure in chamber 74. Also,
Valve 93 also has a metallic seal ring 187 in association
the effective area of the metallic sealing ring 84 exposed
therewith. This seal ring also terminates in a knife edge
to gas pressure is greater at that end proximate body 66
108 to form a metal-to-metal seal with valve 93. Seal ring
167 is slidably sealed to the tubular body by O-ring 109
than at the other end. These differential areas of valve
and its axial movement restricted by the cooperation of
75 and metallic seal ring 84 cause these members to
move in a direction away from body 66 as the pressure 65 shoulder 110 on the body and basal extension 111 on the
seal ring. Valve seat member 1112 is sealed to the body
within the cartridge is increased.
by O-ring 113 and cooperates with valve 93 to form eon~
In operation, compressed gas is introduced into cham
trol chamber 114. This chamber also accommodates heli
ber 73. The ‘gas passes through passageway 82 and lateral
cal spring 115 which acts in substantially the same man
vents 83 in main valve 75 into chamber 74. Thus, the
ner as spring 105. Valve seat member 112 is provided with
pressure on either side of main valve 75 is substantially
a central ori?ce 116 which is normally closed by ball valve
equalized and is maintained equal throughout the charg~
117. The ball valve is secured in piston 118 and is urged
ing operation. Because of the greater effective cross-sec
to a position closing ori?ce 116 by spring 119. Lateral
tional area of valve 75 and metallic seal ring 84 in cham
vents 12!) pass through the wall of the tubular body and
ber 73 than in chamber 74, the valve and the ring are 75 are normally closed and sealed by piston 118.
69. The other end of the sleeve is closed with end cap
70 which is screw threadediy attached to sleeve 67 as
indicated at 71 with the seal between these two members
In operation, compressed gas is introduced through suit~
the valve is urged to the left. Likewise, follower sleeve
The gas then passes
131 has a greater cross sectional area on its left end than
through ori?ce 96 in valve 92 into chamber 8, and thence
through ori?ce 97 in valve 93 into control chamber 114.
on its right end and is urged to the right with an increase
in pressure. Therefore, as the pressure increases, the
metal-to-metal seal between these two members is made
able inlet means into chamber 7.
Thus, during charging, the pressures in chambers 7, 8, and
114 are substantially equal. When the predetermined dis
more secure.
Valve 127 and control piston 35 are connected by op
charge pressure has been attained in control chamber 114,
erating rod 134. Valve 127 is slidable on rod 134 and
ball valve 117 is unseated from valve seat 112, and the
this sliding movement is restricted by nut 135 on the end
entire left hand ‘surface of piston 118 is suddenly exposed
to the pressure within the cartridge. This results in the 10 of the rod. It will be noted that in a position immediately
prior to discharge nut 135 and valve 127 are separated
piston and ball valve 117 being forced to the right in op
by a small gap 136. This gap is slightly smaller than the
position to spring 119. Since the effective cross-sectional
space between shoulder 64 on control adjusting stem 49
area of lateral vents 120 is substantially greater than the
and the right hand end of tubular portion 47. That por
effective cross-sectional area of vent 97 in valve 93, the
tion of the rod 134 adjacent valve 127 may be provided
pressure in control chamber 114 is very rapidly reduced
to a value well below that of the pressure in chamber 8.
This sudden reduction in pressure on the right hand side
of valve 93 causes the valve to be forced to the right, ex
posing lateral discharge ports 95. The charge ‘of com
pressed gas in chamber 8 is then suddenly and efficiently
discharged as a work performing medium.
with a radial extension 137 or other equivalent means to
retain valve closing spring 138.
In operation, compressed gas is introduced through suit
able inlet means into chamber 129.
The gas passes
valve 92, the discharge of the gas contained in chamber 8
through passageways 128 in valve 127 into chamber 41.
The pressure gradually increases within the cartridge and
urges follower ring 131 to the right in opposition to the
pressure~induced leftward movement of valve 127 so as
to make the metal-to-metal seal between these two mem
causes valve 92, to be in an unbalanced condition.
bers progressively tighter. This increase in pressure also
Since the gas can escape through ports 95 at a much
greater rate than it can enter through passageway 96 in
the sudden reduction in pressure on the right side of valve
urges valve 127 and follower sleeve 131 to the right since
92, this valve is then forced to the right by gas pressure
these two members as a unit have differential cross sec
in chamber 7 and the gas contained therein is then liber
tional areas greater on the left end than on the right end.
ated in like ‘manner through lateral discharge ports 94.
Simultaneously, the pressure increase in chamber 41 urges
The cartridges shown in FIGURES 6 and 7 are particu 30 control piston 35 to the right in opposition to helical
larly well adapted for use when it is desired to alter the
spring ‘55. This gradual movement of piston 35 con
sequence of discharge. These ?gures illustrate devices
tinues until pin 52 contacts ball valve 44 as shown in
that can advantageously be employed when it is desired to
effect the ?rst discharge of a work producing medium rela
When the predetermined discharge pressure is reached,
tively close to the work face and to discharge subsequent
piston ‘35 is urged to the right so that the end of tubular
section 47 contacts shoulder 64 on the control adjusting
increments of the gas toward the inner end of the bore
stem 49. Before the gap between members 47 and 64
With particular reference to the cartridge shown in
is closed, nut 135 on operating rod 134 pulls valve 127
FIGURE 6, that portion of the mechanism to the right
40 slightly to the right, thus breaking the seal ‘between the
of chamber 41 is substantially the same as the device pre
valve and follower ring 131. This action occurs almost
viously described and shown in FIGURE 3 of the draw
immediately because gap 136 is smaller than the space
ing. It will be noted, however, that the valve mecha
between shoulder 64 and tubular member 47. With the
nism in association with ports 26 is shown in a different
breaking of the seal between valve 127 and follower
position than in FIGURE 3. The device is shown in
ring 131, valve 127 is suddenly urged to the right. Lateral
FIGURE 3 in an uncharged condition with control piston
exhaust ports 126 are thus opened. This results in the
35 in contact with the end of sleeve valve 28. Also, ball
rapid and efficient discharge of the compressed gas from
valve 44 is separated from pin 52 of the control adjust—
chamber 129.
ing stern and tubular portion 47 of the control piston is
Concurrently, ball valve 44 is unseated, permitting com
separated from. shoulder 64 of the control adjusting stem
pressed gas to discharge through stem 50 into chamber
49. By contrast, the device shown in FIGURE 6 is in
65 and thence to the atmosphere through vents 25. This
position immediately prior to discharge. Ball valve 44
results in a reduction in pressure in spring chamber 36
is in contact with pin 52 and the end of tubular portion
and a similar reduction in pressure in chamber 42 at the
47 of the control piston is only slightly separated from
end of valve 28. With the reduction of pressure in cham
the shoulder 64 on control adjusting stem 49.
her 42, the sleeve valve 28 is urged to the right and dis
That portion of the cartridge to the left of control
charge of the gas within chamber 41 is effected through
piston 35 is formed of a tubular body portion 12, valve
lateral discharge ports 26 as previously described in con
body 120 and a tubular section 121. These members
nection with the discussion relative to FIGURE 3 of the
are screw threadedly connected as shown at 122 and
123 with the joints therebetween being sealed by resilient
O~rings 124 and 125. The valve ‘body 120 is provided
with a plurality of lateral discharge ports 126. These
ports are normally spanned and sealed by slidable sleeve
valve 127.
This valve is provided with one or more re~
strictcd passageways 128 to permit relative movement of
compressed gas between chambers 41 and 129. Alter
nately the clearance between valve 127 and rod 134 may
drawing. When the pressure is reduced in the system,
the valves are returned to operating condition by springs
55 and 138.
As rod 134 is returned to the left in re
sponse to the action of spring 55, spring 138 urges valve
127 to a closed position.
While sleeve valve 127 and ball valve 44 are unseated
practically simultaneously, it will be appreciated that
valve 28 will necessarily open subsequent to valve 127.
This time differential in the opening of valves 127 and 28
be sufficient large to serve as a passageway.
occurs because of the time required to vent chambers 36
Valve 127 is slidably sealed to the internal wall of
and 42. At normal operating pressures, it is estimated
valve "body 120 by resilient‘O-ring 130 and forms a metal
that valve 28 opens from. about 50 to 80 milliseconds
to-metal seal with follower ring 131. This ring is sealed 70
after valve 127.
to valve body 120 by O-ring 132 and is restricted in its
The cartridge shown in FIGURE 7 is provided with
movement to the right by shoulder 133 on the valve body.
tubular body 139, an extension 140, and an end cap
Valve 127 has a greater effective cross sectional area
141. These members are secured by screw threads 142
exposed to the pressure in chamber 41 than in chamber
129. Thus, as pressure within the cartridge is increased, 75 and 143 and the seal between them completed by O-rings
144 and 145. The cartridge is divided into chambers
146 and 147 by ?xture 148. Conduit 149 extends through
the entire length of chamber 146 and serves as the means
for introducing gas into the cartridge. This conduit ter
minates in radial passageways 150 in ?xture 143. Sleeve
valve 151 is slidable within the cartridge and cooperates
This results in a sudden reduction in pressure in conduit
149 and also in control chamber 152. This sudden lower
ing of the pressure in control chamber 152 causes sleeve
valve 151 to ?y to the left, thus opening lateral discharge
ports 156 and permitting the gas in chamber 146 to
be discharged therethrough.
As valve 151 moves to the left, it contacts enlargement
174 on connecting rod 173. This action pulls the rod 173
a short distance to the left and also results in slight left
sageways 153 and forms a metal-to-metal seal with fol
10 ward movement of valve 164. Thus, the metal-to-rnetal
lower ring 154.
seal between valve 164 and follower ring 167 is broken.
The forward portion 155 of valve 151 normally closes
When this seal is broken, the effective cross-sectional area
and spans lateral discharge outlets 156, while the basal
on the right end of valve 164 is greatly increased and the
portion 157 of the valve forms a sliding ?t with body
valve is suddenly moved from its position spanning the
139. The juncture between the valve and body 139 is
with ?xture 148 to de?ne a control chamber 152.
151 is provided with a plurality of relatively large pas
sealed by resilient O-ring 158. Valve 157 also cooperates
with cartridge body 139 to form an annular obturated
chamber 159.
The metallic sealing ring 154 is in sealing relationship
with body 139 by means of O-ring 160. The movement of
the ring to the left is limited by shoulder 161 on body
139 and to the right by its abutment with the terminal
portion 179 of extension 140. The left end of follower
ring 154 terminates in a modi?ed knife edge 162. It will
be noted that the inside diameter of knife edge 162 is
slightly smaller than terminal portion 157 of valve 151. 25
ports. With the opening of these ports, the compressed
gas within chamber 14-7 is efliciently discharged through
ports 163.
After the gas has been discharged from chambers
146 and 147, valves 151 and 164 are returned to their
original closed position by the action or springs 176
and 166. The cartridge is thus automatically returned to
rechargeable condition. Spring 17 6 may be eliminated un
less it is desired to close valve 151 before all the gas has
‘been exhausted from the cartridge. Although spring 166
alone will not completely close valve 151, closure of this
valve will be completed when charging gas is introduced
Lateral discharge outlets 163 adjacent the right end of
into control chamber 152.
the cartridge are normally spanned and sealed by valve
Various other types of ‘gas discharge mechanisms can
164 having a plurality of relatively large passageways 165
be employed. For example, the control valve mechanism
passing therethrough. This valve is maintained in a closed
position by spring 166 and forms a metal-t-o-metal seal 30 of the above embodiment can be replaced by a shearable
member of the type shown in US. Patent 2,527,291 is
with follower ring 167. O-rings 168 and 169 complete
sued to Frank H. Armstrong and Edward C. Filstrup, 11'.
the sliding seals ‘between extension 141} and valve 164
Likewise, a rupturable disc of the type described in US.
and follower ring 167, respectively. Spring 166 is held
in position ‘by shoulder 170 or by any other suitable
Patent 2,778,309 issued to Edward C. Filstrup can also
equivalent means. Follower ring 167 is restricted in its 35 be advantageously utilized.
Although the invention has been described in con
leftward movement by shoulder 172 on extension 140.
siderable detail in the foregoing for the purposes of illus
The forward portion 177 of valve 164 is radially ex
tended so that its external diameter is substantially greater
tration, it is to be understood that such detail is solely for
than the diameter of the valve at its other end as de?ned
that purpose and that many modi?cations can be made
by O-ring 168. Also, it will be noted that the inside di 40 Without departing from the spirit and scope of the inven.
ameter of the modi?ed knife edge 178 in contact with
valve 164 is slightly smaller than the outside diameter of
What is claimed is:
the basal portion 180 of the valve. Thus, an increase of
A gas liberating cartridge including a generally cylin
gas pressure within the cartridge tends to urge valve 164
drical body member closed at one end and having means
45 at the opposite end for introducing gas under pressure,
to the right and into contact with follower ring 167.
Valves 151 and 164 are joined by connecting rod 173,
?rst and second discharge ports longitudinally spaced in
the valves being vslidable thereon, The connecting rod
said ‘body, a ?rst pressure responsive sleeve valve slidably
passes through openings in each ofthe valves and the
mounted in said body and normally closing said ?rst dis
ends of the red are enlarged as generally indicated at 174
charge ports, a second pressure responsive sleeve valve
50 slidably mounted in said body and normally closed and
and 175.
In operating the cartridge of ‘FIGURE 7, compressed
second discharge ports, a control chamber adjacent said
gas is introduced into the cartridge through conduit 149.
second ‘sleeve valve, pressure responsive control piston
The gas passes through radial passageways 150 into con
means slidably mounted in said control chamber and
trol chamber 152 and thence into the discharge chambers
adapted to move away from said second sleeve valve as the
146 and 147. The clearances between ?xture 148 and
charging pressure in the cartridge is increased, a rod con
shell 139 and between ?xture 148 and valve 151 are of
necting said control piston and said ?rst sleeve valve, said
such a magnitude as to permit passage of air therethrough
rod being effective to move said ?rst sleeve valve out of
engagement with said ?rst discharge ports at a predeter
at a slightly retarded rate. Fixture 148 is provided with
mined discharge pressure as the control piston is moved
passageways 171 to provide ready communication be
tween chambers 146 and 147. The air also passes through 60 in response to the charging pressure in the cartridge,
passageways 153 in valve 151 and passageways 165 in
vent means in said control chamber, said control piston
being further adapted to simultaneously actuate said vent
valve 164. Thus during charging and up to the time of
discharge, the pressures throughout the various portions of
means in said control chamber and reduce the pressure
the cartridge are substantially equal. Since both valve
therein, the reduction in pressure in said control chamber
151 and valve 164 in closed position have greater effective
being effective to move and second sleeve valve out of
engagement with said second discharge ports to com
cross-sectional areas on their left ends than on their right
pletely discharge said cartridge.
ends, pressure within the cartridge urges them to the right.
Thus, the metal-to-metal seals between the valves and
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
their respective follower rings become progressively tighter
as the gas pressure is increased.
When the desired discharge pressure is reached, the
Goodwin et al ________ .._ Aug. 13, 1916
operator closes the feed line at a point remote from the
Armstrong ___________ __ June 15, 1937
cartridge and then vents the line to the atmosphere.
Hesson ______________ -_ Oct. 11, 1955
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