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Патент USA US3098508

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July 23, 1963
N. BREWER ETAL
3,098,498 ‘
PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS
Filed June 8, 1953
17 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTORS
NATHAN/EL BREWER
EDMUND D. HA/GLER
BY EDWARD D. WOODRING
vEMO-WKW
July 23, 1963
N. BREWER ETAL
3,098,498
PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS
Filed June 8, 1955
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EDWARD D. WOODR/NG
July 23, 1963
N. BREWER ETAL
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July 23, 1963
N. BREWER ETAL
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Filed June 8, 1953
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NATHAN/EL BREWER
EDMUND D. HA/GLER
EDWARD D. WOODR/NG'
July 23, 1963
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N. BREWER ETAL
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Filed June 8, 1953
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EDMUND D. HAIGLER
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July 23, 1963
N. BREWER ETAL
3,098,498
PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS
Filed June 8, 1953
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INVENTORS
NATHANIEL BREWER
EDMUND D. HA/GLER
EDWARD D. WOODR/NG
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July 23, 1963
N. BREWER ETAL
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PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS
Filed June 8, 1953
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July 23, 1963
N. BREWER ETAL
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PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS
Filed June 8, 1953
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NATHAN/EL BREWER
EDMUND D. HA/GLER
EDWARD D. WOODR/NG
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United States Patent 0 pice
2
1
3,098,498
PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS _
Nathaniel Brewer, Newtown, Edmund D. Haigler, Hat
boro, and Edward D. Woodring, Plurnsteadvrlle, Pa,
assignors to Fischer & Porter Company, Hathoro, Pa,
Patented July 23, 1963
troller are generally on the side opposite to that on which
the input lever or levers are located, we refer to a right
handed controller if the dial or dials are on the right
hand side when facing the controller and we refer to it
as a left-handed controller if the dial or dials are on the
left side.
a corporation ‘of Pennsylvania
Another object of the present invention is to achieve
Filed June 8, 1953, Ser. No. 361,128
accuracy and dependability in the controllers through a
26 Claims. ((31. 137-—86)
rigid stack construction and also to enable the more ready
The present invention relates to controllers and_par~ 10 servicing and change of the controller in the ?eld to per
form different functions, IWith a minimum number of
ticularly pneumatic controllers adapted to receive an input
parts to achieve all the various functions and combina
motion from a measuring element (such as that meas
tions of function, and with a minimum of general dis
uring rate-of-?ow, temperature, pressure, humidity, llqllld
assembly for speci?c service or conversion operations.
level, viscosity, or speci?c gravity, etc); the 0utput_of
One of the characteristics of the controllers of the
the controllers being a pneumatic or fluid pressure which
present invention is that they include sections which are
is impressed upon a measuring element or upon a setting
symmetrical both as to their pneumatic passageways as
element in another indicating, recording or controlllng
instrument or valve-positioning relay or upon a ?nal con
trol element (such as an air-motor-operated valve, damper
well [as to their fastening passageways about certain
planes of symmetry and are so arranged that the same
or the like (whereby the rate-of-?ow, temperature, pres 20 housing and pneumatic-passageway-beaiing member may
perform different functions in the same controller by
sure, humidity, liquid-level, speci?c gravity, or WISOO-SlllY
is (then maintained at any desired and selected setting.
mere reversal of its position. Thus, for instance, the
same section performs the function of a top or closure
member as well as the function of a partition member
of the present invention may be obtained from a rate-of
?ow meter, such as a variable-area type rate-of-?owv 25 or chamber-performing member in the lower part of the
controller. Similarly, the same pneumatic section may
meter (sometimes called rotameter) whose measurement
be used above and below the input-arrd-nozzle section
or reading is ?rst converted into a mechanical motion ex
Thus, for instance, the input-motion of the controller
ternal of the metering chamber, by a magnetic couphng
for performing two different functions.
such as that (for example) shown in Brewer Patent
2,425,691, or Bowie Patent 2,380,399, connected to one
like reference characters indicate like parts.
In the accompanying drawings, hereinafter referred to,
arm of a pivoted lever whose other arm is connected to
FIGURE 1 represents a perspective view of a B-function
the input-lever of the present controller or ?rst connected
or proportional-resetderivative controller embodying the
present invention, namely, a controller whose pneumatic
to the pen-arm of a recorder and from it connected to
output is substantially proportional to (a) the deviation
the input-lever of the present controller, or whose meas
urement is translated into mechanical motion through 35 of the measurement from the predetermined setting, and
(b) the integral of such measurementadeviations and (c)
either a direct electro-magnetic coupling, such as for
the ?rst time-derivative of the measurement, namely, the
example, that of Brewer patent application Serial No.
time-rate of change-lof-deviation.
106,171, ?led July 22, 1949 (now Patent No. 2,662,223,
issued on December 8, 1953), or by means of an inter
FIGURE 2 represents a perspective view of a 2-func
40 tion or proportional-reset controller embodying the pres;
mediate electrical servo motor.
ent invention, namely, one whose pneumatic output is
' Similarly, viscosity measurements, for example, from a
substantially proportional to (a) the deviation of meas—
viscosimeter like that shown in Fischer Patent 2,426,393,
urement from the predetermined setting and (b) the in—
may be impressed upon a magnetically coupled motion
tegral of the measurement-‘deviations.
transmitter or an electro-magnetically coupled motion
FIGURE 3 represents a perspective view of a wide
transmitter, as above, or a single-?oat viscosimeter (name
ly, a variable-area type of metering chamber provided 45 band proportional controller embodying the present in
vention.
with ‘a single viscosity-sensitive ?oat as shown, for ex
ample, in Brewer patent application Serial No. 300,164,
?led July 22, ‘1952) may be inserted in a small by-pass
from a pipe-line, in which lay-pass the rate-of-?-ow is
maintained constant by means ‘of \a ?oWv-regulator-valve 50
FIGURE 4 represents a perspective view of a narrow
band proportional controller embodying the present in
vention.
FIGURE 5 represents a perspective view of an onaand
whose position is controlled by a viscosity-immune rate
of-flow meter like that (for example) of Fischer Patent
off controller embodying the present invention.
2,350,343 coupled to‘ and acting through a valve-regu
tion controller like that of FIGURE 2, with an adjustable
FIGURE 6 represents a perspective view of a Z-func
ratio input mechanism like that of Brewer Patent 2,481,
The pneumatic output of the controllers of the present 55 496, ‘adapted to receive two input-motions and to transfer
a single input-motion to the controller in proportion to
invention may be impressed upon ‘a ?ow-regulating valve
the deviation from a set ratio of the ?rst two input-mo
or damper, operated by ‘a pneumatic motor, which valve
lator.
or damper is opened or closed, or ‘whose intermediate
trons.
FIGURE 7 represents a front elevational view of the 3
60 function controller shown in lFIGURE 1.
controllers of the present invention.
FIGURE 8 rep-resents a vertical cross-sectional view,
By “pneumatic” we intend to include not only air
taken through the center, of the controller shown in FIG
operated but also gas-operated controllers embodying the
URE 1, in a plane parallel to the plane of FIGURE 7,
present invention.
and taken ‘generally on line 8-8 of FIGURE 9.
One of the objects of the present invention is a sec
FIGURE 9 represents a horizontal sectional view taken
tionJal construction in controllers such that with but com 65
position is determined by the pneumatic output of the
paratively few sections a relatively large repertoire of
on line 9‘-—9 of FIGURE 8.
FIGURE 10 represents a vertical sectional view taken
controllers may be formed and whereby such controllers
on line 10'—10‘ of FIGURE 7.
may be made either right-handed or left~handed. While
the need for right-‘handed or left-handed controllers has
FIGURE 10-a is a fragmentary cross-sectional view,
special reference to the side upon which the input lever 70 on an enlarged scale, of the ?lter and constrictor-carrying
is located, yet as the adjusting dial or dials on the con
plug shown at the bottom, left, in [FIGURE 10.
3,098,498
3;
FIGURE 10-h represents a fragmentary cross sectional
to the plane of FIGURE 31, on line 32-32 of FIG
URE 33.
view, on an enlarged scale, of the inlet and vent valves
(of the relay) as shown ‘at the bottom, center, in FIG
FIGURE 33 represents a horizontal section on line
URE 10.
33-33 of FIGURE 32.
FIGURE 11 represents a fragmentary vertical cross-sec 5
FIGURE 34 represents a vertical section on line 34-34
tional view taken on line line 11-11-11-11 of FIG
of FIGUREv 31.
URE 7 (but showing ‘only the left half'of such cross
FIGURE 35 represents a fragmentary vertical cross
section); showing, among other things, the feed-back pas
sectional view, on line 35-35 of FIGURE 31, of the left
sage from the relay and the derivative needle-valve in said
half of such section (omitting also the nozzle and ?apper
passage, and showing the reset passage ‘and the reset 10
mechanism).
nozzle parts.
FIGURE 36 represents a top plan View of the con
troller shown in FIGURES 31 to 35, inclusive.
needle-valve in said passage, but omitting the bellows and
FIGURE 37 represents a vertical section on diagonal
line 37-37 of FIGURE 36, of the cover section of the
controller as shown in FIGURES 31 and 32 to 35.
FIGURE 38 represents a fragmentary cross-sectional
view similar to that shown in FIGURE 35, of the left half
of such section, showing ‘a variant form of construction
‘ FIGURE 12 represents a rear elevational view of the
lower or relay section of the controller; showing the sup
ply, iontput and feed-back air-passageways which register
with corresponding passageways in the meeting or junc
ture face of the air-interconnector shown in FIGURES
13, 44 and 45 (and also showing the two screw-holes to
receive the screws by which it is a?ixed, with gasket inter
in which a set-screw 341 and a lock-nut 342 are used in
posed, to the relay-section).
stead of the dial-knob (3'40 and 337 in FIGURES 3, 31,
35 :and 36), for manual reset, and with derivative valve
(shown in FIGURE 30) added, to form a proportional
derivative action controller.
FIGURE 13 represents a side elevation of the air-inter
connector which co-acts with the relay-section of the con
troller (FIGURE 10) shown immediately adjacent to it
and in operative alignment with it (cross-sections of this
FIGURE 39‘ represents a front elevation of the control
air-interconnector being shown in FIGURES 44 and 45). 25 ler shown in FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 14 represents a vertical cross-sectional view
FIGURE 40* represents a center section of the con
of the Z-function controller shown in FIGURE 2, taken
troller shown in FIGURES 4 and 39, taken generally on
in the same plane as that in which FIGURE 11 is taken
line 40-40‘ of FIGURE 41.
(but with a plug replacing the derivative valve of the con
FIGURE 41 represents a horizontal section taken gen
troller shown in FIGURES ‘1, 7—10 and 11); this 'Z-func 30 erally on line 41.-41 of FIGURE 40*.
tion controller being of the same construction as the 3
function controller shown in FIGURES 1, 7-13, except
for the difference shown in this FIGURE 14.
FIGURE 15 represents a rear elevation of the nozzle
section 104 of the controller, showing the rotatable ?ap
per mounted thereon this form of construction of nozzle
FIGURE 42 represents a vertical section on line 42
42 of FIGURE 39.
FIGURE 43 represents a fragmentary vertical cross
sectional view on line 43-43-43-43' of FIGURE 39,
35 without bellows or nozzle mechanism; showing the left~
hand of such cross-section.
section 104 being common to all the controllers shown
herein, excepting the on and off controller shown in FIG
URES 5 and 46 to 53, inclusive.
FIGURE 16 represents a section on line 16-16 of
_
FIGURE 44 represents a section on line 44-44-44
44 of FIGURE 45.
FIGURE 45 represents a section on line 45-45 of
FIGURE 13.
FIGURE 46 represents a front elevation of the on-and
off controller shown in FIGURE 5.
FIGURE 15, showing the ?apper-rotating shaft, gear and
dial, journaled in the nozzle-section 184.
FIGURE 17 represents a section on line 17-17 of
FIGURE 47 represents a vertical section of the con
FIGURE 15; on an enlarged scale (four times full size),
troller shown in FIGURE 46.
showing the pilot or detector valve, including the sta— 45
FIGURE 48 is a horizontal section on line 48-48 of
tionary nozzle 187 and 193 and the tiltable ?apper or
FIGURE 46.
baf?e 225.
FIGURE 49* is a top plan view of the nozzle and ?apper
FIGURE 18 represents a section on line 18-18 of
system of the above controller.
FIGURE 15 (on the same scale as FIGURE 17), show
ing said pilot or detector valve.
'
FIGURE 19 represents a front elevation of the setting
input lever, on a scale approximately twice actual size.
FIGURE 20 represents a top plan view of the same.
FIGURE 50 is an elevation of the same.
50
FIGURE 51 is a top plan view of the ?apper assembly.
' FIGURE 52 is an elevation of the same.
FIGURE 53 represents a horizontal section similar to
that shown in FIGURE 48, but showing a reversal of the
FIGURE 21 represents a side elevation of the same.
two housing-blocks which make up this nozzle-and-flapper
FIGURE 22 represents a front elevation of the meas 55 and lever section, whereby the controller may be con
urement input lever, on the same scale as FIGURES
verted from a right-hand controller as in FIGURES 46,
‘19-21.
47 and 48, to a left-hand controller as indicated in FIG
FIGURE 23 represents a top plan view of the same.
URE 53.
FIGURE 24 represents a front elevation of the ?apper
de?ecting frame.
FIGURE 25 represents a top plan view of the same.
FIGURE 26 represents a side elevation of the same.
FIGURE 27 represents a front elevation of the ?exure
spring member.
FIGURE 54 represents a top plan view of the housing
or body portion 108 of the relay section 101 shown in
FIGURES 1 to 8, 101 to 12, 14, 31, 32, 34, 35, 38, 39,
40, 42, 43, 46, 47, 81, 87 and 88.
FIGURE 55 represents a vertical section on line 55
55 of FIGURE 54.
FIGURE 28 represents a top‘ plan view of the same.
65
FIGURE 56 represents a fragmentary vertical cross
FIGURE 29 shows the differential-adjustment screw
sectional view taken on diagonal line 56-56 of FIGURE
287 shown in FIGURES 24 and 25, but here shown on
54; showing the half of said section through which line
an enlarged scale.
56-56 is extended.
FIGURE 30 represents an axial cross-section of the
FIGURE 57 represents a top plan view of the partition
derivative and reset needle valves, on a scale approxi
and cover section 102 shown inter alia, in FIGURES 1
mately twice the actual size.
to 7.
FIGURE 31 represents a front elevation of the wide
"FIGURE 58 represents a section on line ‘58-58 of
band proportional controller shown in FIGURE 3.
FIGURE 57.
FIGURE 32 is a vertical center-line section of the con
FIGURE 59 represents a section on line 59-59‘ of
troller as shown in FIGURE 31, taken in a plane parallel 75 FIGURE 57.
3,098,498
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FIGURE 60 represents a section on line 68~60 of
FIGURE 57.
FIGURE 61 represents a top plan view of the bellows
section ‘of the proportional controllers (as, for example,
bellows section 103‘ in FIGURES 1 to 5 and 7, and bel
lows section 185 in FIGURES l, 2, 6 and 7).
FIGURE 62 represents a front elevation of the same.
‘ FIGURE 63 represents a rear elevation of the same.
FIGURE 64- represents a bottom plan view of the same.
controllers of the present invention; the dials so illus
trated in these ?gures being for the wide-band propor
tional controllers.
FIGURE 94 is a diagrammatic or schematic perspective
view lot‘ the controller shown in FIGURES 1, 7 to 13, 15
to 30, 54 to 78 and 90 to 93.
The controllers :of the foregoing drawings and herein
after more fully described, are so constructed as to make
the elements thereof interchange able and separable, where—
_ FIGURE 65 represents a section on line 65——65 of 10 by the same elements may be used to form the minimum
FIGURE 64.
FIGURE 66 represents a section on line 66—66 of
FIGURE 64.
function controller, as, for instance, that shown in FIG
alia, in FIGURES l-4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 14, 15, 18, 31, 33, 34,
acterized, inter alia, by a sectional construction, with
air-passageways formed in the successive sections, in
registration with each other and with the cooperative
elements of each section in operative alignment with each
other, when the sections are operatively juxtaposed to
each other.
URES 5 and 46 to 48, inclusive, as well as to form the
maximum-function controller, as for instance, that shown
in FIGURES l, 7 and 11, or to form any multiple-func
FIGURE 67 represents a section on line 67—67 of
15 tion controller such as those shown in the other draw-'
FIGURE 61.
ings and hereinafter more fully described.
FIGURE 68 is a top plan view of the nozzle and flapper
Thus, the controllers of the present invention are char
section 104 of the proportional controllers shown, inter
39, 41, 42, 87 and 89.
FIGURE 69 is a front elevation of the same.
FIGURE 70 is a bottom view of the same.
FIGURE 71 is a rear elevation of the same.
‘ FIGURE 72 is a side elevation of the same.
FIGURE 73 is a horizontal section on line 73-73 of
FIGURE 69.
‘ FIGURE 74 represents a front elevation of the rear or
mechanical input section of the proportional controllers
shown, inter alia, in FIGURES 1-4, 6, 8, 9, 32, 33, 40,
The following is an outline of the principal “sections”
of the contncllers of the present invention. The word
“sections” as used in this description has reference to: the
successive main components into which the controllers
are divisible and out of which they are formed (as distin
41, 81, 88 and 89.
FIGURE 75 represents a top plan View of the same.
guished from use of the word “section” to denote a cross
sectional or sectional view or “section” as viewed in
and-offcontroller.
tion 185 and the cover section 186.
reference to drawings or graphic illustrations).
FIGURE 76 represents a front elevation view of the
Referring to FIGURES l and 7 to 11, inclusive the
nozzle and ?apper section and of the mechanical input
controllers shown in these ?gures include the relay sec
section of the on-and-oif controller shown in FIGURES
tion designated generally by the numeral 101, the parti
5, 46, 47, 48 and 53, the same section being used both
for the nozzle and ?apper at the front of the controller as 35 tion section 102, the proportional-belows section 103,
the input-and-nozzle section 104, the reset-bellows sec
well as for the mechanical input at the back of the on
FIGURE 77 represents a bottom plan View of the same.
FIGURE 78 represents a rear elevation of the same.
FIGURE 79‘ represents a top plan View of the con
troller shown in FIGURES 1, 7 and 8.
FIGURE 80 represents a bottom plan view (looking up
ward) of the controller last mentioned shown particularly
in FIGURE 10.
.
FIGURE 81 represents a vertical section on line 81-—81
of FIGURE 79‘.
FIGURE 82 represents a vertical section on line 82-82
The input-and-nozzle section 194 may also be regarded
as the input-and-detector section, wherein the nozzle
member 187, the ?apper-plate 2:25, and the ?apper-de
?ecting means (together with their associated elements
such as the detector-housing member 180', etc.) constitute
the “detector” or the detector-section which forms a part
of the input-and-detector section, and wherein the input
housing member 181 and the pivot, the levers and linkages
carried thereby (FIGURE 9) constitute the “input” or
the input section, which also forms a part of the input
and-detector or input-and-nozzle section 104.
The air-interconnector 187, as shown in FIGURE 13,
is, in turn, connected to the air-ported face 189 (FIG
input mechanism shown at the top of the controller of
50 URE 12) of the relay section 101, to form an intercon
FIGURE 6.
nected passageway to connect the output passageway with
FIGURE 84 represents a horizontal section on line
the feed-back passageway, and to form and provide air
84—84——84—84 of FIGURE 83.
supply and air-output passageways communicating with
FIGURE 85 represents a vertical section on line 85—85
these passageways in the relay.
of FIGURE 84.
FIGURE 86 represents a vertical section on line 86—86 55 , The relay section 101 (FIGURES l, 7, 8, 10, 11 and
l0—b), which forms apart of each of the controllers here
of FIGURE 84.
inabove referred ‘to, includes a housing or main body
FIGURES 87, 88 and 89‘, are similar to FIGURES 7,
member 188, in whose ported face 109 the air-supply
8 and 9, respectively, and show the same controller, ex
of FIGURE v7 9.
1
FIGURE 83 represents -a front elevation of the ratio
port 118 and the output port 111 and the feed-back port
112 are formed. The air-supply port 110 is the terminus,
in
the relay body 188, of the supply passageway 113. A
right-hand controller, that shown in FIGURES 87, 88
valve-passageway 114 is extended within the body .188
and 89 is the lefthand counterpart thereof; showing the
transversely of the supply passageway 113, which com
manner in which the interchangeability of components
municates with the output pressure chamber 115 through
permits the conversion of the controller from a left-hand
65 the inlet-valve-seat member 116 which is stationarily
controller to a right-hand controller, without the addition
mounted or cast in situ in the body 108. The inlet
or subtraction of any part.
valve-seat member 116 is provided widr an aperture ex
FIGURES 90 and 91 represent elevational views of left
tending therethrough, the ‘outer periphery of which serves
hand and right-hand dials, respectively, illustrating the
‘as a stationary valve-seat. A ?exible diaphragm 117 is
construction and arrangement of the vdials of the con 70 mounted within the relay body 108 to form a closure
trollers of the present invention; the dials so illustrated
wall of the output pressure chamber 115; being mounted
therein and held in pneumatically-sealed relation to the
being for the narrow-band proportional controllers.
body 188 by a clamping ring 118 secured to the body by
FIGURES 92 and 93 represent elevational views of
screws 119, .at spaced intervals around the ring.
the ile?t-hand and right-hand dials, respectively, illustrat
ing the construction and arrangement of the dials of the 75 The diaphragm 117 (FIGURE 10‘—b) ‘has a central
cepiting only that whereas the controller shown in FIG
URES 7, i8 ‘and 9 (and also shown in FIGURE 1) is a
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