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Патент USA US3098929

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July 23, 1963
N. J. SCHWARTZ ET AL
3,098,911
INTERCONNECTED CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Filed July 7. 1960
3 Sheets-Sheet l
79
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INVENTORS.
NORMA/V 1/. 5CHWARTZ
HALE H coma/arr
July 23, 1963
N. J. SCHWARTZ ‘ET AL
'
3,098,911 ‘
INTERCONNECTED CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Filed July 7, 1960
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
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NORMAN J. SCHWARTZ
HALE h’. GOLDBLATT
8362/ gal
3,093,931
ited Stats atet
Patented July 23, 1963
1
2
in a multipole circuit breaker unit comprising a metallic
3,098,911
casing 20 enclosing the similar circuit breakers 21, 22 and
23. The components of each of the aforementioned cir
Norman .17. Schwartz, Yardley, and Hale H. Goldblatt,
cuit breakers are substantially the same and only those
Morrisville, Pm, assignors to Heinemann Electric Com
components of one circuit breaker, circuit breaker 21, will
pany, Trenton, N.J., a corporation of New Jersey
be described in detail, it being understood that the others
Filed .iiuly 7, 1960, Ser. No. 41,421
are similar. However, when necessary to clarify the de
5 Claims. (til. 200-106)
scription, the components of the other circuit breakers
This invention relates to multipole circuit breakers of
will be mentioned with the pre?x 1 added for circuit
the type in which each pole of the circuit breaker is con 10 ‘breaker 22, and the pre?x 2 added for circuit breaker 23,
to better distinguish the various parts.
structed of similar units. One object of the present in
vention is to provide an improved and more economical
The circuit breaker 21 is provided with terminals 25
INTERCONNECTED CIRCUIT‘ BREAKERS
arrangement for interconnecting the poles of such circuit
and 26 for connecting the unit to a desired circuit. The
breakers.
terminal 125 is connected to a stationary contact 27 which
Another object of the present invention is to provide an 15 cooperates with a movable contact 28, the latter being
improved interconnecting‘ cam device in which the force
carried by a movable arm 29. The movable arm pivots
about a ?xed pintle 31 and is biased by a spring 32 to the
to initiate action in the tripping direction is no greater
open position of the contacts.
than that needed to actuate any one of the poles without
The movable arm 29 comprises part of a linkage mech
the use of elongated force transmitting members within
the individual circuit breakers.
20 anism which includes a toggle 33 comprising links 35 and
36. The link 35 is pivotally connected to the movable
In one embodiment, the invention is incorporated in
three similar circuit breakers each having a toggle linkage
arm 29 at one end and to the link 36 at the other end to
form the knee 37 of the toggle. The link 36 is pivotally
for operating the movable contact. Further, each has an
connected at the other end to the handle link 38 by a
electromagnetic coil which, upon a predetermined over
load, attracts an armature that trips the toggle linkage 25 pintle 39. The link 38 oscillates about a ?xed pivot 41
and allows the movable contact to move relative to the
supported by extending through openings in the vertical
stationary contact, under the bias of a spring.
opposed supporting walls 42, the latter being mounted on
insulating bases 43 supported by the bottom of the case
20. The handle links 38, 1318 and 238 of the three cir
The linkage of the circuit breaker impinges, during the
tripping, upon a pivotal cam. Each of the breakers of the
multipole unit is provided with similar pivotal cams, all 30 cuit breakers are interconnected by an insulator rod 44.
The midportion of the insulator rod 44 is pivotal and
of which ‘are interconnected along the pivotal axis, and
slidable in elongated slots 45 formed in a master pivotal
each pivotal cam is associated with one armature. When
handle 47 (FIG. 3) projecting through a neck 4-9 added
the ?rst pivotal cam is actuated, by impingement there
to the casing 20. The handle links are biased to the 011
with of the linkage, it causes all of the others to rotate
into contact with their associated arm-atures, moving each 35 position of the contacts by a torsion spring 51 wound
about the pivot 41 and having one end held stationary in
armature in the tripping direction ‘for opening the contacts
a notch in one of the Walls 42 and the other end under
of all of the poles substantially simultaneously.
the pintle 39 at the connection between the link 38 and
Thus, it is seen that the tripping action of the over
the link 36. The master handle 47 may be pivoted about
loaded pole is applied only against the spring force tend
ing to maintain that particular pole in the contacts closed 40 a ?xed pintle 52 carried by the neck 49‘. By soldering all
the joints of the casing 20 and providing a rubber dia
position. All of the contacts of all the poles are opened
due to the fact that all the armatures are rotated in the
latch releasing direction by the rotation of the common
trip bar.
A
The foregoing and other objects of the invention, the
principles of the invention, and the best mode in which
we have contemplated applying such principles will more
fully appear from the following description and accom
panying drawings in illustration thereof.
phragm '53 to the left of the ?xed pintle 52 a sealed unit
results, FIGS. 3 and 4.
The toggle link 36 is provided with a tooth portion 54
for engaging a half moon 55 of a latch 56 carried by the
link 35 for locking the toggle in the overcenter position
during automatic resetting. The latch 56 is biased in the
clockwise direction, as vie-wed in FIG. 2, by a spring 57
(FIG. 6).
The latch 56 is tripped by an armature 59 having a
FIG. 1 is a perspective view, illustrating a multipole 50
right-hand portion ‘60, as viewed in FIG. 2, which en
circuit breaker unit constructed in accordance with the
gages the latch 56 upon an overload and turns it against
present invention, omitting the master handle and cutting
the bias of the spring 57 to present the ?at portion of
away some of the other parts;
the half moon 55 to the tooth 54 thereby allowing the
FIG. 2 is a partial side elevation view partly in vertical
section taken adjacent an end pole and adjacent the cen 55 toggle 33 to collapse upwardly under the bias of the
spring 32.
tral master handle of the circuit breaker unit illustrated
The armature left-hand end 69 (FIG. 2) is attracted,
in FIG. 1 and showing the contacts in the closed position;
upon overload, toward the pole piece 61 of an electromag
FIG. 3 is a view similar to FIG. 2 but showing the
net comprising a coil 62 formed about a tube 63, the lat
position of the mechanism after tripping thereof but be
fore automatic resetting;
60 ter projecting through a leg 64 of an L-shaped frame 65.
The tube 63 houses a movable magnetic core biased to the
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 3 but showing the open
right-hand end of the tube to provide a time delay below
position of the contacts and the mechanism after reset
certain overload currents before tripping of the unit. The
ting;
L-shaped frame 65 is provided with lugs 66 extending
FIG. 5 is a partial perspective view showing one of the
through
the vertical support Walls 42 and the coil 62 has
65
circuit breakers in the contacts closed position;
one end connected to the movable contact by a ?exible
FIG. 6 is a partial sectional view of an end pole taken
conductor 67 and the other end connected by a conductor
along the line ‘6—6 in FIG. 2, looking in the direction in
68 to the terminal 26.
dicated by the arrows; and
The tripping of the adjacent poles is aifected upon the
FIG. 7 is a side elevation view of a portion of the sup
automatic tripping of any one pole through the pivotal
70
port structure for the circuit breaker mechanism.
cams 70,170 and 270 and the interconnecting common
Referring to the drawings, this invention is embodied
insulator bar 71. Referring to one of the cams, the cam
3,098,911
3
4
70 is formed from a polygonal member of suitable rigid
ity having a generally triangular appearance. The cam
the direction to release their toggles by rotating the asso
ciated latches in the toggle releasing direction. Thus, it
70 is formed from insulating material and secured to the
common bar 71 so that pivotal movement of one of the
earns 70, 170 or .270‘ causes pivotal movement of the bar
71 and associated cams.
is seen that the initial force required to trip the ?rst or
The bar 71 has end portions disposed in bearings 72
formed in the end ‘walls 42 and 242 of the circuit breakers
2'1 and 23, respectively, the intermediate walls having
notches 73 to accommodate the bar 71.
The cam 70 has
two operating surfaces, a straight side 74 and a curved
overloaded pole is not greater than the force which would
be required to trip the circuit breaker if it were not asso
ciated with other circuit breakers, i.e., the force required
to rotate one latch against its own spring. Also, the force
to rotate [all of the cams and the connecting bar 71 is de
rived from the opening spring 32 of one pole. Since the
opening spring 32 is made strong enough to open the con
tacts under possible adverse circumstances, a reservoir of
power is available su?icient to rotate all the trip levers
and interconnecting bar.
FIG. 3 illustrates the overloaded pole immediately after
nose '75, and a rotation limiting surface 76, the latter abut
ting a portion ‘87 of the base 43. As viewed in FIG. 1,
rotation in a counterclockwise direction is limited by this
abutment.
15 tripping and after the toggle 33 has impinged upon the
cam surface 75 and rotated the three cams 70', 170 and
The armature 59 is biased by a spring '79 so that the
27d of the multipole circuit breaker in the contacts open
end ‘60 of the armature is urged away from the latch 56
and the end 69 is biased clockwise toward the cam surface
ing direction.
'74 and against a rectangular limiting stop 78 turned out
FIG. 4 illustrates the overloaded pole after the mecha
from one of the walls 42. The spring 79‘ has one end 20 nism has been reset due to the bias of the spring 51. The
abutting a shaft 81 connecting the spaced generally L
spring 51 forces the link 33 to rotate, moving the handle
shaped armature members 82 and the other end of the
47 to the off position and the toggle 33 to the reset posi
spring 79 is disposed in a slot ‘83 formed in one end por
tion wherein the tooth '54 is restrainably engaged by the
tion of the armature pivot ‘84 carried by the walls 42.
half moon 55.
The other end portion of the pivot 84 is connected to a 25
It is to be noted that the opening of all three poles
spring 86 for holding the pivot stationary, the ends of the
occurs substantially simultaneously since the time lead of
spring ‘86 being held stationary in a notch in one of the
the overloaded pole, for instance circuit breaker 21, is the
walls 42.
amount of time required for the toggle 33 to travel the
The cam 70 is generally disposed between the L-shaped
clearance distance between the channel shaped portion
armature members 82 and positioned for the surface 74
89 and impinge upon the cam 70 plus the time required
to impinge upon the shaft 85 connecting the top portion
to travel through the slight clearance between the cam
(-FIG. 2) of the L-shaped armature members 82. Also,
surface 74 and armature shaft 85 and thereafter to rotate
the cam is generally disposed at one side of the unit be
the armatures and latches of the associated, nonover
tween the contact arm 29‘, the link 35 of the toggle 33 and
loaded circuit breakers 22 and 23. Upon the rotation of
the upper portion (-FIG. 2) of the L-shaped armature 35 the latches of the circuit breakers 22 and '23 the toggles
members ‘82 with no part of the mechanism between the
thereof also collapse and their contacts start to open.
cam 70 and the adjacent part of the casing 29.
Thus, by properly proportioning the various parts, the
The weight and shape of the cam 7 0‘ is such that a force
contacts of the nonoverloaded circuit breakers start to
is exerted, when in the contacts closed position and the
open before the contacts of the overloaded circuit breakers
apparatus disposed as illustrated in 'FIG. 1, about the bar 40 are entirely open, resulting in a substantially simultaneous
71 tending to bias the cam 70 in the counterclockwise
opening of the contacts of all the poles of the unit.
direction against the portion 87 of the base 43.
While FIGS. 3 land 4 have been ‘discussed in connec
The nose 75 is disposed above the knee 137 of the toggle
tion with the overloaded pole it is seen that the positions
33 but spaced therefrom in the closed position of the con
of the mechanism (immediately after tripping and in the
tacts 27 and ‘28, FIG. 2. The cam surface 74 is posi 45 off position of the contacts) are ‘the same whether the
tioned to impinge upon the shaft 85 but in the closed posi
tripping occurs due to the overload being in the pole illus
tion of the contacts, FIG. 2, is also slightly spaced there
trated or in an adjacent pole.
from to prevent accidental tripping of the breaker due to
The cam 70 is formed from a suitable insulating ma
vibration or shock. As illustrated, in FIG. 4, this slight
terial to provide for ?ling or otherwise adjusting the sur
clearance between surface 74 and shaft 85 exists in the 50 faces 74 and 75 upon ?nal assembly and testing so that
open position of the contacts also. The cam 70‘ has a
manufacturing variations may be compensated for and
relieved surface ‘88 so that no interference ‘will result be
calibration of the circuit breakers made.
tween the movable contact 29 and the cam 7 0‘ in any posi
Movement of the mechanism in the ‘opening direction is
tion of the mechanism.
limited by abutment of the movable contact arm 29 with
If desired, torsion springs (not illustrated) may be
the horizontal portion of the frame 65. Similarly in the
wound about the bar 711 having spring ends secured to
closed position of the contacts, the mechanism is held in
the bar 711 and other ends secured in notches in the ver
a stable position by ‘abutment of the ends of the pivot 39
tical walls, 42, 142 and 242 for increasing the bias of the
connecting the link 3% to the link 36 with a portion of the
cam 70 toward the stop 87.
vertical walls 42‘, as illustrated in FIG. 7. Also illustrated
Upon an overload in any one ‘pole, for instance, the pole 60 in FIG. 7, in dotted lines, is the position of the pivot 39
illustrated in FIG. 2, su?icient to trip the pole, the arma
when the mechanism is in the contacts open position show
ture 59 is rotated about its pivot 84 into engagement with
ing that the ‘ends of the pivot 35 are spaced from the
and rotates the latch ‘56 ‘against the bias of the latch spring
walls 42 in this position, the walls 42 being provided
57 su?icienly for the tooth 54 to clear the half moon 55.
with suitable openings 90.
The overcenter toggle 33 immediately collapses under 65 From the foregoing it is seen that the bar 71 serves two
pressure from the opening spring 32. The collapse of the
functions in being a pivot for each cam and van intercon
toggle 33 and its movement through the space between
nection between the cams 70, 170 and 270‘. Each cam
the cam surface 75 and the channel shaped portion 89
may be thought of as comprising two cam surfaces, one
of the link 35, causes the portion 89 to forcefully impinge
surface actuated by the mechanism of the circuit breaker
upon the cam surface 75, for rotating the cam 70 clock 70 when the ‘circuit breaker is tripped upon an overload
wise and, through the bar 71, the associated cams 170
occurring in its coil and the other surface for tripping
and 27 01 of the adjacent poles.
the circuit breakers (adjacent to the one which is over
Rotation of the adjacent cams .170 and 270 causes their
loaded) by moving all of the armatures in the direction
to release tail of the latches from restraining engagement
surfaces 174 and 274 to forcefully impinge upon shafts
185 and 285 and to rotate the armatures 159 and 259 in 75 with all of the link teeth.
3,098,911
It will be noted that the mechanism remains “trip free”
in that if the master handle 47 is turned toward the closed
position of the contacts while an overload current per
sists in one of the poles, fall of the contacts will move to
the open position of the contacts. The foregoing occurs
because the armature or" the overloaded pole will rotate
and the movement of the cam for engagement with the
associated tripping device being all in the same direction,
whereby the associated members act upon the tripping de
vices of the associated switches to substantially simul
taneously trip all of said mechanisms and open all the
contacts.
its latch and its toggle will collapse, followed by impinge
2. The combination of a plurality of similar switch
ment of the collapsed toggle upon the cam, resulting in
units, each switch unit having a pair of relatively movable
the collapse of the associated toggles of the associated
contacts, an automatically resettable toggle linkage opera
circuit breakers, Eas heretofore stated. Thus, all of the to tively connected between one of said contacts and a
contacts move to the open position even if, for example,
manual operator, a moveable overload sensing and toggle
the master handle is manually maintained thereafter in
tripping device associated with the linkage, said toggle
the position corresponding to the closed position of the
linkage being collapsible by said device to a position tor
contacts.
opening said contacts, an automatically resettable movable
The circuit breakers 21, '22 and 23‘ are electrically 15 common trip cam member associated and engageable
spaced from each other and the metallic casing 20‘ by
with each overload sensing device, said toggle linkage
being supported by the insulator bases 43‘ on the base of
being independent of the associated movable member in
the casing 29 and physically spaced from the other walls
that the former is spaced from the latter in the closed and
of the casing 2d and each other. If desired, insulator
open positions of the contacts and engageable therewith
spacers 91 may be placed in these spaces and/or the cas
ing may be ‘formed of an insulating material.
Summarizing, it is seen that the master handle 47 is
capable of moving the operating mechanism of all three
20 only during the collapsing movement of the toggle linkage,
a bar ‘for interconnecting each ‘of said movable cam mem
bers, the toggle, the associated tripping device portion en
gageable thereby and the cam being all spaced from each
circuit breakers to open or close the contacts of all three
other in the open and closed positions of the contacts, the
circuit breakers, independently of the cams 70, 170 and 25 collapsing movement of the toggle for engagement with the
270 and interconnecting bar 71. If the contacts of yall the
associated cam, the movement ‘of the tripping device for
circuit breakers have been moved to the closed position,
tripping the associated toggle linkage, and the movement
‘and an overload occurs in one of the coils, the armature
of the cam for engagement with the [associated tripping de
of the mechanism ‘associated with this coil will be rotated,
vice being all in the same direction, each common trip
referring to FIG. 2, so that the armature end 69' moves so cam member including two rigid angularly disposed sur
toward the pole piece ‘61 and the armature end 60 rotates
faces interposed between the associated toggle linkage and
the latch 56». Rotation of the latch 56 allows the toggle
the associated toggle tripping device, and all of the cams
33 to collapse and the movable contact 28 to start its
being pivotal about the longitudinal axis of the intercon
opening movement. Substantially simultaneously with
necting bar, whereby the collapsing movement of the
the initial opening movement of the contact 28‘, the chan 35 toggle linkage for opening the contacts of one switch unit
nel portion 89 traverses the space between the link 35 and
causes ‘all of the other common trip cam members of the
the cam nose 75 and forcefully impinges on the cam nose
75. This impingement causes all \of the cams 70, 170
and 270 to rotate in the direction tending to rotate all
the anmatures by engagement of the cams with the
tanmature shdts 185 and 285 and in the direction neces
sary to remove the restraint of the latches (of the un-/
tripped poles) ‘from their associated toggles, whereupon
associated switch units to move in the direction necessary
to cause ‘all of their associated toggle linkages to collapse
and move to the contacts open position.
3. The combination of a plurality of similar switch
units, each switch unit comprising a means for sensing a
predetermined overload including ‘an ‘armature, relatively
movable contacts, a collapsible linkage means for moving
one of the contacts from an initial contacts open position
the associated toggles (of the poles other than the over
loaded pole collapse and their associated contacts open 45 to a contacts closed position and upon said predetermined
also, substantially simultaneously with the opening of
the contacts of the overloaded pole. A?ter the opening
overload condition collapsing and moving one of the con
tacts to the contacts open position and upon termination
of all of the contacts, the master handle 47‘ moves to
of said predetermined ‘overload condition automatically
the off position and simultaneously ‘automatically resets
resetting said collapsible linkage means to the uncol
lapsed position, said linkage means including a latch for
maintaining said linkage means in the contacts closed
the toggle, the nose '75 also clearing the toggle in the off
position of the contacts.
position, said armature being attractable upon overload
Having described this invention, we claim:
for tripping said latch whereupon said linkage means
1. The combination of a plurality of similar switch units,
moves to the open contacts position, {a common trip means
each switch unit having a pair of relatively movable con
tacts, an automatically resettable mechanism movable to 55 for movement ‘from an initial position to a position actu
ating said armature upon said predetermined overload
open and close said contacts, a tripping device capable of
condition and after termination of said predetermined
initiating movement of said mechanism by collapsing said
overload condition automatically resetting to the initial
mechanism upon overload, an automatically resettable
position, movement of said linkage means upon unlatch
common trip cam member associated with each mechanism
and each tripping device, each of the common trip cam 60 ing being toward said common trip means and into im
pingement with a ?rst portion thereof and subsequently
members being engageable with the associated mechanism
away therefrom to an automatically relatched position
at one portion and engageable with the associated tripping
spaced from said common trip means; both said common
device at another portion, each tripping device being
trip means and said linkage means being automatically re
also capable of being acted upon by the associated com
mon trip cam member to trip the ‘devices of the associated 65 settable independently of the other after the termination
of said overload, all of the movable common trip means
non-overloaded switch units, a bar for interconnecting all
of the switch units being interconnected so that movement
of the common trip cam members for simultaneous move
of one causes the movement of the others, each movable
ment upon the movement of any one, ‘all the cams being
common
means having a ‘second portion adjacent
pivotal about the longitudinal axis of the interconnecting
bar, the mechanism, the associated tripping device portion 70 each associated Immature for rotating the associated arma
ture in the direction to unlatch the associated linkage
engageable thereby and the cam being all spaced from
means ‘for opening the contacts of the switch units other
each other in. the open and closed positions of the con
than those of the initially overloaded switch unit which
initiates the rotation .of the movable common trip means,
tripping device vfor tripping the associated mechanism, 75 said ?rst and second common trip portions being formed
tacts, the collapsing movement of the mechanism for
engagement with the associated cam, the movement of the
3,098,911
%
7
arm, the associated portion of said linkage impingeable
by two anguia-rly disposed cam surfaces interposed at all
times between the associated linkage means and a portion
of the associated armature, said linkage means including
the part thereof which impinges on the common trip
means being movable between the contacts closed and the
contacts open positions except upon said predetermined
‘overload without any pant of the linkage means contacting
said common trip means.
4. A multi-pole circuit breaker comprising in combina
tion ‘a plurality of similar switch units each comprising
a pair of contacts, a pivotal armature, an electromagnet
having a coil for ‘attracting said armature upon a predeter
mined overload, an automatically resettable linkage mecha
nism movable to open and close said contacts, said linkage
mechanism including a latch for maintaining said linkage
mechanism in the contacts closed position, said armature
being attractable upon overload for tripping said latch,
an automatically resettable common trip pivotal cam hav
ing one portion in the path of movement of said linkage
mechanism and impingeable thereby upon the tripping of
the latch, said cam being rotatable by said linkage mecha
on the earn, the associated portion of the armature im
pingeabie upon the cam, and the associated casing portion
engageable ‘as a stop for the cam, each cam however being
spaced from the associated movable arm at all times, each
cam being also spaced ‘from the associated linkage mecha
nism and armature at all times except that it is engage
able therewith upon tripping of the linkage, whereupon an
overload in any one electromagnet and the pivoting of
its associated armature and the tripping of the associated
latch, the associated iink-age impinges on the associated
cam and rotates the interconnecting bar for moving the
cams of the other associated switch units in the ‘direction
to impinge upon and move their armatures in the direction
15‘ to trip their associated ‘latches ‘for substantially simul
taneously opening the contacts of all the units upon an
ovenload in any one unit.
5. The structure recited in claim 4 in which the link
age mechanism includes a toggle mechanism, the portion
20 of the linkage mechanism impingeable on the cam is a
portion of the toggle mechanism, the portion of the cam
itmpingeable by the toggle is disposed between the por
nism to bring another portion of the cam into abutment
with a portion of said armature upon tripping of the latch
of an associated switch, a common bar interconnecting the
cams of each switch unit :and about the longitudinal axis
of which the cams are pivotal, each cam having another
tion that impinges on the laimature and the portion of the
cam which is spaced at all times from the movable ar-m.
25
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
surface engageable with a portion of the casing toward
which said cam is biased away from the associated arma
tune, a movable aim in each switch unit for actuating
one of said contacts, said linkage being collapsible toward 30
said cam upon tripping of the latch to actuate said movable
arm to the open position, each cam being disposed in
the space generally bounded by the associated movable
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,797,277
2,811,160?
Dorfm'an et al _________ __ June 25, 1957
Dor?rnan et a1 _________ __ Oct. 29, 1957
2,824,191
2,860,207
2,889,428‘
2,932,706
Christensen __________ __ Feb. 18,
Rigor-t _______________ __ Nov. 11,
Kingdon et a1 __________ __ June 2,
Bodenschatz _________ __ Apr. 12,
1958
1958
1959
1860
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