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Патент USA US3099248

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July'30, 1963
H. VON SCHERTEL ETAL
3,099,239
RETRACTABLE HYDROFOIL SYSTEM FOR WATER CRAFT
Filed Jan. 11, 1960
‘
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
July 30, 1963
H. VON SCHERTEL ETAL'
3,099,239
RETRACTABLE HYDROFOIL SYSTEM FOR WATER CRAFT
Filed Jan. 11. 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTORJ
United tates Patent 0 ” IC€
3,099,239
Patented July 30, 1963
1
2
3,099,239
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary plan view illustrating the foil
system of the embodiment of FIG. 1 in the operative
RETRACTABLE HYDROFOIL SYSTEM FOR
WATER CRAFT
Hanns von Schertel, Hergiswil am See, Switzerland, and
Johann Cassens, Bremen-Huchting, Richard Koitzsch,
Bremen, and Gerhard Plewa, Grolland, Bremen, Ger
many, assignors to Supramar Ltd., Lucerne, Switzerland
Filed Jan. 11, 1960, Ser. No. 1,552
10 Claims. (Cl. 114-665)
position.
Referring ?rst to the embodiment of FIGS. 1, 2, and 6,
the hull 1 of the craft has a means 3 supporting a ?n
portion 2 for turning movement about a horizontal axis
extending in longitudinal direction of the hull. Another
means 6:: is secured to a bracket 6 downwardly projecting
from hull 1 to support a strut 5 for turning movement
10 about a longitudinal horizontal axis which is located
lower than the axis at 3. A foil means 4 is articulated to
The invention relates to a water-craft provided with a
the outer end of ?n portion 2 by a pivot means or joint
retractable hydrofoil system, which in passage raises the
2a, and to the lower end of strut 5 by a joint or pivot
hull above the water level, and which at rest can be re
means 5a.
tracted and folded up on either side of the hull. This
A lever 10 is ?xedly connected to‘ ?n portion 2 so as
arrangement has the advantage that the folded up foils 15
to turn with the same, and is articulated to a connecting
are not reaching further down than the keel of the hull
rod 9a of the piston of a hydraulic motor 9.
and project only slightly over the deck-line, such that the
‘ When the operating means 9, 9a is actuated, piston rod
craft is able to operate in shallow waters and to go along
9a moves downwardly and turns lever 10 with ?n por
the piers and other ships without any dil?culties.
The present invention is distinguished by the fact that 20 tion 2 so that ?n portion 2, strut 5, and foil means 4
move to the higher inoperative position shown in FIG. 2
supporting ?ns are turnably mounted about a longitudi
in which ?n portion 2 is located directly adjacent the side
nal and horizontal axis on either side of the hull, these
of hull 1, strut 5 is also closely adjacent hull 1, and foil
?ns being connected pivotably to the outer parts of later
means 4 is located adjacent ?n portion 2 and strut 5, and
ally separated foils, spaced downwardly from the hull
and extending transverse to the hull. The inner part of 25 ?atly folded against the side of the hull.
It will be. understood that ?n portion 2 and strut 5 con
each foil portion is pivotably connected to ‘a strut which
stitute link means linking the foil means 4 to the hull 1.
is turnably joined with its other end to a downwardly
In the higher position of FIG. 2, the entire foil system is
projecting portion of the hull. The strut is forming a link
folded to assume the least possible space, while the inner
which guides the inner part of the foil towards the sides
of the hull when the ?ns are swung upwardly and folded 30 and lower end of foil means 4 is located above the bottom
portions of hull 1. Consequently, the craft can move in
up on either sides of the hull.
shallow waters in the position of FIG. 2, while very little
In order to adapt the lift of the described foil system
lateral space is taken up by the folded foil system since
to alterations of speed or load, the ?ns and struts can
the foil means 4 lies ?at on the side of the hull.
be connected to a stiff girder extending traverse the hull
vThe foil system of the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4
and mounted turnable thereon about its horizontal axis
is constructed in a manner similar to the foil system of
for changing the angle of attack of the foils.
FIGS. '1 and 2, and includes on either side of hull 1, a.
As actuating means for the retraction of the two foil
?n portion 2, a strut 5, and foil means 4. A rigid con
parts, a hydraulic ram is provided which acts on a lever
necting member 7 extends transversely through hull 1
connected with the ?ns and projecting into the hull. To
and has supporting end portions 7a of circular cross-sec
lock the foil system in its operating and retracting posi
tion. End portions 7a are turnably mounted in bearing
tion, the hydraulic ram is provided with terminal position
means 8 on the hull for turning movement about a trans
locking means.
verse horizontal axis. Bracket portions 6’ extend down
For small craft a hydraulic actuation of the retraction
wardly from the end portions 7a of connecting member 7
is dispensable and the foils can be folded up manually.
In order to facilitate such handling the invention applies 45 and have at the free ends thereof, pivot means 6a for
supporting the'struts 5. Struts 5 are articulated to foil
resilient means which produce a ?n-lifting moment
means 4 1by pivot joints 5a. End portions 7a carry other
about the ?n-axis of such a magnitude that the moment
brackets 16 which support the pivot means 3‘ on which
keeps the foils at their folded up position. ‘While lower
the ?n portions 2 are mounted for ‘turning movement.
ing the foils to their operation position, the weight of the
foil system parts overcomes the action of the resilient 50 Pivot joints 2a connect ?n portions 2 with foil means 4.
A lever means 17 is secured to connecting member 7
means so that the foils fall into the operational position,
so that the same can be turned in bearings 8 whereby
where they can be locked. For this purpose the fins are
both foil systems are simultaneously turned for varying
provided with a downwardly projecting lever, which joins
their angle of attack when the foil means are in the op
a part of the hull in operating position of the foil system
55 erative position shown in FIG. 3. Each foil system may
for locking purposes.
be raised and lowered by manual operation, or by oper
Two forms of the invention are illustrated by way of
ating means of the type described with reference to FIGS.
example in the accompanying drawings, in which:
1 and 2, but not shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. For example,
FIG. 1 is a schematic front view of a craft provided
a hydraulic motor 9 may be connected by a rod 9a to a
with a retractable foil system according to one embodi
60 lever 10 secured to ?n portion 2. In the embodiment of
ment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary front view illustrating the em
FIGS.‘ 3 and 4, the foil systems are counterbalanced,
which facilitates a manual operation. Bracket means 2b
bodiment of FIG. 1 with the foil system in a retracted in
is secured to ?n portion 2, and bracket means 7b is se
operative position;
cured to connecting member 7. A spring means 11 con
FIG. 3 is a schematic front view illustrating another
embodiment of a retractable foil system according to the 65 meets the brackets 2b and 7b. In the higher position of
invention;
the foil system shown in FIG. 4, the center of gravity of
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary view illustrating the foil sys
tem of the embodiment of FIG. 3 in a retracted inopera
the foil system has a smaller eifective lever arm than in
the position of FIG. 3 so that the turning moment exerted
by the foil means in the position of FIG. 4 is smaller
tive position;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary plan view illustrating the foil 70 than in the position of FIG. 3. On the other hand, the '
effective lever arm of spring 11 is greater in the position
system of the embodiment of FIG. 3 in the operative
of FIG. 4, than in the position of FIG. 3. The arrange
position; and
3,099,239
3
means ll in the position of FIG. 4 is greater than the
opposing turning moment exerted by the weight of the
foil system so that the foil system tends to stay in the
folded position shown in FIG. 4.
wardly projecting from said hull and higher positions
‘
retracted to said hull; and a pair of foil means having
When the foil system is turned by manual operation,
outer portions pivotally connected to the other ends of
said ?n portions, respectively, and inner portions pivot
ally connected to the other ends of said struts, respective
or by operating means 9, 10, not shown in FIGS. 3 and 4
from the higher position to the lower position, the center
of gravity of the foil system moves away from the turn
ing axis, and in the lower operative position of FIG. 3,
the turning moment exerted by the weight of the foil
system is greater than the counterbalancing moment of
4
struts having inner ends respectively mounted on said
supporting end portions ‘for turning movement about a
pair of second longitudinal horizontal axes located lower
than said ?rst axes and between lower positions down
ment is such that the turning moment exerted by spring
10
ly, said ?n portions, struts and foil means being arranged
and constructed so that said foil means are in a lower
position located lower than said hull when said ?n por
tions and struts are in said lower position, and are lo
cated in a higher position closely adjacent to said ?n por
main in the lower position until raised again by the oper
ator. However, locking means are provided for rigidly 15 tions and struts and ?atly folded against the sides of
said hull when said ?n portions and struts are in said
locking the foil system in the operative position.
the spring means 11 so that the foil system tends to re
A transverse shaft 12 is mounted for turning move
ment in corresponding bearing bores 12a in end portions
7a of connecting member 7. Shaft 12 also passes through
higher positions thereof, said ?n portions, struts and foil
means being turnable with said rigid connecting member
for varying the angle of attack of said foil means in said
a bore in lever 17. The ends of shaft 12 have hammer 20 lower position of said foil means.
heads 13 which pass in vertical position through vertically
elongated slots in locking arms 14 of ?n portions 2 when
3. A retractable hydrofoil system comprising, in com
bination, an elongate hull having lateral wall means and
a bottom wall; a pair of upper supporting ?n portions
having inner ends respectively mounted on said lateral
the foil systems are in the lower position shown in FIG.
3, in which locking arms 14 abut the end faces of end
members 7a. A lever 15 is secured to shaft 12, so that 25 wall means of said hull for turning movement about a
pair of ?rst longitudinal horizontal axes between lower
shaft 12, can be turned to a position in which the ham
mer heads 13 extend in horizontal direction and trans
verse to the vertical slots in locking arms 14 so that the
foil systems are locked against movement to the higher
folded position.
When lever 15 is turned from its horizontal position
of FIG. 3 to the vertical position shown in FIG. 4, the
hammer heads 13 extend in vertical direction so that they
positions projecting from said hull and higher positions
retracted close to the sides of said hull; a pair of struts
having inner ends respectively mounted on the sides of
said hull for turning movement about a pair of second
longitudinal horizontal axes located in the region of the
lower part of said lateral wall means and the outer part
of said bottom wall and lower on said hull than said ?rst
axes and between lower positions downwardly projecting
can pass through the vertical slots in locking arms 14
when the foil systems are swung upwardly, assisted by 35 from said hull and higher positions retracted to said
hull and extending from said second axes, respectively,
the action of spring means 11. Whenthe foil system
upwardly along said lateral wall means; a pair of foil
arrives in the higher positionshown in FIG. 4, the turn
means having outer portions pivotally connected to the
ing moment produced by spring means 11 is suf?cient to
hold the foil systems in the folded inoperative position.
other ends of said ?n portions, respectively, and inner por
What we claim is:
40 tions pivotally connected to the other ends of said struts,
1. A retractable hydrofoil system comprising, in com
bination, an elongate hull having lateral wall means and
respectively, said ?n portions, struts and foil means being
position projecting ‘from said hull and a higher position
portions and struts and ?atly folded against said lateral
retracted close to the side of said hull; a lower link hav
ing an inner end mounted on said hull for turning move
ment about a second longitudinal axis located in the re
gion of the lower part of said lateral wall means and the
outer part of said bottom wall and lower on said hull
wall means and above said bottom wall of said hull when
said ?n portions and struts are in said higher positions
thereof; a pair of lever means rigidly connected to inner
ends of said supporting ?n portions for turning movement
with the same about said ?rst axes, respectively; and op
than said ?rst axis between a lower position downwardly
projecting from said hull and a higher position retracted
close to said hull and extending from said second axis
erating means located on said hull and operatively con
nected to said lever means for turning the same, whereby
said ?n portions, struts and foil means are turned be
arranged and constructed so that said foil means are in
a bottom wall; an upper link having an inner end mount
a lower position located lower than said hull when said
ed on said lateral wall means of said hull for turning
?n portions and struts are in said lower positions, and are
movement about a ?rst horizontal axis between a lower 45 located in a higher position closely adjacent to said ?n
upwardly along said lateral wall means; and foil means
tween said lower and higher positions.
having an outer portion pivotally connected to the other
4. A hydrofoil system as set forth in claim 3 wherein
end of said upper link and an inner portion pivotally
said operating means include a pair of hydraulic motors
connected to the other end of said lower link, said links
respectively connected to said lever means, each motor in
and foil means being arranged and constructed so that
cluding a piston means being in a terminal position when
said foil means is located lower than said hull when said 60 said foil means are in said higher position folded again
links are in said lower positions, and is located closely
at the sides of said hull.
adjacent said links and ?atly ‘folded against said lateral
5. A retractable hydrofoil system comprising, in com
wall means and above said bottom wall of said hull when
bination, an elongate hull; a rigid connecting member ex
said links are in said upper positions thereof.
tending transversely through said hull and being mounted
2. A retractable hydrofoil system comprising, in com 65 ‘thereon for turning movement about a horizontal axis,
bination, an elongate hull; a rigid connecting member
said connecting member having supporting end portions
extending transversely through said hull and being mount
located on the sides of said hull; a pair of upper support
ed thereon for turning movement about a horizontal axis,
ing ?n portions having inner ends respectively mounted
said connecting member having supporting end portions
on said supporting end portions for turning movement
located on the sides of said hull; a pair of upper sup
about a pair of ?rst longitudinal horizontal axes between
porting ?n portions having inner ends respectively mount
lower positions projecting from said hull and higher posi
ed on said supporting end portions for turning movement
about a pair of ?rst longitudinal horizontal axes between
tions retracted close to the sides of said hull, each'of said
?n portions having at the inner end thereof a rig-id arm
lower positions projecting from said hull and higher posi
abutting the respective end portion of said connecting
tions retracted close to the sides of said hull; a pair of 75 member in said lower position of said ?n portion; lock
3,099,239
6
5
ing means located at said supporting end portions, re
spectively, and being operable to lock said rigid arms to
?n portion; locking means located at said supporting end
said supporting end portions, respectively, whereby move
movement about a pair of second longitudinal horizontal
rigid arms to said supporting end portions, respectively,
whereby movement of said ?n portions to said higher
positions is prevented; a pair of struts having inner ends
respectively mounted on said supporting end portions
for turning movement about a pair of second longitudinal
axes located lower than said ?rst axes and between lower
horizontal axes located lower than said ?rst axes and
portions, respectively, and being operable to lock said
ment of said ?n portions to said higher positions is pre
vented; a pair of struts having inner ends respectively
mounted on said supporting end portions for turning
between lower positions downwardly projecting from said
positions downwardly projecting from said hull and high
er positions retracted to said hull; and a pair of foil 10 hull and higher positions retracted to said hull; and a
pair of foil means having outer portions pivotally con
means having outerrportions pivotally connected to the
nected to the other ends of said ?n portions, respective
other ends of said ?n portions, respectively, and inner
ly, ‘and inner portions pivotally connected to the other
ends of said struts, respectively, said ?n portions, struts
portions pivotally connected to the other ends of said
.struts, respectively, said ?n portions, struts and foil
means being arranged and constructed so that said foil 15 and foil means being arranged and constructed so that
said foil means are in a lower position located lower than
means are in a lower position located lower than said
said hull when said ?n portions and ‘struts are in said
hull when said ?n portions and struts are in said lower
lower positions, and are located in a higher position closely
positions, and are located in a higher position closely
adjacent to said ?n portions and struts and ?atly folded
adjacent to said ?n portions and struts and ?atly folded
against the sides of said hull when said ?n portions and 20 against ‘the sides of said hull when said ?n portions and
struts are in said higher positions thereof, said ?n por
struts are in said higher positions thereof, said ?n por
tions, struts and foil means being turnable with said rigid
tions, struts and foil means being turnable with said rigid
connecting member for varying the angle of attack of said
connecting member for varying the angle of attack of said
foil means.
foil means; and spring means connected to said ?n por
tions and to said hull and biasing said ?n portions, struts
and foil means to move to said higher positions, the effec~
tive lever arm of said spring means being smaller in said
6. A retractable hydrofoil system comprising, in com
bination, an elongate hull; a rigid connecting member
extending transversely through said hull and being mount
said connecting member having supporting end portions
lower positions of said ?n portions than in said higher
positions of said ?n portions so that said ?n portions,
ing ?n portions having inner ends respectively mounted
higher positions.
ed thereon for turning movement about a horizontal axis,
located on the sides of said hull; a pair of upper support 30 struts and foil means are counterbalanced and held in said
8. A retractable hydrofoil system comprising, in com
on said supporting end portions for turning movement
bination, ‘an elongated hull; a pair of upper supporting
about a pair of ?rst longitudinal horizontal axes between
?n portions having inner ends respectively mounted on
lower positions projecting from said hull and higher posi
tions retracted close to the sides of said hull; a pair of 35 the sides of said hull for turning movement about a pair
of ?rst longitudinal horizontal axes between lower posi
struts having inner ends respectively mounted on said
tions projecting from said hull and higher positions re
supporting end portions for turning movement about a pair
tracted close to the sides of said hull; a pair of struts
of second longitudinal horizontal axes located lower than
having inner ends respectively mounted {on the sides of
said ?rst axes and between lower positions downwardly
said hull for turning movement about a pair of second
projecting from said hull and higher positions retracted
longitudinal
horizontal axes located lower on said hull
to said hull; a pair of foil means having outer portions
than said ?rst axes and between lower positions down
pivotally connected to the other ends of said ?n portions,
wardly projecting from said hull and higher positions
respectively, and inner portions pivotally connected to the
retracted to said hull; a pair of foil means having outer
other ends of said struts, respectively, said ?n portions,
struts and foil means being arranged and constructed so 45 portions pivotally connected to the other ends of said ?n
portions, respectively, and inner portions pivotally con
that said foil means are in a lower position located lower
nected to the other ends of said struts, respectively, said
than said hull when said ?n portions and struts are in said
?n portions, struts and foil means being arranged and
lower positions, and are located in a higher position close
constructed so that said foil means are in a lower posi
ly adjacent to said ?n portions and struts and ?atly folded
against the sides of said hull when said ?n portions and 50 tion located lower than said hull when said ?n portions
and struts are in said lower positions, and are located
struts are in said higher positions thereof, said ?n por
in a higher position closely adjacent to said ?n portions
tions, struts and foil means being turnable with said
and struts and ?atly folded against the sides of said
rigid connecting member for varying the angle of attack
hull when said ?n portions and struts are in said higher
of said foil means; and spring means connected to said
?n portions and to said hull and biasing said ?n portions, 55 positions thereof; spring means connected to said ?n por
tions and to said hull and biasing said ?n portions, struts
struts and foil means to move to said higher positions, the
and foil means to move to said higher positions, the
effective lever arm of said spring means being smaller in
effective lever arm of said spring means being smaller in
said lower positions of said ?n portions than in said high
said
lower positions of said ?n portions than in said
er positions of said ?n portions so that said ?n portions,
higher positions of said ?n portions so that said ?n por
struts and foil means are counterbalanced and held in
said higher positions.
60 tions, struts and foil means are counterbalanced and held
in said higher positions; and locking means for locking the
assemblies comprising said ?n portions, said struts and
said foil means in said lower positions.
extending transversely through said hull and being
9. A retractable hydrofoil system, comprising, in com
mounted thereon for turning movement about a horizontal 65
bination, an elongate hull having a longitudinal axis,
axis, said connecting member having supporting end por
7. A retractable hydrofoil system comprising, in com
bination, an elongate hull; a rigid connecting member
lateral wall means, ‘and a bottom wall; link means mounted
on said hull for turning movement about pivot axes in
supporting ?n portions having inner ends respectively
the region of the lower part of said lateral wall means and
mounted on said supporting end portions for turning
movement about a pair of ?rst longitudinal horizontal 70 the outer part of said bottom wall and in a plane trans
verse to the longitudinal axis of said hull between a lower
axes between lower positions projecting from said hull
tions located on the sides vof said hull; a pair of upper
and higher positions retracted close to the sides of said
hull, each of said ?n portions having at the inner end
thereof a rigid arm abutting the respective end portion
of said connecting member in said lower position of said 75
position projecting from said hull and a higher position
extending from said pivot axis upwardly along said lateral
wall means of said hull; and foil means including two
spaced joint means articulated to said link means and
3,099,239
7
8
moving with the ‘same, said link means and foil means
being arranged and constructed in such a manner that
said foil means is located lower than said hull when said
link means is in said lower position, and is located in a
link means and foil means being turn‘able With said con
necting member for varying the angle of attack of said
foil means; and means for turning said connecting
member.
higher position closely adjacent said link means and
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
?atly folded against said lateral Wall means and above
said bottom wall of said hull when said link means is in
said higher position.
10. A retractable hydrofoil system, comprising, in com
bination, an elongate hull having a longitudinal axis; a 10
rigid connecting member extending transversely through
said hull and being mounted thereon for turning move
ment about a transverse horizontal axis, said connecting
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,776,700
Pegna ______________ __ Sept. 23, 1930
2,720,180
2,887,979
2,914,014
2,991,747
‘Schertel ______________ _._. Oct. 11,
Bader _______________ __ May 26,
Carl et a1 _____________ __ Nov. 24,
Bader et al ____________ __ July 11,
517,519
575,883
572,413
315,235
582,985
420,825
959,264
Germany _____________ __ Feb. 4,
Germany _____________ __ May 4,
Great Britain __________ __ Oct. 8,
Switzerland __________ __ Sept. 15,
Great Britain _________ __ Dec. 4,
Italy _________________ -_ May 6,
France ______________ __ Sept. 26,
814,173
Great Britain _________ __ June 3, 1959
1,066,897
Germany _____________ _._ Oct. 8, 1959
FOREIGN PATENTS
member having supporting end portions located on oppo
site sides of said hull; link means mounted on each of 15
said supporting end portions for turning movement in a
plane transverse to the longitudinal axis of said hull be
tween a lower position projecting from said hull and a
higher position retracted close to the side of said hull;
foil means including two spaced joint means articulated to 20
said link means and moving with the same, said link
means and foil means being arranged and constructed
in such a manner that said foil means :are located lower
than said hull when said link means are in said lower
position, and are located in a higher position closely 25
adjacent said link means and ?atly folded against said
hull when said link means are in said higher position, said
1955
1959
1959
1961
1931
1933
1945
1956
1946
1947
1949
OTHER REFERENCES
“Yachting,” vol. 103, No. 4, April 1958, page 71 relied
on.
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