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Патент USA US3099354

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July 30, 1963
A. D’ONOFRIO
3,099,343
TABULATING APPARATUS FOR TYPEWRITERS 0R LEDKE MACHINES
Original Filed Aug. 5. 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
45
F1 -2 »
g
INVENTOR
, ANTHONYgNOF l0
MW
'
M
MEX/“ea
ATTORNEYS
United States Pate
1
3,099,343
TABULATING APPARATUS FOR TYPEWRITERS
0R LIKE MACHHNES
Anthony D’Onofrio, 10 Overhill Road,
West Hartford, Conn.
Continuation of application Ser. No. 47,332, Aug. 3, 1960
This application (lot. 2, 1962, Ser. No. 230,026
9 Qlaims. (Cl. 197-127)
3,099,343
Patented July 30, 1963
2
the accompanying ‘drawings in which like reference nu
merals designate like parts throughout the ?gures thereof
and wherein:
‘FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of tabulating mech
anism in accordance with the invention;
FIGURE 2 is ‘a side elevational view of the tabular
blade and throw control mechanism;
FIGURE 3 is a rear elevational view of the tabular
blade and throw control mechanism;
FIGURE 4 is a block diagram of the tabulating control
This application is a continuation of Serial No. 47,332, 10
circuitry; and
?led August 3, 1960, now forfeited.
FIGURE 5 is a schematic diagram of the circuitry of
This invention relates to tabulating apparatus for type
FIGURE
4.
writers or like machines; more particularly it relates to
Referring now to the drawings wherein like reference
talbulating apparatus having mechanisms for establishing
the extent of tabulating movement in accordance with 15 characters designate like or corresponding parts through
out the several views and wherein is illustrated a preferred
marks on a form whose progress is to be controlled, or in
embodiment, there is shown in FIGURE 1 a tabulating
accordance with preset tabular stops; and speci?cally it
mechanism comprising ‘a tabular link 10 adapted to be
relates to tabulating apparatus having operator controlled
powered forwardly, [as viewed in the ?gure, through
mechanism ‘for permitting the retention of preset tabular
20 connection with an associated bell crank (not shown)
stops during form controlled operation.
upon depression of a tabular key. The tabular
is
Conventional 'tabulating apparatus requires the pre
pivotally connected as at 11 to a lever ‘arm 12 fast on a
setting of tabular stops for establishing the limit of car
shaft 13 mounted in the typewriter frame whereby, as link
riage movement after the initiation of tabulating move
10 moves forwardly, shaft 13 is rocked clockwise. Shaft
ment. In the tabulating apparatus shown in copending
also has secured thereto a rack bar lifting lever 14
application Serial No. 837,391 (now Patent 3,020,996), 25 13
adapted to engage an car 15 on, and to rock counter
every tab vstop is set, and after a tab movement is initiated,
clockwise, ‘a rack bar lifting arm 16 pivoted on the type—
signals ‘generated by marks sensed from a form during
writer escapement frame (not shown) and having an up
tabulating movement are effective to actuate a tab blade
per arm 17 extending beneath a rack rail 18. When arm
into the path ‘of a stop on the tab rack whose position
16 rocks counterclockwise, the rack rail 18 raises a rack
corresponds to the position of the mark sensed, thereby, 30 bar
19 out of engagement with the typewriter escapement
limiting carriage movement. In that every stop is pre
pinion 20 thereby ‘freeing the typewriter carriage for move
set in the latter apparatus, it is necessary to clear the
ment in tabulating direction as indicated by arrow 21.
tab rack and selectively set desired ones of the tab stops
Lever arm 12 is also provided with an extension 22
where conventional rather than form controlled tabulat
‘adapted to be engaged by a slot 23 formed in a latch
35
ing operation is desired. This procedure is time consum
member 24 pivoted as at 25 on a bracket 26 secured to
ing and therefore undesirable.
the typewriter frame. A spring 27 interposed between
In accordance with the present invention mechanism is
' the rear end of member 24 and an ear (not shown) on the
provided under operator control whereby the state of the
bracket 26 urges the latch member 24 clockwise so that
stops in the tab rack is immaterial during form controlled
when lever [arm 12 rocks clockwise extension 22 will move
tabulating operation. That is, during form controlled
forwardly until it reaches slot 23 whereupon spring 27 will
operation, both set and unset tab stops are operative in
pivot latch member 24 clockwise, latching lever arm 12
cooperation with the tab blade which is movable in re
and shaft 13 in actuated position, whereby the rack will
sponse to a mark generated signal to terminate movement.
held out of engagement with the escapement pin-ion.
When conventional operation is desired however, only 45 be The
tabulatin-g mechanism also includes a support
the manually preset ones of the stops in the rack ‘are opera
mounted
‘on the carriage ‘comprising upper ‘and lower rack
tive to terminate tabulating movement. In other words,
bars 31 land 32, respectively, formed with aligned trans
predetermined stops, manually set during conventional
verse grooves which are spaced longitudinally of the rack
operation, need not be disturbed; nor do any unset stops
bars at letter space intervals. A plurality of tabular stops
have to be moved to set position when going from con
50 33 are mounted in the grooves and {are detentable in set
ventional to form controlled operation.
and unset positions. In accordance with the invention
In accordance with the invention the throw of the tab
the tab stops ‘are made wide enough in the front to near
blade during ‘form controlled operation is such that it
direction so as to engage, when in an unset position, a
may engage unset tab stops as well as set stops. When
tabular blade 34 when the blade is moved to‘ its operative
switching to conventional operation an interposer is acti~
vated to limit the throw of the tab blade such that it may 55 position. In the form shown the tabular blade is pro“
vided with a boss 35 secured as by a set screw to the
engage only set tab stops.
blade mounting means comprising a shaft 36. The shaft
\An object of the invention therefore is in the provision
36 is mounted for axial and rocking movement in bearing
of a form controlled tabulating device operative with set
(lugs 37 ‘and 38 comprising part of the typewriter center
and unset tab stops.
Another object of the invention is in the provision of 60 stop 39. The tabular blade 34 is normally biased into
a retracted position out of engagement with the tab rack
means for controlling the throw of a tabular stop blade
by :a spring 41 suitably secured thereto and to the type
to limit its effectiveness only with set stops.
writer
frame. The tabular blade 34 is adapted to be
Another object of the invention is in the provision of
moved into the path of a tab stop 33 through connection
an improved mark detecting circuit.
A further object of the invention is to provide mech 65 as ‘at ‘42 with the armature 43 of a solenoid ‘44 suitably
mounted on the typewriter frame. The tab blade is also
anism which permits of the retention of set tab stops
constituted by a rearwardly ‘and laterally extending car
when tabulating movement is under control of marks on
a form.
which as more clearly shown in FIGURES 2 and 3 mounts
Other objects and many of the attendant ‘advantages of ' a set screw 45 which, when the tab blade is ‘activated for
this invention will be readily appreciated as the same 70 wardly, engages the center stop 39 to limit the throw of
the tabular blade in a conventional manner. In accord
becomes better understood by reference to the ‘following
ance with the invention the tabular stops 33 are made
detailed description when considered in connection with
8,099,343
wider whereby the throw determined by the set screw 45
and center stop 39 is such that the blade 34 will normally
engage unset stops ‘as well as set stops 33. In accordance
with the invention an interposer solenoid 46 is mounted
on 1a bracket 47 secured to the center stop 39. The arma
ture 48 associated with the solenoid is coupled to an inter
poser 49 pivoted as at 50 ‘on the bracket 47. Interposer
49 is biased from between the forward end of set screw 45
land ‘the center stop 39 by a spring 51 secured to the sole
4
to decreases in light intensity resulting from the passage
of marks past the typewriter printing station.
With further reference to FIGURES 4 and 5 the cir
cuitry for controlling the tabular blade comprises a mark
detector circuit 61 which includes the pho-toconductive
cell 59. Circuit 61 generates signals in response to light
variations at the printing station including light variations
due to marks passing the printing station. The output of
the ‘mark detector circuit is ?ltered by a ?lter circuit 62
noid mounting bracket 47 and the lower end of the inter 10 and is ampli?ed in an ampli?er circuit 63 whose output
poser 49. When the solenoid '46 is energized, as will
is employed to actuate the ?ip-?op‘ circuit v64.
hereinafter appear, the interposer 49‘ will move between
Referring particularly to FIGURE 5 there is shown
the set screw 45 and the center stop 39 and limit the throw
the improved mark detector circuit in accordance with
of the tabular blade 34 to a distance such 1 ‘at it can only
the instant invention comprising an NPN ‘transistor 65
engage set stops, designated 33’ in FIGURE 1, in the tab 15 having its base electrode connected, via the photocon
rack. While a solenoid actuated interposer 49 is preferred
ductive cell 59 and la base current limiting resistor 66, to
in that it requires a
of changes to the conven
the junction 67 of resistors 68 and 69 serially connected
tional Royal construction, it should be understood that
between the collector and ground. This bias connection
the interposer 49 could be mechanically actuated as well.
places the transistor operating point approximately mid
The tab blade 34 is also connected by a link 52 to the latch
way between ‘collector current minimum and maximum
member 24 to thereby permit the rack 19 to re-engage
values. Increases in cell resistance due to decreases in
the escapement pinion 20. In the normal position of
‘ambient light, to decreases in light as a result of paper
the parts the tabular blade abuts center stop 39, and boss
variations, and to decreases in light due to passage of.
35 is axially spaced from bearing lug 38; spring 27 being
marks past the vision of the photocell, will cause a de
inelfective to move tab blade 34 axially to the right 25 crease in base current and a resulting decrease in the
through link 52 because of the abutment of extension 22
voltage drop across resistor ‘69 with the result that junc
with latch member 24.
tion ‘67 and the collector will swing in a positive direction
The ‘above arrangement of tabulating parts di?ers from
with respect to the emitter. The consequence of this
the Royal electric typewriter construction in that the tab
swing will cause more collector and base current to flow
blade 34 is solenoid actuated rather than being linked for
thereby to increase the voltage drop across resistor 69
actuation to and by rock shaft 13. It differs also in the
to its initial value.
addition of the interposer solenoid 46, and further, by the
As shown in the ?gure, the positive pulses resulting
addition of a form C tab latch switch ‘53 provided on the
from changes in the cell resistance at the collector are
typewriter frame and disposed so that its movable contact
coupled through a condenser 71 to the ?lter section 62.
53b (FIGURES 4 land 5) is actuated to its' other than 35 The value of condenser 71 is chosen such that pulses of
normal position by movement of lever arm '12 to actuated
frequencies below the ?lter rejection band are not passed.
position.
Such pulses will be those due to changes in ambient light
Energization of solenoid 44 whereby the tab blade 34
conditions which occur slowly. The ?lter section 62
is ‘actuated iorwardly is effected when a mark is detected
comprises twin T sections designed to reject pulses having
during tabulating movement, or immediately upon the
frequencies in the power frequency range. The positive
initiation of ‘a tabular operation, depending on whether
signals passed by the ?lter, which are constituted by high
ganged switches 54, 55 and 56 (FIGURES 4 and 5), oper
amplitude, relatively high frequency pulses and by low
able by a two position key 57 positioned on the front
amplitude, relatively high frequency pulses due to de
panel of the typewriter, are
an auto or manual posi
tected marks and paper variations, respectively, are passed
tion. As illustrated in FIGURES 4 and 5 the switches. 45 by a coupling condenser 72 to the ?rst stage of the
are in auto position. In this position the solenoid 44 is
ampli?er 63 comprising the base of an emitter follower
connected in circuit with ya flip-flop circuit via contacts 54a
transistor 73, employed for impedance matching purposes
and 54b. Solenoid 46 is connected in an open circuit,
as will be understand by those skilled in the art. The
contact-s ‘56a (and 56b being open, and a lamp 58' is ener
positive pulses at the emitter of transistor 73 are coupled
gized, contacts 55a and 55b connecting it across a power 50 via a condenser 74 to the base electrode of a PNP tran
source.
sistor 75. As shown the base of transistor 75 is connected
When key 57 is depressed to manual position both the
to the collector supply source through a rheostat 76 and
tab solenoid and the interposer solenoid are connected
?xed resistor 77. The rheostat is employed to adjust the
via switch contacts 54!) and 54c and contacts 56:: and
bias level of transistor beyond that necessary to achieve
56b to the stationary contact 53c of the tab latch switch 55 maximum collector current flow such that the transistor
‘53. Also lamp 58 will be extinguished. As will be under
collector current is at maximum value. In effect tran
stood, when the extent of tabulating movement is being
‘conventionally controlled by preset tab stops 33', those
preset tab stops will be manually set by ‘a set key in a
sistor 75 will therefore operate (to clip the base portions
of the signal pulses applied thereto, thereby eliminating
low amplitude pulses due primarily to paper variations;
conventional manner.
60 passing only the signal pulses due to detected marks.
When the extent of tabulating movement is determined
Adjustment of rheostat 76 also permits the reduction of
by marks on a form, signals resulting from sensed marks
signal voltage amplitudes developed by marks less than
will eifect the energization of solenoid 44. The mark
a predetermined width to ineffective levels. The output
sensor comprises a photoconductive cell 59 (FIGURE 5 ) .
of the clipper transistor stage 75 is RC coupled to the
As more particularly described in copending applica 65 base electrode of an inverter ampli?er 7 8 whereby a posi—
tion Serial No. 837,391 (now Patent 3,020,996), the lamp
tive output pulse will be developed at the collector thereof.
58 is positioned :on the typewriter frame to [direct a spot
In order that leakage currents due to temperature in
of light, preferably the size of the tabulating control marks
creases will be obviated, the emitter is connected to the
on the form, to the area immediately in front of the type
collector supply source via a resistor 79 and to ground
writer printing station. Due to the curvature of the platen 70 via a su?icient number of diodes 80; to provide the
the light is di?iusely re?ected from the form. The photo
proper impedance necessary to normally maintain the
conductive cell 59 is positioned from %" to
1A3"
emitter su?‘iciently negative to prevent leakage currents
of the platen within the volume of diffusely re?ected light.
but not su?icient to prevent conduction by signal applied
In it at the resistance of the cell increases with decreases
in light intensity within its ?eld of vision, the cell responds 75
to the base electrode.
The ampli?er output is coupled via a condenser 81
3,099,343
5
6
and a tabular blade control solenoid responsive to the
output of said circuit means for moving said tabular
blade.
2. Apparatus as recited in- claim 1 further comprising
an interposer for limiting the throw of said tabular blade
for engagement by set tabular stops, an interposer sole
noid for actuating said interposer, and means for dis
abling said signal responsive circuit means and for condi
tioning said interposer solenoid and said tabular blade
and 1a diode ‘82 poled to pass positive pulses to the base
of a PNP transistor 83 which together with a PNP tran
sistor 84 comprises ?ip-?op circuit 64. In that the base
of transistor :84 is normally connected to ground via the
contacts 53a and 53b of the tab switch the ?ip-flop circuit
can only be responsive to mark generated signals after
initiation of a tab operation.
Assuming that manual control is desired an array of
tab stops 33’ will be preset in accordance with a desired
tabular format and switches 54, 55 and 56 will be in 10 control solenoid for energization immediately upon
initiation of tabulating movement whereby said tabular
manual position; hence lamp 58 will be extinguished, and
blade will terminate carriage movement upon encoun
solenoids 44 and 46 will be connected to stationary tab
switch contact 53c. Further flip-?op circuit 64 will be
tering a set stop.
disabled through disconnection of power from the col
lector of transistor 84. When a tab operation is initiated, 15
with the resulting closure of contacts 53b and 530 of tab
switch 53, both the tab solenoid 44 and the interposer sole
noid 46 will be immediately energized; the latter faster
acting solenoid being operative through its armature to
limit the throw of the tabular blade into the path of set tab
stops 33' only, whereby tabular operation will be termi
nated upon encountering a set tab stop 33'.
If automatic operation is desired, all that is required
is to move switches 54, 55, and 56 to auto position.
This lights lamp 58, enables ?ip-?op circuit 64 and renders 25
solenoid 46 ine?ective thereby to permit the tabular
blade ‘34 to move sufficiently to engage unset stops 33 as
Well as set stops 33'. When a tab operation is initiated
pulse resulting from a mark detected at the printing sta~
tion, to switch state and energize the tab solenoid 44,
whereby the blade 34 engages the stop, set or unset, cor
responding to the mark sensed, effecting termination of 35
tabulating movement in the space immediately after the
mark detected.
In the event that the carriage, at the termination of a
carriage return, positions the form to the right of the
printing station, the dark material of the platen will be
before the printing station. Calling for a tab when the
carriage is so positioned will cause the cell to develop a
negative pulse when the left edge of the form passes the
printing station. A diode 85 is provided to pass this
negative pulse to ground. ‘If this safety feature were 45
not provided, the condensers of the system could not
return to normal in time to respond to the detection of
a mark closely adjacent the left edge of the form. With
the diode the system can sense White to black variations
only one increment removed from a black to white
It should be understood that the foregoing disclosii'e
relates to only a preferred embodiment of the invention
and that it is intended to cover all changes and modi?ca
tions of the example herein chosen for the purposes of 55
the disclosure which do not constitute departures from
the spirit and scope of the invention.
The invention claimed is:
1. A printing machine comprising a frame and a
carriage movable relative to said frame for supporting a 60
worksheet for movement past the printing station of said
machine, said carriage having tabular stops mounted
thereon and adapted to be moved from unset to set
means for initiating tabulating movement of said car
riage, said worksheet having marks selectively
printed thereon for controlling the progress of said 70
marks past said printing station,
stops in set position.
4. Apparatus for generating signals in response to the
passage of marks past the printing station of a business
collector circuit,
a photoconductive cell responsive to light variations
at said printing station connected to the base of
said transistor and to the junction of said series re
sistors whereby the collector current ?owing is main
tained stabilized between maximum and minimum
values,
means coupled to the collector of said transistor for
?ltering out low frequency variations in collector
cur-rent,
means coupled to said ?lter means for discriminating
against high frequency lo-w ‘amplitude variations in
col-lector current,
and means coupled to said last named means for am
plifying high frequency high amplitude variations
in collector current.
5 . A typewriter having a frame,
a carriage movably mounted on said ‘frame and adapted
to support a form for movement past the printing
station of said typewriter,
tabulating stops mounted on said carriage,
signal responsive means for moving said tabular blade
into the path of set and unset tabulating stops, said
form ‘having marks thereon opposite selected tabu
lating stops,
means for initiating tabular movement of said car
riage,
means for photoelectrically detecting said marks at the
‘instant of passage past said printing station compris
ing a transistor having serially connected resistors
in the collector circuit thereof,
‘a photoconductive cell mounted on said frame Within
a volume of light re?ected from said form opposite
said printing station,
65
into engagement with set and unset tabular stops,
means for generating signals in response to passage of
into the path of said stops,
means for moving said tabular blade into the path of
stops in unset positions,
and means vfor limiting the movement of said tabular
blade whereby it can move only into the path of
a tabular blade,
variation.
carriage tabulating movement,
a tabular blade mounted on said frame for movement
a transistor having serially connected resistors in its
by removing ground from the base thereof, thereby per 30
mitting the ?ip-?op circuit, in response to a positive
a tabular blade mounted on said frame for movement
relative to the printing station of said typewriter,
tabular stops mounted on said carriage positionable in
set and unset positions,
machine comprising
the actuation of tab switch 53 conditions transistor 34
positions,
3. In a typewriter comprising a frame,
a carriage for supporting a worksheet for movement
means connecting said cell between the base of said
transistor and the junction of said resistors,
and control means responsive to collector current varia
tions resulting ‘from light variations due to the pas
sage of marks through the ?eld of vision of said
photoconductive cell for actuating said signal re
sponsive means, whereby said tabular blade will en
gage -a tabulating stop and halt tabnlating move
ment.
6. Apparatus as recited in claim 5 ‘further comprising
circuit means responsive to the initiation (of tabulating
75 means for disabling said control means, means for ac
movement and to said signals,
3,099,343
8
tuating said tabular =blade upon initiation of tabular move
ment of said carriage, and means ‘for limiting the throw
against collector current variations corresponding to
ambient light variations, and means for discriminat
of said tabular blade into the path of set tabulatingstops
ing against collectorcurrent variations correspond
only.
ing to light variations due to passage through said
?eld of vision of marks of less than a predetermined
‘
7. Apparatus for deriving signals corresponding to
marks in a business form comprising
a photoconductive cell responsive to light variations
Within its ?eld of vision,
a business machine instrumentality for moving said
form relative to said cell whereby said marks pass 10
through the ?eld of vision of said cell,
a transistor having resistance in its collector circuit
selected to set the transistor operating point between
maximum and minimnm'values of collector current.
means connecting said cell between the base and col 15
lector of said transistor,
and means connected to the collector of said transistor
responsive to collector current variations due to the
passage of marks through the ?eld of vision of said
cell.
20
8. Apparatus for deriving signals corresponding to
marks on a business record comprising
a photoconductive cell responsive to light variations
within its ?eld of vision,
a data processing instrumentality for moving said record 25
relative to said cell whereby said marks pass through
the ?eld of vision of said cell,
a transistor having resistance resistors in its collector
circuit selected to set the transistor operating point
between maximum and minimum values of collector 30v
current,
means connecting said cell between the base and col
lector of said transistor
and means connected to the collector ‘of said transistor
responsive to collector current variations due to light 35
variations in the ?eld of vision of said cell, said last
named means comprising means for discriminating
Width.
9. Apparatus for deriving signals corresponding to
marks on a business record comprising
a photoconductive cell responsive to light variations
within its ?eld of vision,
means for moving said business record relative to said
cell whereby said marks pass through the ?eld of
‘
vision of said cell,
a transistor having series connected resistors in its
collector circuit,
means connecting said cell between the base of said
transistor and the junction of said resistors whereby
light variations within the ?eld of vision of said cell
cause transient variations in collector current,
means for ?ltering low frequency transient variations in
collector current corresponding to ambient light
variations,
means for amplifying high frequency transient Varia
tions in collector current corresponding to the pas
sage of marks through the ?eld of vision of said
cell,
'
and adjustable means for passing only high frequency
transient ‘variations in collector current of prede
termined amplitude to said amplifying means.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,333,690
2,181,992
2,332,033
Waldheim ____________ __ Mar. 16, 1920
Gher-tman _____________ __ Dec. 5, 1939
Welker ______________ __ Oct. 19, 1943
2,902,137
Toeppen _____________ __ Sept. 1, 1959
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