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Патент USA US3099550

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July 30, 1963
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed Dec. 29, 1958
ffgz v
July 30, 1963
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Deo. 29, 1958
Pau/ Els/er
Patented July 30, 1963
It will be clear that the development of heat must not
be greater per unit area of the terminal zones than else
Paul Eisler, 5'7 Exeter Road, London NW. 2, England
Filed Dec. 29, 1953, Ser. No. '783,609
Claims priority, application Great Britain Jan. 7, 1958
`sectional area of each terminal zone not less than the
9 Claims. (Cl. 34-1)
The present invention relates to drying of Wet structures,
including parts of the human body as well as durable
consumer goods, and comprises the evaporation of ab
sorbed vapours or liquids and the setting or curing of
paint -and synthetic resin compositions.
In particular
it relates to drying by the aid of heat, of relatively thin
layers in which it is of importance that the tempera-ture
where and this is preferably achieved by making the cross
aggregate cross-sectional area of the pattern correspond
ing to the Itotal resistance. In general there will usually
be a number of paths in parallel between the two terminal
Zones and the cross-sectional area of each terminal zone
will then be not less than the total cross-sectional areas
of the several parallel paths. An alternative way of keep
ing down the development of heat at the terminal zones
would be to ‘add metal of higher conductivity to them as
by clamping or plating.
Since the area occupied by the lilm substantially corre
should not exceed a safe limit at any point. An object
sponds to the area of the surface to be treated and since
of the invention is to accomplish such heating electrically
the major part of the area is occupied by the conductive
pattern substantially uniformly distributed over it, maxi
at a high rate, in an economic and convenient manner.
Other .objects will become apparent as the description
mum use of the area -available is made while anything
in the nature of hot spots is avoided so that a maximum
The invention provides a method of drying a durable 20 rate of heat dissipation for the particular vconditions can
structure :at rest which includes a layer having absorbed
be achieved. Where local conditions made it desirable
therein a fluid and requiring to be heated to dry the layer,
or necessary the pattern or the scheme of connections can
which comprises hxing a heating film to said structure
be varied in different parts to achieve a number of zones
in heat conductive connection with said layer over an
each uniform -but providing for different rates of heat dis
area corresponding to substantially the whole area of said 25 sipation. In some cases for instance the intensity of
layer, a major part of the area of the film being occupied
heating may need to be less in the centre as compared
by an electrically conductive surface pattern substantially
with the margins but uniformity is maintained within
uniformly distributed over it, and passing through the
these zones.
surface pattern an electric current of sufficient intensity
It is to be understood that the heating lilm is only con
to raise its temperature but only to a value below that 30 nected to the supply temporarily that is to say when
at which the combination of the pattern and the structure
the actu-al heating is performed. Purely resistive heating
.would be damaged during the time of application of the
by connecting the pattern directly Áto the supply is en
It is to be understood that the term “durable structure
The invention is not concerned with methods
or apparatus in which the energy is transferred to the
at rest” means that the structure does not consist of 35 pattern inductively or capacitively.
consumable goods or loose bulk material such as grain
The invention will be further described with reference
or chemicals and tha-t movement as such has no part in
to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings in which:
the drying process. The drying of such goods and mate
FIGURE l is a plan view of one form of heating ñlm
rials is a different problem from that with which the
used in the invention with some parts broken away,
present invention is concerned.
FIGURE 2 is a plan view of an alternative form,
The invention also provides a combination comprising
FIGURE 3 is a section which applies equally to FIG~
a durable structure which includes at least a layer having
URE l or 2,
absorbed therein a fluid and requiring to be heated to
FIGURE 4 illustrates the application of «the invention
dry the layer, and a heating ñlrn fixed to said structure
lto the drying of paint,
so that the ñlm and structure ‘are relatively at rest, said
FIGURE 5 illustrates the application of the invention
film .having a heat conductive connection wi-th said layer
to the curing of plastics,
over an area corresponding to substantially the whole area
FIGURES 6 and 7 illustrate developments of the con
of said layer, a .major part of the area of the íilm being
ductive pattern of the ñlms of FIGURES 1 and 2 respec
occupied ‘by an electrically conductive surface pattern 50 tively,
FIGURE 8 is a detail section illustrating a further
having at least two terminal zones and being substantially
uniformly distributed over the area with substantially
constant resistance per unit area and aggregating in a
FIGURE 9 illustrates the application of the invention
to an absorber type refrigerator,
FIGURE l0 illustrates the application of the invention
small total resistance of the whole pattern between ter-mi
nal zones so that the voltage drop produced by a relatively
heavy current across the said terminal zones is of such
to a hair curler,
FIGURE ll illustrates the application of the invention
value that the watt loss in the heating film including the
terminal zones is at no point capable of raising its tem
to a towel,
lFIGURE l2 illustrates the application of the invention
perature to »a value at which the combination of the tilm
and the structure would be damaged during the time 60 t-o the ironing of garments.
In the for-m shown in FIGURE 1 the conductive pattern
of connection to the supply.
is a .thin flexible metallic foil Il having a series of slots
It will be clear that the heating ñlm being a very thin
I2 which leave a plurality of parallel meandering paths
material, is of small mass and therefore of very low
extending yfrom terminals zones I3 constituted by the areas
heat inertia. It Will also be clear that such a thin material
is very liexible.
65 along the sides of the pattern. I-f the width of the arms
By the expression “relatively heavy current” is meant
of the pattern is kept constant each meandering path
a current in the range of amperes, as distinct from milli
will present the same overall resistance and the same re
amperes or kilo-amperes, and by the expression “small
sistance per unit length and if a Voltage is maintained
from one terminal Zone I3 to the other between the ter
total resistance” is meant a resistance in the range of
ohms as distinct from milli-ohms or kilo-ohms. Desirably 70 minal Zones the same current will flow in each path
whatever the length of the ñlm. There will thus be a
the voltage drop is of such low value that it is not dan
gerous to human contact, that is usually below 50 volts. Y substantially constant dissipation of heat per unit area
over the whole film. The film shown in FIGURE 1 can
moreover be cut into narrower pieces since any portion
pattern and the workpiece as at 24, but this may be part
of the heating film. No insulating layer is shown on the
between adjacent lines of slots can serve as the terminal
other side of the film 2,1 but it can be provided if desired.
The paint is now dried by supplying current to the heat
ing film instead of by the present methods of stoving the
panels or 4applying heat to them by other means. Since
metal is a good conductor, the heat from the film 21
reaches the paint 23 without a steepy temperature gradi
ent, or in other words the paint 23 is brought to a tem
perature but little below that reached by the film 2l and
due to the lay îout of the conductor in the film 2l the
heating is substantially uniform `over the whole surface.
This not only gives an improvement in drying or curing
zone. It will be clear that however many meander paths
are left between terminal zones the cross sectional area
of the terminal zones is greater than that of the arms of
the meander pattern.
In FIGURE 2 the pattern is similar to that in FIGURE
l but the slots I4;- extend across the foil 15 and the ter
minal zones lr6 are at the ends.
Such a film can be cut
into pieces by `transverse, cuts as any portion between suc
cessive lines of slots can serve as terminal zones.
In some cases the film need not consist of anything
more than the metal pattern, but if necessary or desired
conventional paints but `it often permits the substitution
there may be an insulating film indicated at 17 on one 15 of stoving enamels for air drying paints. Another major
side of the lfoil l1; or l5 and there may be another in
field of application is the incorporation of the film in
dicated at 18 on the `other side. Such insulating film
plastic structures and lfabrics such as low pressure lami
may be of plastic or paper for example.
In general the structure in connection With which the
film `is used will ‘be a multi-layer structure of which one
llayer is the layer containing the absorbed fluid to be
heated, and the structure at the time the current is switched
on will be at room temperature. Where the heating op
eration causes vapours to be driven off and these vapours
nates, articles made with potting resins, plastic castings
and larger scale mouldings requiring heat for quick set
ting. FIGURE 5 shows by way of example an embodi
ment with the heating film 25 (which here can be a bare
foil pattern) between two layers 26V of fibre-glass and un
cured resin i.e. within the thickness of a plastic structure.
The slow drying and curing process of these plastic
have to escape on the same side as that to which the 25 fabrics is at present hindering the use tof these in many
heating film is applied the heating film will have small
passages through and it will be rnade porous or perforated
as indicated at 19 FIGURES l rand 2 to allow for the
industries requiring speedy output from the moulds,
presses or jigs for their formation. 'Ihus the production
of glass-fibre structures by the socalled wet-lay process is
passage of vapour without harm to it or the structure on
restricted for mass production applications by the practi
which the ñlm is used. Such small passages may be -use 30 cal difficulty of and equipment required for accelerating
ful in other cases. In rnany cases the heating film itself
the heat drying and curing ìof the structure. The incor
will be of cheap construction so that it can be thrown
poration of the heating film in such structures enables
away after once using but the invention also includes
them to be dried and cured quickly and the moulds to be
cases in which the film is retained for repeated use whether
liberated more frequently with consequent saving in licor
in connection with the same layer or by transfer from one 35 space and equipment. Heating films incorporated in plas
layer to another. Often the heating film is provided with
tics preferably have small passages (i.e. small holes or
an adhesive coating for example a self-adhesive pressure
pores) through which the fiuid resin can flow.
sensitive material to permit easy fixing to the structure.
It should be mentioned that the term plastic is used
It is desira-ble to ensure that the film is to be used
herein to indicate not only Ámaterials which when cured
repeatedly but on different layers it can ‘be transferred 40 are substantially rigid but also materials which are elas
from one to another without suffering damage «because
tomeric, such as natural and synthetic rubber, and poly
if the pattern is damaged and is still conductive, the dis
vinyl chloride.
tribution of resistance will be affected and there will be
Where a paint ilayer, a plastic or fabric is part of an
a risk of hot spots. If on the other hand it is made of
article which subsequently needs to he heated during use
cheap construction so that it can be thrown away it should 45 or where heating provision for repairs is desired, the film
desirably be rnade so flimsy that it is practically irn
used for the initial operation 'of drying, curing, etc. may
possible to avoid destroying it in removing it after use.
remain in situ and serve subsequently as a heater in the
In all cases where the pattern can be contacted by
use or repair of t le article. In that case the conductive
a human operator it is so designed that the necessary
pattern will be laid out so that it can conveniently serve
heating effect can be obtained by a supply of electric cur 50 both purposes. Thus it may be operated at different volt
rent at a low voltage that is to say at a voltage which does
ages in its original and subsequent uses or it may be ar
not constitute a risk :to the operator if he comes into acci
ranged so that it can be reconnected to> give a different
dental contact with the pattern. Such voltages are usual
heat [output when supp-lied with current at the same
ly below 50 and often well below 50 say l2 volts, 6 volts
or even lower. Such voltages als-o make it permissible in 55
Examples of articles in which the same heating film
many cases e.g. where »the layer to be dried is not con
may be used in the original production of the article and
ductive, to allow the layer to touch the bare pattern.
'Ihese voltages have the advantage of simplifying the con
struction of the film and its use, since the insulating prob
lems presented by high voltages do not arise. It also 60
makes it possible .to use the heating films for such purposes
in its subsequent service- are radiating panels, ironing
boards, door mats, vessels such as tanks, beakers, baths
and sinks, and pipes, pots, pans, dishes and draining
as hair driers and curlers, and for other domestic pur
nection with refrigerators of the absorption type.
As above explained, the heating film used in the inven
tion is iessentially a thin flexible pattern, preferably of
poses such as the drying of foot-wear, clothing, towels
and the like or other textile fabrics.
Other `fields of use are in connection with the drying,
Yet another field of use of the heating film is in con
the drying and curing, or the drying, curing and heating 65 metallic foil, and can be made by several of the now
well known printed circuit techniques. Improved and
of paint and `similar materials, and of plastic structures
preferable methods for making these films have been de
and fabrics.
Thus one major field of `application of the heating film
scribed in my applications Serial Nos. 747,315 and 747,
is its incorporation in structures which are painted. The
70 314, tiled July 8, 1958, and particularly Serial No. 783,
incorporation may be temporary or permanent. ‘It is pro
633, filed November 10, 1958. The last application de
posed lfor instance to stick a heating film 21 FIGURE 4
scribes a heating pattern which is especially suitable for
on the underside of sheet metal work indicated at 22 be
many applications of the present invention when made
fore it is painted as at 23. Since the workpiece is metal
with aluminium foil coated on both sides. The use of a
lic there must be an insulating layer between the actual 75 very low voltage permits the use of stronger foils, and
over-all, additional plastic film support is sometimes not
necessary at all.
As also above explained, the pattern will generally be
temperature involved may be used between the heating
íilm and the graphite or metal filled layer. Such Ían in
sulating íilm will be necessary for instance where the heat
a meander pattern as shown in FIGURES l and 2 in
ing film itself is a bare metallic pattern.
elementary form and as described in these prior appli
cations. Preferably the pattern is such that numerous
The «layer 34 may be regarded »as such a layer or as part
of the heating film. The layer 31 may be used without
meander patterns are provided in parallel each pattern
the layer 33 or the layer 33 without «the layer 31 with less
effect .than when both are used. By providing the heat
covering only a small area of the same convenient module
conductive layer 31 a heavier loading in watts per unit
Le. unit size. Then a standard film can be produced in
rolls of great width and length and can be cut to required 10 area can `be used without the development of excessive
temperatures or hot spots.
size and shapes when the quantity of articles to which it
In the case of an absorption refrigerator, since the
is to be applied is not great enough to warrant the pro
method of Ithe invention enables the heat to be applied
duction of a pattern specially for the job. r[lh-is enables
»over a very large area, the times of the alternate phases
the invention to be applied readily to repair and main
of «absorption of the vapour and of regeneration of the
tenance work and enables such materials as stoving
solid can be substantially shortened. In this particular
enamels to be used ‘for this type of work where their use
application the film will be porous or perforated and is
might be otherwise very inconvenient or quite imprac
preferably made into fiat bags which enclose a very thin
ticable because the painted surface is in a location or on
layer of the absorbent solids and therefore presenting a
an article which it would be inconvenient or impossible
to transfer to an oven for stoving. rIlle lilm may be pro 20 maximum surface of the solids both to the vapour com
ing from the evaporator and to the heat carried at a high
vided -with a self-adhesive coating enabling it to be readily
rate to the solid from the large surface area of the iilxn.
applied and stripped after use and can easily be made
A suitable arrangement is shown in FIGURE 9. Be
cheap enough to be dispensible. However with a suitable
tween a pipe line V35 leading from the evaporator and a
adhesive it can be stripped without damage and can be
re-used, if necessary after a fresh adhesive has been ap 25 pipe line y36 leading to the condenser, the pipe is formed
into two branches 37, 38, interlinked change-over valves
plied to the film lor workpiece.
being provided at 39, 41 so that at any instant one branch
Even Where stoving would rbe possible the present in
is connected to the evaporator and the other to the con
vention enables ovens or hot presses to be dispensed with
denser. In the position shown the branch 37 is connected
and while the iilm may be dispensible, in other cases it
may Ábe left permanently in position on the underside of 30 Ito the evaporator and the branch 38 to the condenser.
In each -branch is carried a heating ñlm bag 42, 43 con
articles having a thin enough wall to make the heat trans
fining the absorbent powder in a thin layer. The film Iis
fer effective, or even between the surf-ace of the article
porous but the pores must be of such size that they do
and the 'layer of paint. In this iield lthe invention may
not become choked by the powder. In the position shown
be `applied for example to shaped par-ts of automobile
body work, sheet metal :parts of domestic equipment 35 the rlilm 43 is being heated so driving off the absorbed
vapour tothe condenser while the iilm 42 is not supplied
such as Washing machines, and metalwork in buildings
with current and the solids are absorbing the vapours corn
such `as pipes, doors and windows and can be used for the
original paint drying, while thereafter damage to the
ing from the evaporator. The supply of electricity to the
two íilrns is controlled by switches interlinked with the
paint-work can be repaired even with a stoving enamel.
In all «these cases, if the film is made with a crimped 40 valves 39, 41. The two-branch arrangement and the cycle
of operations provides for a const-ant flow from the evap
foil pattern as in my said application Serial No. 783,633
orator to the condenser, but by using 4, 6 or 8 branches
the film can readily be applied to intrinsically curved
instead of only two and 'arranging for the periods to over
lap, the vapour flow can be made still smoother.
lf the pattern contains numerous repeats with sep
The branches are preferably very shallow metal bodies
arate terminal zones brought out or accessible at ade 45
with very large surfaces which may be
or water-cooled.
quate intervals heating can readily be confined to a par
Cooling lins are diagrammatically indicated at 44. It
ticular area in the case of local rep-airs or other cases
will be understood .that the ligure shows the narrow
where this is desirable. Thus in FIGURE 6 which shows
depth and the length of the branches and that they also
only the conductive pattern on the lines of FIGURE l1,
slots 27 subdivide the marginal terminal zone into sep 50 extend to a considerable width in the plane perpendicular
to ithe drawing. rThe bags constituted by the film 4Z, 43
arate zones lfor each double meander path While in
are of liat form 'fixed in the central plane of the branches
FIGURE 3 which shows only the conductive pattern on
Iand extend practically over the Whole length and width
`the lines of FIGURE 2, slots 28 sub-divide the transverse
of the branches. The heating film `temperature need not
terminal zone into separate zones for each double mean
der path. It usually suffices however to provide such 55 rise mu‘ch above the [temperature required for regeneration
and the small rnass of the iilm enables it to cool and heat
slots at less frequent interval-s.
As applied to plastic structures and fabrics the film can
be applied to the surface or within the thickness lof the
rapidly so that changes from one phase to another both
yon the iilm and in the powder can take place very quickly.
This property together with the large surface area of the
material and in the llatter form it is preferably perforated.
It is particulally applicable to laminated products made 60 lilm enables absorption refrigerators of larger capacity
«to be built than at present possible.
from fibre-glass by the so-ca-lled wet-lay process.
The present invention can also be applied to the drying
`In all the above cases the heat is conveyed to the layer
of human hair, and wearing apparel ofv any kind from
to be heated by 'conduction and where consideration of
«strength appearance or the like do not make it objec
hat to shoe. Indirectly it is also applicable to the hair
heat transmitting layer 3l next to the iilm 29 which
contains heat conductive particles 32 «su-ch as graphite or
curlers, inserts or covers for all sorts of clothing includ
tionable »it is advantageous as in FIGURE 8 to use a 65 and skin by -use with combs, hair and other brushes,
towels, bandages and plasters.
Such devices as hair
ving tie-stretchers, shoe-trees and shoe-cases, may be pro
aluminium or other metal powder to ensure better heat
vided with the heating iilm. At present such devices are
conduction in the desired direction while a heat insulat
ing layer 33 such as glass or asbestos libre is -applied on 70 mainly -used as purely mechanical aids to tix, stretch or
hold the hair or clothing in position or bring it into a
the other side of the heating iilm to reduce loss of heat in
desired shape while it is air drying. Towels are only
preheated in hot boxes, on towel rails or the like.
For these purposes a porous or perforated heating film
thin electrical insulating layer 34 which will resist the 75 with ample openings is used which is connected to a
this direction. Such heat insulating layers may be bound
with a resin which will resist a higher temperature than
that to which the film rises in operation. If necessary a
source of very low voltage (battery or secondary of a
transformer) to be incorporated 1n or attached to the
above devices either permanently or `as a `dispensaible
itern (to save cleaning or the expense of making them
robust). A pair of insulated wires '(round or flat) con
nects the film with the supply Íwhich is preferably of the
order of 2 volts to 12 volts and may be adjustable. In
many cases it is belo-w 2 volts. One or both ends of
these «wires have plug-socket terminations.
The perforations in the film are preferably made after
the foil pattern is laminated between two insulating films
so that the holes are not clogged in the heating film
production process. In many cases the perforations are
not only lin the gaps between the metallic areas of the
film, but in the metallic areas as well, and often perforated 15
foil is used in producing the heating films.
can be exerted by stretching the fabric 53 over a curved
support 56, the film preventing creases in the garment
54 to be ironed by not transmitting the shear forces of
the stretched fabric. For such purposes it has a slippery
surface provided by a backing of a strong perforated
metal foil or thin plastic sheet.
-In some cases as well as for drying the film may also
serve for heating clothing while it is being worn.
It will be clear from the various examples in the above
description that the fixing of the heating ñlm to the dur
able structure is effected in principle `in one of two dif
ferent :ways Either the film is applied e.g. stretched or
pressed on or incorporated in the structure, or the struc
ture is pressed on to the film by applying force to the
structure eg. stretching or pressing it.
I claim:
The film and the metallic pattern has to cover substan
l. Structure for drying comprising metal resistance foil,
tially the lwhole surface to -which it is applied or under
an insulating layer coextensive with said foil, said foil
which it is ñxed, and follow its outline. In hair curlers
=being connected across a voltage supply at opposite ends
as shown for example in FIGURE 10 a plastic material 20 through terminal zones, said insulating layer bein-g per
reinforcing and supporting the heating ñlrn is made thick
forated with a plurality of rows of bore holes, said foil
enough to form the ovoid body 45 round which the hair
having parallel rows of perforate slots with the slots of
is wound and fixed, the connecting cable being indicated
one row in staggered relation to the slots of the next
at »46, a plug connection at 47 and the supply here being
succeeding row to form meandering paths for current, and
exemplified by the secondary of a transformer 48. It 25 the bore holes of the perforate insulating layer covering
will be understood that both the film and the plastic
the entire area of the insulating layer so that moisture
reinforcing material have square or similarly shaped
from the surfaces to be dried being transmitted through
openings @giving them the same meshed lforrn and that
the holes and slots away from the drying surface.
the reinforced film itself is rolled up and shaped to form
2. Structure as set forth in claim 1, in which the value
the ovoid body `45. The same scheme is equally ap 30 of the resistance is such that the voltage drop is not dan
gerous to human contact.
plicable to other well known forms of hair curler, e.g.
cylindrical or flat. A hair dressing set may consist of
3. Structure as set forth in claim 1, in which the cross
say 21/2 dozen hair curlers, each to be plugged into a
sectional area of said terminal zones is not less than the
soclcet having 30 pairs of terminals and a timed common
aggregate cross-sectional area of a pattern corresponding
voltage regulation or individual thermal cut-outs, fol 35 to the total resistance.
lowed by a timed switch-off. The timing can be so pro
4. Structure as set forth in claim 1, in which the insulat
grammed that the hairdresser can undo the first curler
ing layer has particles of material of good heat conduc
just after he has put in the last. The timed switch-off
tivity «distributed through it.
would proceed however irrespective of the hairdresser
5. Structure as set forth in claim 1, in which a layer
keeping to schedule. Thermostats or heat sensing ele 40 of heat insulation is provided on the face of the foil away
ments in the curlers are alternative safety provisions.
from the drying surface.
The provision of a heating film in a comb can be made
`6. Structure as set forth in claim 1, in which the insulat
by placing the metallic pattern in the die in which the
ing layer has particles of material of good conductivity
comb is cast or moulded by injection or compression.
distributed through it, and in which a layer of heat in
In brushes the heating «ñlm is usually laid in the back 45 sulation is provided on the surface of the foil away from
of the brush.
the drying surface.
Towels and bathrobes `are preferably provided with
7. Structure as set forth in claim 1, in which the struc
an expanded, crimped and- anodized foil pattern 49,
ture is a porous material adapted for application to the
FIG. 1l, without overall film support, fixed to the towel
human tbody.
by clips, plastic tape or fabric. About half the size of 50
8. Structure as set forth in claim 1, in which a coating
the towel 5‘1 is usually sufîcient for the pattern so that
is provided of adhesive fixing said foil to said layer.
it is enclosed by the towel folded over it. ÁIf the foil
has been coated with a tough plastic ñl-m the pattern can
stand quite a number of rubs before it is discarded.
Heatable porous materials adapted for application to 55
the human body eg. bandages and adhesive plasters made
from porous or perforated plastic film are readily pro
vided with a crimped foil pattern by sticking a self
adhesive perforated heating film on their back, or the
heating film may be embedded within the porous material. 60
Perforated films carrying a metal pattern can be pro
duced as self-adhesive tapes or as shaped labels and
fixed to the surface of the covers and Walls of the various
drying devices for clothes and shoes. For incorporation
into such devices as well as for ironing purposes these 65
films are made without adhesive backing and fixed under
neath the surface of the device. For ironing the film 52,
FlG. 12, serves as a heatable blanket requiring only pres
sure by a permeable or absorbent :fabric y53», pad or net
to iron the ‘garment 54 sandwiched between two films 70
S2, ‘55 compressed under the one film 52. The pressure
9. Structure as set forth in claim 1, in which said struc
ture is of plastic and is incorporated within the thick
ness thereof.
References Cited in the tile of this patent
Sass ________________ __ Nov. 30, 1920
Whitcomb ____________ __ Apr. 12, ‘.1927
Corcoran _____________ __ July 24, 1934
Kinsella ______________ __ Ian. 27, 1953
Cohen _______________ __ May 15, 1956
Taylor _______________ __ July 31,
Lane ________________ __ Feb. 12,
Farries _______________ __ Apr. 2,
Heath _______________ __ Apr. 28,
Weitzel ______________ __ July 12,
Great Britain __________ __ Dec. 1, 1954
Great Britain ___________ __ Jan. 9, 1959
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