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Патент USA US3099770

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July 30, 1963
T. GUTBERLET
3,099,761
BRUSH HOLDER CONSTRUCTION FOR DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINES
Filed May 31. 1960
INVENTOR.
725000.?
BY
60 TBERLE'T
United States Patent Oil-ice
ll
3,099,761
Patented July 30, 1963
2
holder for dynamo electric machinery and wherein there
3,09%,’N1
BRUSH H'EBLDER CUNSTRUCTIGN FOR DYNAMU
ELEQTRHQ MAQHENES
Theodor Gntherlet, Giessen, Germany, assignor to Schunir
dz Eire G.m.h.H., Giessen, Germany, a corporation of
Germany
Filed May 31, 1960, Ser. No. 33,057
9 Claims. (Cl. 310—24l6)
is little or no danger of malfunction of the parts involved,
and especially no danger of the shunting of the brushes to
become disconnected. With the structure herein disclosed
the brushes are contacted mechanically and the shunt that
I provide protects the mechanism involved and so that
there is no danger of arcing at improper points.
It is still another object of this invention to provide a
brush contact and biasing mechanism that can be used or
This invention relates to a brush construction for dyna 10 employed in connection with existing brush holder des
mo electric machines and is particularly concerned with
igns, all without change in said existing brush holders.
an existing class of brush holders that can be improved
Further, it is an object of this invention to provide a
by eliminating the usual shunt connections that are ordi
very simple and inexpensive brush controlling mechanism
narily employed and by providing a structure that com
and ‘wherein the parts involved are easy to make and
mutates directly with the brush, all without change in 15 reliable in their operation to bias the ‘brush, to make elec
the basic design of the brush holder, it being a general
trical contact therewith, and to damp undesirable vibra
object of this invention to avoid the de?ciencies attend
tions that may otherwise occur.
ant to the use of shunt connections on brushes and that
The various objects and features of this invention will
often become loosened and ineffective.
be ‘fully understood from the following detailed descrip
Reference is made to applicant’s copending applica 20 tion of the preferred form and application thereof through
tion Serial No. 849,790 ?led October 30, 1959, now Pat
ent No. 3,049,037, entitled Brush Holders for Electrical
Machinery.
out which description reference is made to the accompany
ing drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a side elevation of the brush holder of the
The railroads, for instance, extensively use a brush
holder of the general type under consideration and where
in there is a thrust lever that transmits force through an
arcuate path to the brush, the difference between that
arcuate path and the rectilinear path of the brush in the
present invention, showing it related to the periphery of
holder being compensated for by displacement of a thrust
and the length of the brush engaged thereby.
member on the top plane of the brush. In twin brushes, 30
as herein disclosed, the thrust member rests in a recess
a commutator and with portion 1broken away to show in
sect-ion.
FIG. 2 is a plan view taken as indicated by line t2—2
on FIG. 1 and illustrates the normal width of the device
FIG. 3 is a sectional view of a portion of structure of
the present invention and taken as indicated by line
in the top of the brush in order that the thrust may
3-—3 on FIG. 1.
be applied to both pants of said brush. The difference
The brush construction of the present invention is
then between the- arcuate path of said thrust member
adapted for use, generally, in dynamoelectric machines,
and the rectilinear path followed by the brush is usually 35 such as, for example, electric motors and/ or generators,
compensated for by resiliently mounting a thrust ?nger
and in any like situation where commutation of electrical
in a thrust lever.
current is required. That is, the brush construction is
It is common practice in brush holders of this type to
adapted to be used in connection with commutators and
employ shunts, or “pig-tails,” from the brush per se to
sliprings to apply pressure to a brush along its longitudinal
a terminal on the brush holder, and although this proce 40 axis and to conduct electrical current to and/or from
dure and arrangement of parts has been used for many
the commutator and slip-rings. As shown in the drawings,
years there has always been the danger of these shunts
the invention involves, generally, a brush holder 1 that
coming loose. As a result, the ordinary brush holders of
slidably carries a brush 2, to guide it into engagement
this type are often damaged by arcing at improper points,
with a commutator 10, a thrust lever 4, a thrust ?nger
resulting in untimely shut-down and repairs of the equip 45 5 with a thrust member 6 engageable with the brush 2, a
ment involved.
Improvements are obtained ‘by the present invention by
use of a contact that engages and biases the brush and
which is connected to the ‘brush holder by a shunt cable.
vibration damping means 9 supporting the thrust member
6 on the thrust lever 4, a link 8 pivoted relative to the
holder 1 and pivotally carrying the thrust lever 4, bias
means 3 to urge the thrust lever and member into pres
The biasing mechanism, which is similar in some respects 50 sured engagement with the brush 2, and a shunt cable
to the mechanism disclosed in my above mentioned co
11 extending between the thrust ?nger 5 and the brush
pending application Serial No. 849,790, is characterized
holder 1.
by pivoted and articulated parts and it is imperative that
The brush holder 1 is a frame-like part adapted to
electric-a1 current does not pass through the pivoted con
guide and direct the brush 2 into engagement with the
nections that are provided. Therefore, the provision of 55 periphery of the commutator 10 and is of the usual con
the shunt cable becomes necessary together with insula
struction and mounted on insulators at 15. The per
tion of said mechanism from the ‘contact that engages the
riphery of the commutator 10 is arcuate with the holder
brush. As a result, the usual shunt that is necessary on
guiding the brush 2 so that it projects radially of the
ordinary brushes is eliminated and the brushes become
commutator, the holder 1 and brush 2 being of substan
simple blocks of carbon, or the like, and they can be more 60 tial length in order to allow for long wear of said brush.
readily removed and replaced with considerably less eiiort,
In accordance with the invention, one side of the holder
time and expense.
is open or slotted at 2i} in order to permit depressing of
It is an object of this invention to obviate the above
the brush 2 by the thrust ?nger 5 and there is a lug 21
mentioned disadvantages by incorporating ‘the shunt con
that is positioned laterally of the slotted side of the holder,
nection in the brush holder construction and eliminating it 65 at the top side thereof and substantially spaced from the
from the brush, thereby providing a very reliable structure
brush 2, to cooperatively carry and relate the link 8
and greatly simplifying the brush ‘construction. With the
and thrust lever 4.
relationship of parts and elements as herein disclosed
The brush 2, as shown throughout the drawings, is a
brushes can be removed and/ or replaced with facility and
twin brush of carbon, or the like, in that it involves a pair
expediency all to the end that the invention is extremely
of like brush sections 22 and 23. The drawings indicate
useful and practical.
the separate independent sections 22 and 23, as they are
Another object of this invention is to provide a brush
guided by the holder 1 and accessible through the slotted
answer
3
opening at 20.
In accordance with the invention, the
sections 22 and 23 are arranged face to face in lateral
engagement and there is a notch 22' and 23' at the upper
d
thrust ?nger 5 to the body of the holder 1 thereby avoid
ing transmission of current to the lever 4- and through
end of each section, respectively, said notches being
the pins 25 and 26. As shown, the cable ll is a braided
cable secured at its terminal ends to the ?nger 5 and
arcuate and cooperatively forming a semi-circular seat
holder 1, respectively.
or recess 7. Thus, the recess 7 is at the upper end of the
The parts and elements, as above described, are re
lated to each other and operate as follows: The twin
brush 2 and adapted to receive the thrust member 6.
The link 8 is pivotally carried by the holder 1, being
brush 2 guided in the brush holder 1 is pressed against
pivotally connected to the lug 21 by a pin 25 to project
the commutator ill by the tension spring
acting by
upwardly and substantially parallel with the brush 2. 10 way of the lever 4, thrust ?nger 5 and thrust member 6
The pivotal axis of the link 8 is removed laterally from
which engages in the recess 7 in the brush top. The dif
the portion of the holder that carries the brush and is
ference between the arcuate path described by the thrust
disposed parallel with the commutator axis and parallel
member 6 and the rectilinear path described by the brush
with the adjacent side of the brush 2. In practice, the
2 is compensated for between various positions by the
axis of the pin 25 is at or near a plane substantially co 15 link ‘3 disposed between the lever 4 and the holder 1.
incidental with and tangent to the periphery of the com
From the foregoing it will be apparent that the thrust
mutator.
lever is biased by a spring pressure that is translated
The thrust lever 4 is pivotally carried by the link 8 being
into thrust extending longitudinally of the brush. The
pivotally connected to the upper and outer swinging end
usual di?‘icul-ty of shunted brushes is overcome in the
portion of the link 8 by a pin 26 to project and swing 20 holder according to the invention by the provision of
toward the brush 2. The pivotal supporting axis of the
the shunt cable ll which directly connects the brush to
lever 4 is parallel with the above described pivotal axis
the holder through the cooperative relationship of the
of the link 8.
The thrust ?nger 5 is a continuation of and extends
inwardly from the outer swinging end portion of the
thrust lever 4 and is resiliently coupled thereto by the
vibration damping means 9. As shown, the lever 4 and
thrust ?nger 5 are coupled by an insulating structure
that comprises a head 27 that carries the damping means
9 which comprises a body of rubber, or the like, that is
resilient and electrically isolates and yieldingly mounts
the ?nger 5 on the outer end portion of the lever 4. More
particularly, the thrust ?nger 5 comprises a substantially
?exible part that projects from the damping means 9
and carries the thrust member 6 to engage the top end
of the brush 2. In accordance with the invention, the
thrust member 6 is carried at the terminal end of the
?nger 5 and is a cylindrically-shaped part with its lower
periphery suitably coated or plated with conductive ma
terial and engaged in and seated in the recess 7, the mem
ber 6 and recess 7 being formed on a common axis paral
lel with the axes of the above mentioned pins 25 and 26 .
The head 27 is an inverted U-shaped part made of
metal having, primarily, a transverse plate portion and in
the preferred form it is a part separate from the lever 4
and has spaced depending side cheeks for connection with
the lever 4. Further, in the preferred form of the inven
tion, the lever 4 involves spaced parallel elements in
which case each of said latter elements is engaged with
and connected to a cheek of the head 27. In the drawings
I have shown the lever elements joined to the cheeks of
the head by means of spaced pins 28 engaged there
through, said cheeks being spaced by sleeves 29 surround
ing the pins. In the case illustrated the pins 28 are
rivets that draw the parts into tight engagement, with the
head :27 rigid with lever 4. The body of rubber, or the
like, that forms the damping means 9 surrounds the plane
portion of the head 27 and the thrust ?nger 5 has a por
tion thereof wrapped around the said rubber, or vibration
damping body thereof, and clamped as clearly illus
trated by the forwardmost rivet fastener, as shown.
The bias means ‘3 is preferably a spring bias means
and involves a spring 3d‘ that is ltensioned and engaged
with the outer end of the thrust lever 4 in the form
illustrated, the spring 30 is a clock~type spring carried
on a selectively rotatable bolt 32 securing the spring
30 to the holder 1 and the spring 30 has a free and ac
.tive end that engages one of the pins 28 that couples
the lever 4- to the head 27. In practice, the pins 28 are
positioned just below the plate portion of the head 27.
In accordance with the invention, I provide the shunt
cable 11 that extends between the thrust ?nger 5 and
brush holder 1. The cable 11 is ?exible in order to pro
vide freedom of movement in the parts thus far described
thrust member 6 that commutates with the brush 2 at
the recess '7. This cooperative relationship is furthered
by the provision of conductive plating on the surface of
‘the said thrust member 6 and which is particularly
adapted to conduct current to or from the twin brush 2.
It will be apparent that any electrical load is therefore
carried through the thrust member 6, thrust ?nger 5 and
cable ll, and under no circumstances is there any danger
of conduction through the mechanical parts involved in
the biasing mechanism, mainly the pin connections 25 and
26. Further, it will be apparent that ‘the damping means
9 electrically isolates the thrust ?nger 5 from the thrust
lever 4, both electrically and mechanically. That is the
thrust ?nger 5 and thrust lever 4- are separated so that
current does not flow therebetween and so that mechanical
vibrations are not carried from one part to the other.
I-lavmg described only the typical preferred form and
application of my invention, I do not wish to be limited
or restricted to the speci?c details herein set forth, but
wish to reserve to myself any variations or modi?cations
that may appear to those skilled in the :art and fall with
in the scope of the following claims.
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. A brush construction to urge a brush into engage
ment with a commutator and the like, and including,
a holder to shiftably carry and to guide the brush, a link
pivoted on the holder laterally of the brush, a thrust
lever pivotally carried on the link and supporting an in
sulated thrust member mechanically and electrically con
tacting the brush, bias means acting on the thrust lever
and said member to move the brush as it wears, and the
brush current being conducted by an electrical shunt
extending from the thrust member.
2. A brush construction to urge a brush into engage
ment with a commutator and the like, and including,
a holder to shiftably carry and to guide the brush, a link
pivoted on the holder laterally of the brush, a thrust
lever pivotally carried on the link and supporting an in
sulated thrust member mechanically and electrically con
tacting the brush, bias means acting on the thrust lever
and said member to move the brush as it wears, and the
brush current being conducted by an electrical shunt ex
tending between the thrust member and the holder.
3. A brush construction to urge a brush into engage
ment with a commutator and the like, and including,
a holder to shiftably carry and to guide the brush, a link
pivoted on the holder laterally of the brush, a thrust lever
pivotally carried on the link and supporting an insulated
thrust member mechanically and electrically contacting
the brush, bias means acting on the thrust lever and said
member to move the brush as it wears, and the brush
current being conducted by a flexible electrical shunt ex
and the cable ll serves to transmit current from the 75 tending between the ‘thrust member and the holder.
3,099,761
5
4. A brush construction to urge a brush into‘ engage
ment with a commutator and the like, and including,
a holder to shiftably carry and to guide the brush, a link
pivoted on the holder laterally of the brush, a thrust lever
pivotally carried on the link and extending toward the
brush, a thrust member supported by the thrust lever and
mechanically and electrically contacting the brush as it
‘wears, there being electrical insulation between the thrust
lever and thrust member, bias means ‘acting on the thrust
lever to urge said thrust member into contacting en
gagement with the brush, and the brush current being
conducted by an electrical shunt extending from the thrust
member.
brush, a thrust member supported by the thrust lever
and mechanically and electrically contacting the brush as
it wears, there being a body of resilient insulating ma
terial between the thrust lever and thrust member, bias
means acting on the thrust lever to urge said thrust mem~
ber into said mechanical and electrical contacting engage
ment with the brush, and the brush current being con
ducted by an electrical shunt extending between the thrust
member and the holder.
8. A brush construction to urge a brush into engage
ment with a commutator and the like, and including, a
holder to shiftably carry and to guide the brush, a link
pivoted on the holder laterally of the brush, a pair of
thrust levers pivotally carried on the link and extending
5. A brush construction to urge a brush into engage
ment with a commutator and the like, and including, a 15 toward the brush, a thrust member supported between
the thrust levers and mechanically and electrically con
holder to shiftably carry and to guide the brush, a link
tacting the brush as it wears, there being electrical insula
pivoted on the holder laterally of the brush, a thrust lever
pivotally carried on the link and extending toward the
tion between the thrust levers and thrust member, bias
means acting on the thrust levers to urge said thrust mem
‘brush, a thrust member supported by the thrust lever and
mechanically and electrically contacting the brush as it 20 ber into said mechanical and electrical contacting engage
ment with the brush, and the brush current being con
wears, there being electrical insulation between the thrust
ducted by an electrical shunt extending from the thrust
lever and thrust member, bias means acting on the thrust
member.
lever to urge said thrust member into said mechanical
9. A brush construction to urge a brush into engage
and electrical contacting engagement with the brush, and
the brush current being conducted by an electrical shunt 25 ment with a commutator and the like, and including, a
extending between the thrust member and the holder.
holder to lshiftably carry and to guide the brush, a link
pivoted on the holder laterally of the brush, a pair of
6. A brush construction to urge a brush into engage
thrust levers pivotally carried on the link and extending
ment with a commutator and the like, and including, a
holder to shiftably carry and to guide the brush, a link
toward the brush, a thrust member supported between
pivoted on the holder laterally of the brush, a thrust lever 30 the thrust levers ‘and mechanically and electrically con
pivotally carried on the link and extending toward the
tacting the brush as it wears, there being electrical insula
brush, a thrust member supported by the thrust lever
tion between the thrust levers and thrust member, bias
:and mechanically ‘and electrically contacting the brush
means acting on the thrust levers to urge said thrust
as it wears, there being a body of resilient insulating ma
member into said mechanical and electrical contacting
engagement with the :brush, and the brush current being
conducted by an electrical shunt extending between
terial between the thrust lever and thrust member, bias
means acting on the thrust lever to urge said thrust mem
ber into said mechanical and electrical contacting engage
ment with the brush, and the brush current being con
ducted by an electrical shunt extending from the thrust
40
member.
7. A brush construction to urge a brush into engage
ment with a commutator and the like, and including, a
holder to shi?tably carry and guide the brush, a link
pivoted ‘on the holder laterally of the brush, a thrust lever
pivotally carried on the link and extending toward the 45
the thrust member and the holder.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
714,811
Litch?eld ____________ __ Dec. 2, 1902
15,471
Great Britain ______________ __ of 1912
FOREIGN PATENTS
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