close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US3099800

код для вставки
July 30, 1963-
_
T. G. MARSHALL, JR
'
‘
3,099,790’
VOLTAGE REGULATORS.
Filed March 31, 1958
£4
14
/a
\
[/2
.
V/A/
55%;”;w
l
A,
.
L
/Z\
-—
v
.Dc'V/é'i
Wm’ PM”
24
16
+
14'
»
1*"
a
-
Z
V/A/
j!
I 65
‘
- 18
‘5/1!
Viz/7 E510!)
‘F
Z” _ ‘
.
2*“
fix
+
16'
-
'
7*
—;'7- 2'
INVENTOR.
THmMAs E. MARSHALL, JR
BY
i/TOWWE)’
31,099,790
United States Patent 0 ” ICC
Patented July 30, 1963
2
1
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a modi?cation of
the improved voltage regulator.
3,099,790
Referring now to FIG. 1, there is shown an improved
VOLTAGE REGULATDRS
Thomas G. Marshall, Jn, Franklin Park, N.J., assignor to
voltage regulator 10 having a positive input terminal 12
lltadio Corporation of America, a corporation of Dela
ware
Filed Nlar‘. 31, 1958, Ser. No. 725,163
11 Claims. (Cl. 323-22)
This invention relates to voltage regulating means, and
more particularly to voltage regulators for regulating a 10
source of relatively low voltage and for providing a reg
ulated low voltage, high current, low impedance power
supply. The voltage regulator circuits of the present in
vention are particularly useful for regulating the volt-age
source available in an automobile so that it may be ap
of resistance, such as a ballast regulator or an ordinary
usually be receiving a charge while the vehicle is in opera
varies directly with the voltage across it, is such a non
linear impedance as may be considered a constant current
25 device within the scope of the instant invention, since the
current through the lamp will remain substantially con
stant over a relatively wide range of voltages impressed
‘
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to
across the lamp.
provide an improved voltage regulator adapted to regu
late a relatively low voltage and to provide a regulated
The operation of the voltage regulator 10‘, thus far de
scribed in FIG. 1, will now be explained. Let it be as
low voltage, high current, low impedance output.
sumed that the voltage Vin to be regulated has a tendency
Another object of the present invention is to provide
an improved voltage regulator suitable for regulating the
voltage supply in a vehicle su?iciently so that it may be
used to power a portable television receiver, and the like,
satisfactorily.
an emitter connected to the negative output terminal 18,
and a collector connected to the negative input terminal
lamp. It will be understood that, by the term constant
current device, as used herein and in the appended claims,
is meant an impedance through which the current varia
tions are relatively smaller than the voltage variations
across the device. A lamp, for example, whose resistance
tion. Changing the speed of the vehicle, for example,
usually results in changing the charging rate of the bat
tery. While the voltage regulators supplied with most
factorily.
‘
A transistor 20, shown here as a PNP transistor, has
non-linear resistance having a positive voltage coef?cient
The battery in a vehicle, such as an automobile, would
erate a portable transistorized television receiver satis
Vout-
14. A constant current device 22 is used to bias the tran
15 sistor 20. The constant cur-rent device may comprise a
plied to a portable transiston'zed television receiver, and
the like.
vehicles are adequate ‘for the purposes originally intended,
they do not provide a su?iciently regulated voltage to op
and a negative input terminal 14. A voltage Vin to be
regulated is applied across the input terminals 12 and '14.
The voltage regulator 10 has a positive output terminal
16 and a negative output terminal 18 for applying a load
19 therebetween, whereby to receive a regulated voltage
to increase. This increase in voltage will tend to increase
the current through the load 19. It is a well-known fact,
however, that the current ?owing through the emitter of a
35 transistor is equal to
A further object of the present invention is to provide
an improved voltage regulator employing a transistor
Ie=klb
where Ie is the current through the emitter, I], is the cur
rent through the base, and k is the emitter to base current
gain of the transistor.
whose emitter-collector path is connected in series with an
input terminal and an output terminal of the regulator, and
Since the current through the base is maintained con
40
whose bias is provided by a constant current device.
stant by the constant current device 22, the current
Still a further object of the present invention is to pro
through the load 19, between the output terminals 16
vide an improved voltage regulator employing a constant
and 18, will 'alsoremain constant. The voltage across
voltage device in addition to the constant current device,
the load 19 will, therefore, remain- substantially constant.
permitting the requirements upon both the current and
It will be understood, also, that a tendency for the unreg
45
the voltage regulating devices to be relaxed because of
ulated voltage Vin to decrease will ‘not ‘affect the substan
this combined regulating action.
tially constant emitter current, ‘and the voltage across the
In accordance with the present invention, the foregoing
load 19 will remain substantially constant.
and related advantages are attained in a novel volt-age
If it is ‘desired to ‘have a low output impedance volt
regulator comprising a transistor and a constant current
age regulator, making the output voltage Vout independent
device to bias the transistor. The voltage to be regulated 50 of any changes in the impedance of the load 19, an
is applied between a pair of input terminals of the voltage
impedance 24, such as a resistor, is connected between the
regulator circuit. The emitter-collector path of the tran
base
of the transistor 20 and the positive output terminal
sistor is connected between one of a pair of input terminals
16. Looking back from the output terminals 16 ‘and 18,
and one of a pair of output terminals. A constant cur—
an effective impedance appears equal to impedance 24
rent device, such as a ballast regulator or a lamp having 55
divided by the currentg-ain, k, of the transistor 20. This
a non-linear resistance, is connected between the base
effective impedance may be made low with respect to the
and the collector ‘of the transistor for biasing purposes.
impedance of the load 19 without causing an excessive
The remaining input and output terminals are connected
current ?ow compared ‘to the load current by virtue of
to each other. If low impedance output of the voltage
the
fact that the actual impedance 24 is k times the
regulator is desired, a resistor of relatively low resistance 60 impedance that is re?ected to the output terminals 16
or a constant voltage device is connected between the
base of the transistor and one of the output terminals.
The novel features of the present invention, as well
as the invention itself, both as to its organization and
and 18.
‘
Referring, now, to FIG. 2, there is shown a voltage
regulator 30, in accordance with the present invention,
65
wherein the constant current device comprises a lamp
32 connected between the base and the collector of the
transistor 20. An impedance \having a constant voltage
characteristic, such as a zener diode 34, has its anode
connected between the base ‘of the transistor 20 and its
methods of operation, will be understood in detail when
considered in connection with the accompanying drawing,
in which similar reference characters represent similar
pants, and in which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram, partly in block diagram 70 cathode connected to the positive output terminal 16.
The operation of the voltage regulator 30 of FIG. 2
form, of an improved voltage regulator, in accordance
will now be explained. If the constant current device 32
with the present invention; and
n,
3,099,790
:19
is an imperfect device, such as a GE40 or GE47 bulb, in
4
between which said unregulated voltage can be applied,
that some current variations will occur for variations in
a pair of output terminals ‘for deriving a regulated uni
the unregulated input voltage Vin, then a voltage variation
directional ‘voltage therebetween, means connecting the
will occur between the base of the transistor 20 and the
output terminal 16 if the diode 34 were omitted. This
voltage variation would also be across the load 19. This
emitter-collector path of said transistor between one of
said input terminals and one of said output terminals,
means connecting the other of said input terminals to
the other of said output terminals, a non-linear constant
voltage variation, although smaller than would be the
case if element 32 were a linear resistor, may be too high
current impedance device having two terminals only,
for certain applications. With the zener diode 34 con
means connecting said device only between said base
nected as shown in FIG. 2, the voltage across its termi 10 and said collector, and voltage dropping means connected
nals, and hence the output, will remain essentially con
stant.
between said base and said other of said input terminals.
‘It should be noted that the use of the constant
5. In a regulating circuit of the type wherein a source
of unidirectional voltage to be regulated is applied to 1a
constant current device, lamp 32, for a given amount of
pair of input terminals, and wherein a load is supplied
regulation. It should also be noted that the constant 15 with 1a regulated unidirectional output voltage between
current device 32 will reduce the variations in the current
a pair of output terminals, a transistor having an emitter,
in the constant voltage device, diode 34, thereby relaxing
a base, and a collector, means connecting the emitter-col
the requirements upon the latter device. Thus, the two
lector path of said transistor between one of said input
devices, lamp 32 and diode 34, cooperate to give better
terminals and one of said output terminals, means connect
regulation against changes in input voltage than would 20 ing the other of said input terminals and the other of
obtain with either device used by itself.
said output terminals to each other, a constant current
The constant voltage device, diode 34, has a very low
device having two terminals only, means connecting said
dynamic impedance and hence a low dynamic impedance
constant current device directly between said base and said
is re?ected across the output terminals making the output
collector, an impedance, and means connecting said im—
voltage independent of changes in the impedance of the 25 pedance between said base and said other of said output
load 19.
terminals.
While a PNP transistor has been described and illus
6. In a regulating circuit of the type wherein a source
trated in the circuits of the present invention, it will be
of unidirectional voltage to be regulated is applied to a
understood that an NPN transistor may be used if the
pair of input terminals, and wherein a load is supplied with
polarities of the terminals and the zener diode are 30 a regulated unidirectional output voltage between a pair
reversed.
of output terminals, a transistor having an emitter, a base,
What is claimed is:
and a collector, means connecting the emitter-collector
1. A regulating circuit for a source of unidirectional
path of said transistor between one of said input terminals
unregulated voltage comprising a transistor having an
and one of said output terminals, means connecting the
emitter, a base, and a collector, a pair of input terminals 35 other of said input terminals and the other of said output
between which said unregulated voltage can be applied,
terminals to each other, a constant current device having
a pair of output terminals for deriving a regulated uni
two terminals only, means connecting said constant cur
voltage device 34 has relaxed the requirements upon the
directional voltage therebetween, means connecting the
rent device only between said base and said collector, volt
emitter-collector path of said transistor between one of
age dropping means, and means connecting said voltage
said input terminals and one of said output terminals, 40 dropping means between said base and said other of said
means connecting. the other of said input terminals to
output terminals.
the other of said output terminals, a constant current
7. In a regulating circuit of the type wherein a source
device having two terminals only, and means connecting
of unidirectional voltage to be regulated is applied to a
said constant current device directly between said base
pair of input terminals, and wherein a load is supplied
and said collector.
45 with a regulated unidirectional output voltage between
2. A regulating circuit for a source of unidirectional
a pair of output terminals, a transistor having an emitter,
unregulated voltage comprising a transistor having an
a base, and a collector, means connecting the emitter-col
emitter, a base, and a collector, a pair of input terminals
lector path of said transistor directly between one of said
between which said ‘unregulated voltage can be applied,
input terminals and one of said output terminals, means
a pair of output terminals ‘for deriving a regulated uni 50 connecting the other of said input terminals and the
directional voltage therebetween, means connecting the
other of said output terminals directly to each other, a
emitter-collector path of said transistor between one of
constant current device having two terminals only, means
said input terminals and one of said output terminals,
connecting said constant current device directly between
means connecting the other of said input terminals to the
said base and said collector, a resistor, and means con
other of said output tenrninals, a constant current device 55 necting said resistor between said base and said other of
having two terminals only, means connecting said con
said output terminals, said resistor having an elfective im
stant current device only between said base and said col
pedance that is relatively smaller than said load.
lector, an impedance, and means connecting said imped
8. A voltage regulating circuit having a pair of input
ance between said base and said other of said output
terminals between which a source of voltage to be regu
terminals.
60 lated can be applied, a pair of output terminals for re
3. A regulating circuit for a source of unidirectional
ceiving a load therebetween to apply a regulated voltage
unregulated voltage comprising a transistor having an
thereto, a transistor having an emitter, a base, and a col~
emitter, a base, and a collector, a pair of input terminals
lector, a non-linear impedance having a positive voltage
between which said unregulated voltage can be applied,
ooe?icient of resistance, means connecting said impedance
a pair of output terminals for deriving a regulated uni~ 65 only between said base and said collector, a constant volt
directional voltage therebetween, means connecting the
age device, means connecting said constant voltage device
emitter-collector path of said transistor between one of
between said base and one of said output terminals, means
said input terminals and one of said output terminals,
connecting one of said input terminals with said one of
means connecting the other of said input terminals to
said output terminals, and means connecting the emitter
the other of said output terminals, a non-linear constant 70 collector path of said transistor between the other of said
current impedance device, and means connecting said
input terminals and the other of said output terminals.
device only between said base and said collector.
9. A voltage regulating circuit having a pair of input
4. ‘A regulating circuit for a source of unidirectional
terminals between which a source of voltage to be regu—
unregulated voltage comprising a transistor having an
lated can be applied, a pair of output terminals for re
emitter, a base, and a collector, 'a pair of input terminals 75 ceiving a load therebetween to apply a regulated voltage
3,099,790
6
5
thereto, a transistor having an emitter, a base, and a col
lector, a lamp, means connecting said lampv between said
base and said collector, a constant voltage device, means
connecting said constant voltage device between said base
and one ‘of said output terminals, means connecting one of
said input terminals with said one of vsaid output terminals,
and means connecting the emitter-collector path of said
transistor between the other of said input terminals and
the other of said output terminals.
10. A voltage regulating circuit having positive and
negative input terminals ‘between which a source of volt
age to be regulated can be applied, positive and negative
output terminals for receiving a load therebetween to
apply a regulated voltage thereto, a transistor having an
emitter, a base, and a collector, a lamp, means connecting
said lamp between said base and said collector, a diode,
means connecting said diode between said base and said
positive output terminal, means connecting said positive
input terminal with said positive output terminal, and
means connecting the emitter-collector path of said tran
sistor between said negative input terminal and said nega
age to be regulated can be applied, positive and negative
output terminals for receiving a load therebetween to
apply a regulated voltage thereto, a transistor having an
emitter, a base, and a collector, a lamp, means connecting
‘said lamp between said base and said collector, a diode
having an anode and a cathode, means connecting said
anode to said base and said cathode to said positive out
put terminal, means connecting said positive input ter
minal with said positive output terminal, and means con
meeting the emitter-collector path of said transistor be
tween said negative input terminal and said negative
output terminals.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,576,100
Barney _______________ __ Aug. 4, 1953
2,698,416
Sherr _______________ __ Dec. 28, 1954
2,897,430
Te Winkel ___________ __ July 28, 1959
2,920,265
Siedband _____________ __ Jan. 5, 1960
1,129,336
France _______________ __ Sept. 3, 1956
tive output terminal.
11. A voltage regulating circuit having positive and
negative input terminals between which a source of volt
Brown _______________ __ Nov. 27, 1951
2,647,958
FOREIGN PATENTS
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
484 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа