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Патент USA US3099859

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Aug. 6, 1963
3,099,849
R. M. BELL ETAL
POLISHING AND BUFFING APPARATUS
Filed April 16, 1962
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
‘VIIIIm-(V/IIIA
33
32
INVENTORS
BY
H442 JEPSON
RAMS/IV M BELL
//’
A?’
ATTOP/VEVS
'
Aug. 6, 1963
_
R. M. BELL ETAL
3,099,849
POLISHING AND BUFFING APPARATUS
Filed April 16, 1962
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
32
INVENTORS
ll/AE’ JEPSON
PAMSAV M. BELL
A TTOP/VEVS
3,699,849
Fatented Aug. 6, 1963
2
be e?ective on ‘openings as small as 2 or 3 thousandths
3,0§9,849
PQHSHING AND EUFFENG APPARATUS
Ramsay M. Bell, Sehoolcraft, Mich” and Ivar Jepson,
Oak Park, Ill., assignors to Hammond Machinery
Builders, Inc., Kalamazoo, icln, a corporation of
Michigan
Filed Apr. 16, 1962, Ser. No. 187,810
11 Claims. (Ql. 15--2l)
of an inch in diameter and spaced apart similar distances.
(4) To provide apparatus, as aforesaid, which is su?i
ciently similar to prior known apparatus that the same
can be utilized by ordinary workmen without special
training.
(5) To provide apparatus, as aforesaid, which at least
in part utilizes equipment already available in existing
buffing or polishing machines and hence minimizes the
This invention relates to a polishing and buf?ng ap 10 parts which must be manufactured especially for this pur
pose and which must accordingly be kept stocked by
paratus and particularly to a type thereof adaptable for
the polishing and bu?‘ing of nonlinear contours, especial
ly including chamfering the edges of very small holes.
either the manufacturer \OI' user.
(6) To provide apparatus, as aforesaid, which requires
only a ‘single builing or polishing wheel for carrying out
chamfering the edges of very small holes, it will be de 15 the complete bu?ing or polishing operation on a work
piece having a large number *of such small openings.
scribed primarily ‘in connection with such use. However,
(7) To provide apparatus, as aforesaid, which isrela~
it should be clearly understood that the following descrip
tively simple to construct and which can accordingly be
tion based on such use is solely for illustrative purposes
manufactured and maintained in proper operating condi*
and is not limiting since the invention is applicable, at
Inasmuch as this invention arose out of a need for
least in its broadest sense, to a wide variety of uses in
volving the polishing or buf?ng of nonlinearly contoured
tion at a cost only a little greater than that of conventional
buffer or polisher having a single wheel of a correspond
ing size ‘and type.
surfaces.
(8) To provide ‘apparatus, as aforesaid, which requires
Referring now to the problem which gave rise to this
no special adjustments other than those already familiar
invention, attention is directed to shaving heads of elec
tric shavers, which shaving heads have a large number 25 to persons acquainted with conventional bu?ing and pol—
ishing equipment.
of very small openings. The openings may be circular
(9) To provide appparatus, as aforesaid, which, while
or rectangular, or there may be mixtures and combina
developed primarily for application to the speci?c prob
tions of both rectangular ‘and circular shapes. In all
cases, however, such openings are very small. Often the 30 lem above set forth, can also be utilized‘for polishing or
boiling a wide range of workpieces having nonlinear con
circular openings are of a diameter not exceeding a few
tours.
thousandths of an inch and the rectangular openings are
Other objects and purposes of the invention will be
frequently of a width less than 1&4 inch. Since these open
apparent to persons acquainted with apparatus of this
ings are usually made by a punching operation, as a re
general type upon reading the following disclosure and in
sult of such punching operation there will be created
specting the accompanying drawings.
rough edges or burrs around said openings and these must
In the drawings:
be removed. Further, since a shaving head is rubbed
FIGURE 1 is a top plan view, on a much enlarged
against the face of the user, often with appreciable pres
scale, of ‘a workpiece of the type which gave rise to the
sure, it is desirable not only that the burrs around such
openings be removed but also that the edges of such open 4:0 present invention.
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view taken on the line 11-11
ings be chamfered.
of FIGURE 1.
The use of butting and/or polishing wheels for the
FIGURE 3 is a central, partially schematic, longitudi
buffing or polishing of workpieces having nonlinearly
nal sectional view of apparatus embodying theinvention.
contoured surfaces has been well known in the past and
has been extensively practiced. However, the adaptation 45
of such wheels to nonlinearly contoured surfaces has nor
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view taken on the line IV—IV
of FIGURE 3.
FIGURE 5 is an elevational view of a modi?ed ar
mally been carried out by arranging a plurality of such
rangement for carrying out the process of the invention.
wheels along a path to be travelled by the workp'ece and
FIGURE 6 is a schematic view showing another modi
applying said wheels in different directions on and with
respect to such workpiece. This is reasonably satisfac 50 ?cation.
FIGURE 7 is a view similar to FIGURE 16 showing
tory where the contour is such that only a limited num
still another modi?cation.
ber of such directions and, therefore, only a limited num
FIGURE 8 is a schematic indication of one pattern of
ber of wheels is required, but where the number of di
relative translative movement between the tool and the
circle, then the placement of a plurality of wheels coop 55 workpiece.
FIGURE 9 is a schematic indication of another pat
erating in a variety of different directions becomes un
tern of relative translative movement between the tool
reasonably complex. Further, where a large number of
and the workpiece.
openings are placed close to each other, it is impossible
to apply a plurality of wheels arranged in different direc
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
tions to each of said openings and, accordingly, the prac 60
tices of the prior art fail completely to meet the prob
In general the invention contemplates rotating a soft
lem above outlined.
metal-working tool, which may be a Wire brush, a textile
Accordingly, the objects of the invention include:
polishing wheel or other ?exible wheel of generally simi
(1) To provide an apparatus for polishing or bu?'ing a
lar kind, rapidly about a cutting ‘axis which is substan
65
nonlinearly contoured surface.
tially parallel to the general plane of the workpiece, simul
(2) To provide an apparatus, as aforesaid, which is par
taneously rotating the wheel and the shaftabout a spin
ticularly adaptable to polishing or bu?ing nonlinearly
ning axis which is substantially perpendicular to said
plane, which extends diametrically across and through
contoured surfaces, such as the edges of a plurality of
very small openings, especially where such openings are 70 said wheel and which extends transverse to and inter
sects said cutting axis, and, in most cases,‘simultaneously
either or both circular and rectangular in shape.
effects relative translative movement between the tool
(3) To provide an apparatus, as aforesaid, which will
rections involved is large, or in?nite as is the case with a
3,099,849
.
and the workpiece.
3
Said translative movement may be
either continuous or intermittent.
Detailed Construction‘
spray head 42 at its lower end for the purpose of apply
ing a desired working fluid to the hereinafter-mentioned
polishing wheel. A gear 44 is mounted on shaft 38 for
For illustrative purposes, it will be assumed that the
rotation therewith and it meshes with a funther gear 46.
The gear 46 is mounted on and rotates with a shaft 47
workpiece is of generally planar shape and has a plurality
of openings therethrough, as illustrated, that it is arranged
for movement intermittently under the wheel and that
which is located in shaft housing 26 and is rotatably sup
ported therein by hearings 48 and 49. The shar?t 47
carries a bevel gear 51 at its lower .end and said bevel
gear is in mesh with a second bevel :gear 52 which is
Turning now to the apparatus, reference is ?rst made 10 mounted on and rotates with the shaft 32. Shaft 32
to FIGURE x1 which illustrates a workpiece of the type
carries the polishing wheel 53, which wheel is formed
giving rise to the problem which this invention is in
of any ?exible material appropriate to the panticular use
tended to solve. There is shown in FIGURE 1 a por
required. For example, the wheel '53 may be a wire
tion 1 of a standard contact plate for an electric shaver,
brush, a plurality of bristles of ?exible material, or a
said plate having a plurality of round openings 2 and rec 15 plurality of disks of paper, cloth or composition mate
tangular openings 3. FIGURE 2 illustrates a section
rial.
it moves in a horizontal direction.
taken through one of said round openings and showing
In the embodiment shown in FIGURE 3, the extended
the rounded contour 4 at the upper end of said opening
axis of the hollow shaft 16, hereinafter elsewhere termed
which it is ‘one purpose of this invention to provide. It
the “spinning” axis, extends diametrically through the
should be kept in mind in connection with the follow 20 axial center of the wheel 53. This will be normally pre
ing description that said openings 2 are of the order of
about l/ioo inch in diameter and the rectangular openings 3
ferred, particularly for purposes of symmetry in construc
tion, and where the apparatus is used for chamfering
are of generally similar size.
round holes as above set forth. However, as illustrated
In FIGURE 3 the workpiece 1 is shown as supported
in FIGURE 5 and discussed ‘further hereinafter, the
upon a suitable workholder such as a table 6, of any 25 spinning axis S may in some cases be offset axially from
conventional type. There is provided a post 7 which is
the center of the wheel 53 providing only that it is still
rigid with respect to said table 6 and the polishing head
diametric with respect to said wheel 53 and falls at least
is supported thereon. The table 6 and supponting post
within that portion of said wheel which contacts the Work.
7 may be of any conventional type and need no detailed
A pair of plates 54 and 56 are mounted on shaft 32 on
description excepting to note particularly that any kind 30 either side of the wheel 53 for rotation therewith and for
of work-feeding means may be provided for moving the
workpiece 1 with respect to the table 6rtoward and away
from the post 7, and that any type of translative means,
such as hallways B, supports the table 6 on a frame F
for horizontal movement with respect to said frame in a
plane parallel to the horizontal plane de?ned by the axis
of rotation of the polishing wheel as said polishing wheel
revolves about its spin axis.
The polishing head embodying the invention comprises
holding the ?exible material con?ned in its polishing posi
tion. The plate 56 is held against a collar 57 which in
turn abuts against a shoulder 58 on the shaft 32. Hub
elements 61 and 62 of any conventional type hold the
material comprising the wheel 53, which here may be
assumed for illustrative purposes to be a multiplicity of
strands or bristles of textile material, and said hub ele
ments are held in position with respect to each other
by a nut 63 suitably threaded onto a sleeve 65 extend
a bracket 8 which is arranged on the post 7 for vertical
ing from the hub element 61. The plate 54 bears against
movement with respect thereto whereby the vertical posi
tion of the polishing head with respect to the table 6
may be adjusted. A substantially cylindrical casing 11
the leftward end of the sleeve 65 and the whole assem
is ?xed to the bracket 8 and it has a spacer 12 located
Operation
therewithin. Combined radial and thrust bearings 13 and
14 are located at the respective ends of the spacer 12. 45
A hollow shaft 16 is rotatably arranged within said bear
ings 13 and 14 and is held in such position and against
axial movement with respect thereto by a nut ‘17 which is
threaded thereon and which bears against the inner race
bly is held together by the nut 64 which is threaded on
shaft 32.
‘One speci?c manner of operating the apparatus herein
described consists of placing a workpiece 1 on the table
6, adjusting the vertical position of the bracket 8 with
respect to the post 7 as desired in order to adjust the
vertical relationship of the wheel 53‘ with respect to the
of the upper bearing 14. Said shaft 16 carries a worm 50 workpiece 1 in a known manner and then rotating both
the shaft 21 and the shaft 38. Rotation of the shaft 21
wheel 18 at its upper end, which worm wheel is held in
will act through the worm 22 and worm wheel 18 to
place by any suitable means, such as the collar 19. A
rotate the hollow shaft 16 and thereby rotate the casing
shaft 21 is rotatably supported on and extends trans
26 and cause the shaft 32 and the wheel 53 to rotate
versely through the upper end of casing 11 and supports
a worm 22 which is in mesh with the worm Wheel '18 55 about the above described spinning axis.
which may in turn be driven by any suitable means (not
shown).
Thus, the axis
of shaft 32 describes a plane parallel to the table.
Simultaneously, rotation of the hollow shaft 38 will act
through the gears 44 and 46 and thence through the shaft
At its lower end, the hollow shaft 16 supports a wheel
47 and gears 51 and 52 to the shaft 32 to cause rotation
frame 23, which frame de?nes an opening 24 ‘for receiv
ing certain hereinafter mentioned gears and also de?nes 60 of said shaft 32, and thereby wheel 53, about the lon
gitudinal axis of shaft 32, hereinafter elsewhere referred
a depending shaft housing 26. A counterweight bracket
to as the cutting axis. If desired, suitable cooling, lubri
27 is removably al?xed to the wheel frame 23 by any
cating or cutting ?uid may be introduced through the
convenient means, such as bolts or screws, of which one
tube 41 and discharged from the head 42 against the
The lower end of the shaft housing 26 is provided 65 wheel 53.
The speed of rotation of the shafts 16 and 32, respec
with a bearing 31 which supports one end of a shaft
tively, may be varied widely according .to the particular
32. The lower end of the counterweight bracket 27 is
type of job involved but in the example above referred to
provided with a bearing 33 which supports the other end
where the objective is to chamfer openings in a shaver
of said shaft 32. The shaft 32 extends substantially
70 head, one typical and satisfactory example of such speeds
, parallel with the rtable 6.
is 1700 r.p.m. for shaft 32 and 100 turns per minute for
The hollow shaft 1-6 carries bearings 36 and 37 in—
shaft 16. However, more generally speaking, the speed
ternally at its respective ends and these hearings rotat
appears at 28.
of rotation of shaft 32 about the cutting axis will be
ably support an inner hollow shaft 38 which is driven
determined :by the type of polishing, brushing or bu?ingv
by any convenient means (‘not shown). A tube 41 ex
tends through rthe inner hollow shaft 38 and it has a 75 required according to know practice. The speed of rota
3,099,849
positioned substantially transversely to said spinning
tion about the spinning axis will ‘be determined accord
ing to the complexity or sharpness of the contours in
volved. If the contours are relatively sharp or where
axis;
drive means for effecting rotation of‘ said ?rst and sec
ond shafts, respectively;
they are relatively complex, the speed of rotation around
the axis of shaft 16 will be relatively low, certain uses
a ?exible wheel, said wheel being connected to said
second shaft for rotation with said second shaft
about the cutting axis and positioned so that said
having gone as low as ten turns per minute. However,
where the contours are relatively wide or simple, such
speed may be substantially increased, certain uses of this
nature having gone as high as 200 turns per minute.
In this manner the ‘direction of application of the wheel 10
to the work is constantly changed and the changing is
effected continuously so that the effect thereof on the
work is substantially uniform in all directions.
While different machines by which this invention may
be carried out will vary according to the speci?c charac 15
ter of the workpiece involved and other requirements of a
given application, it will be recognized that the following
represent at least a few speci?c examples of such ‘different
spinning axis extended passes diametrically through
said ?exible wheel and also through the peripheral
portion of said wheel contacting said workpiece,
whereby said Wheel may be caused to rotate around
said cutting axis and simultaneously to rotate around
said spinning axis so that said Wheel applies to the
workpiece a Working action in an in?nite number of
directions through a point therein pierced by said
spinning axis.
2. Apparatus according to claim 1 wherein-said wheel
is comprised of a multitude of radially extending strands;
modes of application.
and including a pair of end plates mounted on said sec
For example, FIGURE 5 shows an elevational view of 20 ond shaft and located closely adjacent the respective sides
a modi?ed device generally similar to FIGURE 3 except
of said wheel and extending toward the periphery thereof
ing only that the spinning axis is offset from the axial mid
to limit movement of said strands in a direction axially
of said wheel.
point of the wheel and is located somewhere between
such midpoint and an axial end of the working surface
3. Apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said wheel
of the wheel. This off-center positioning of the spinning
is comprised of a multitude of ?exible strands.
axis will be advantageous for certain nonsymmetrical
4. The apparatus de?ned in claim 1 including a work
grinding or where it is desired to cover in a single pass an
holder ‘and means supporting said workholder for rela
area of greater diameter than the actual thickness of the
tive motion with respect to said spinning axis in a direc
tion approximately parallel with said surface.
wheel being used. However, the holding of the spinning
axis within the working surface of the wheel is necessary 30
5. Apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said ?rst
so that working strokes in an infinite number of working
shaft is diivingly connected to a wheel frame and said
directions can be applied to the workpiece 1 from a center
second shaft is rotatably mounted within said wheel
frame.
which lies within the work area. Otherwise, the wheel
is merely bu?ing in a circle and loses the peculiar action
6. Apparatus according to claim 5 wherein a portion
obtained by the method and apparatus of the invention. 35 of said drive means, provided for rotating said second
In the illustration of FIGURE 3, it is assumed that the
shaft, is located on one side of the axis of said ?rst shaft;
an
workpiece may be stationary at a given point in the Work
ing operation with respect to the spinning axis although
counterbalance means on said wheel frame and located
on the other side of the axis of said ?rst shaft so that
it may be ‘fed into working position in any convenient
manner. Alternatively, as shown in FIGURE 6, the
workpiece 1 may be translated with respect to the wheel
said wlheel frame is balanced about the axis of said
?rst shaft.
7. Apparatus according to claim 5 wherein said drive
by moving the workpiece through the zone occupied by
the wheel. Further, as shown in FIGURE 7, the wheel
means includes a third shaft coaxial with and sleeved
may be caused to move across the surface of an other
within said ?rst shaft, and said drive means also includes
means within said wheel frame driven by said third shaft
and connected for rotating said second shaft.
8. Apparatus according to claim 7 wherein said third
shaft is hollow, a tube extending through said third shaft
wise stationary workpiece. Both of these examples of
relative translative movement between the wheel and the
workpiece may be either single pass movement or recip
rocative. Reciprocative relative movement may be re
petitive on the same line or simultaneously transversely
o?set in a variety of patterns, such as the two illustrated in
and terminating adjacent said wheel whereby a working
?uid can be applied to said wheel.
9. Apparatus for working a contoured surface on‘ a
FIGURES 8 and 9 by lines T1 and T2. The track T1, is
applicable where the irregularitim in contour are arranged
in rows; T2 is applicable where the irregularities in con
tour are arranged in a random manner.
workpiece comprising in combination:
a ?rst shaft, the axis thereof constituting a spinning
axis, and means supporting said ?rst shaft for rota
Endless other
patterns of relative translative movement are possible.
55
While certain types of wheels have been above indi
cated as being ‘appropriate for use in practicing the method
of the invention, it will be recognized that any type of
wheel which is su?iciently soft to follow the contour of
the work and to apply the type of action required will be
acceptable.
tion about said spinning axis;
a second shaft, the axis thereof constituting a cutting
axis, and means supporting said second shaft for
rotation about said cutting axis, said cutting axis
being positioned substantially perpendicular to said
spinning axis;
the invention will be apparent to persons acquainted with
means e?ecting rotation of said shafts;
a workholder arranged for supporting said workpiece
with its said surface substantially parallel with said
apparatus of this ‘general type and, accordingly, it will be
cutting axis and substantially perpendicular to said
A variety of speci?c structures capable of embodying
recognized that the appended claims can apply to means 65
differing from the speci?c form of apparatus herein
illustrated.
What is claimed is:
that said spinning axis when extended passes dia
metrically through said wheel and within the periph
1. An apparatus for working a contoured surface on a
workpiece comprising, in combination:
a ?rst shaft and means supporting same for rotation
about a spinning axis positioned approximately per
pendicular to the general plane of said surface;
a second shaft and means supporting said second shaft
from said ?rst shaft for rotation about a cutting axis
SplHIllIlg axis;
a ?exible wheel, said wheel being mounted on and for
rotation with said second shaft and positioned so
70
eral portion of said wheel which contacts said Work
piece and
means connecting said means supporting said second
shaft and said workholder to said ?rst shaft whereby
said wheel may be caused to rotate around said cut
ting axis and whereby simultaneously relative rota
8
7
tional movement around said spinning axis may be
created between said workpiece and said wheel in
order that said Wheel applies to the workpiece a
working action in an in?nite number of directions
through a point on said workpiece pierced by said
a housing mounted on said wheel frame, extending sub
stantially parallel with said spinning axis and lo
cated on one side of said spinning axis;
counterbalance means mounted on said wheel frame,
extending substantially parallel with said spinning
spinning axis.
axis and located on the other side of said spinning
axis so that said Wheel frame is substantially bal
10. An ‘apparatus for working a contoured surface on
a workpiece comprising, in combination:
anced about said spinning axis;
a second shaft extending between and rotatably sup-_
ported on said housing and said counterbalance
means, said second shaft being rotatable about a cut
a frame;
a ?rst shaft and means on said frame supporting said
?rst shaft for rotation about a spinning axis;
.a second shaft and means supporting said second shaft
'upon said ?rst shaft for rotation about a cutting axis
ting axis positioned substantially transversely to said
spinning axis;
positioned substantially transversely to said spinning
15
axis;
ment extending through said housing and drivingly
a ?exible wheel connected to said second shaft for rota
tion with said second shaft about the cutting axis and
positioned so that said spinning axis extended passes
diametrically through said ?exible wheel between
the axial ends thereof;
a workholder for supporting said workpiece surface
so that said surface is vapproximately perpendicular
to said ?rst shaft and is approximately parallel to
said second shaft; and
means supporting said Workholder on said frame for
movement in a direction parallel to the plane de?ned
connected to said second shaft;
a ?exible wheel mounted on said second shaft between
said housing and said counterbalance means for ro
ltation with said second shaft about the cutting axis,
said ?exible wheel being positioned so that said spin
ning axis extended passes diametrically through said
?exible Wheel between the axial ends thereof.
25'
by the cutting axis as said cutting taxis revolves about
the spinning axis.
11. An apparatus for Working a contoured surface on
j‘a'workpiece comprising, in combination:
30
a ?rst shaft and means supporting same for rotation
about a spinning axis positioned approximately per
pendicularly to the general plane of said surface;
a wheel frame connected to said ?rst shaft for rotation
therewith;
'
drive means for effecting rotation of said ?rst and
second shafts, said drive means including a drive ele
35
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
239,170
729,624
986,531
1,575,062
1,583,001
2,256,546
2,915,766
3,044,090
Hutter _____________ __ Mar. 22,
Mason _______________ __ June 2,
Wilson ______________ _.. Mar. 14,
Kaiser _______________ __ Mar. 2,
Meints _______________ _- May 4,
Brostrom ____________ __ Sept. 23,
Peterson _____________ __ Dec. 8,
Brauer ______________ .._ July 17,
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