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Патент USA US3099948

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Aug_ 6, 1963
E. v. MARSHALL E‘TAL
3,099,938
ARMAMENT 'FOR JET AIRCRAFT
‘ Filed April 30. 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTORS
EDMUND V. MARSHALL
WILL S. UAVIES
my,’ 4; r/mmvE'w/
Aug. 6, 1963
E. v. MARSHALL ETAL
5‘ 3,099,938
ARMAMENT FOR JET AIRCRAFT
Filed April 30. 195?
z Sheets-Sheét 2
Fig. 3
F I.
4
INVENTORS
EDMUND V. MARSHALL
WILL S. DAVIES
f1
4'
ite
‘a
ts
1
3,099,938
ARMAMENT FQR .lET AIRCRAFT
Edmund V. Marshall and Will S. Davies, Dallas, Tern,
assignors, by mesne assignments, to the United States
of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
Filed Apr. 30, 1957, ?er. No. 656,170
1 Claim. (Cl. 89-375)
The rapid development of jet aircraft in recent years
had caused a number of problems to arise in connection
with the mounting of armament thereon. This is particu
larly true in regard to certain types of remotely-controlled
guns carried in the body of such craft, and is occasioned
by the particular operating characteristics and require~
B?hh?ih
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l
Patented Aug. 6, 1963
2
does not project beyond the boundary de?ned by an ex
tension of the surface skin of the air scoop. Thus, the
baffles act to deflect the blast gases emitted from the gun
muzzle through the opening extending transversely be
tween the blast tube and the outer surface of the scoop,
and this gas scavenging action is accomplished with mini
mum disturbance of the normal air flow pattern over the
scoop surface. Moreover, the point at which these blast
gases are exhausted is rearward of the jet engine air in
take ori?ce, so that substantially none of the gun blast
gases so exhausted enters the jet engine operating mech
anism as may readily be the case in conventional jet
aircraft constructions.
One object of the present invent-ion, therefore, is to
improve the operating characteristics of jet aircraft carry
ments of jet engines. In addition to the obvious undesir 15
ing at least one remotely-controlled gun in an air intake
ability of employing any apparatus or structure which will
create excessive air ‘turbulence and hence a reduction in
plane speed and/ or maneuverability, there is the necessity
of precluding the entrance of gun blast gases in any appre
associated with the aircraft fuselage.
Another object of the invention is to provide an
arrangement for jet aircraft whereby blast gases from
ciable ‘amount into the air intake of the jet engine.
When such precautions are not taken, there is a reaction
between these gun blast gases and certain of the metallic
armament carried in a jet ‘engine air intake scoop on such
craft are precluded from entering the ori?ce of the air
scoop to adversely affect the engine operation.
A further object of the invention is to provide a passage
operating parts of the engine which materially increases
for gun blast ‘gases from a blast tube, located within the
the amount of repair and servicing work required to
jet engine air intake scoop of an aircraft, to the surface
maintain the aircraft in ?ight condition.
25 of such scoop, together with a plurality of de?ecting ele
The use of blast tubes on guns or ?rearms to absorb
ments within said passage so arranged and constructed
excessive recoil ‘energy is well known to workers in this
?eld, as is the use of air de?ectors on certain types of
aircraft to aid in cooling the gun barrel by speeding the
exhaust blast gases into the air stream. In all known
instances, however, these solutions have failed to take
into account the immediate proximity of a jet engine air
intake. When the latter is present, normal methods of
handling the gun problem are no longer applicable, and
the gun blast assembly must be especially designed with
the above structural relationship in mind.
The di?iculty is enhanced by the fact that the outer
surface con?guration of a conventional jet engine air in—
take scoop is such that the mounting of a gun or guns
Within this scoop causes each projectile opening to appear
very close to, or even partially within, the normal bound
aries of the air intake ori?ce. Consequently, gun blast
gases in appreciable amounts are very readily sucked into
the engine air intake duct during ?ight unless these gases
are in some way prevented from reaching the projectile 45
openings.
In presenting a solution to the above problem, the
as to facilitate the evacuation of such gases without caus
ing excessive turbulence in the air stream ?owing over
the scoop surface.
Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of
this invention will be readily appreciated as the same
becomes better understod by reference to the following
detailed description when considered in connection with
the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of applicant’s invention as
applied to an aircraft having a jet engine air intake scoop
associated with the aircraft fuselage, together with a pair
of remotely-controlled guns mounted within such air
scoop;
FIGS. '2 and 3 are detailed perspective views of a por
tion of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 4 is :a longitudinal view in cross-section of one of
the gun blast ‘gas de?ecting arrangements illustrated in
FIGS. 1, 2, land 3.
Referring now to the drawings, there is shown in FIG.
1 an aircraft of the jet-propelled type. To simplify the
ensuing description, reference will be made herein only
present disclosure incorporates an opening of generally
ovoid con?guration extending between the outer surface,
or skin, of the jet engine air scoop and the blast tube
through which the projectile passes after it leaves the gun
muzzle and before it emerges from the projectile opening.
This generally transverse opening in the scoop body
accordingly forms a communication path between the
gun blast tube and the outer surface of the air scoop,
to those portions of the aircraft which are pertinent to an
this air passage being located to the rear of the opening
in the air scoop through which the projectile emerges.
It is recognized, however, that such ‘an unmodi?ed
forward ori?ce 16 to the jet engine operating mechanism
understanding of the present invention. Such portions
include an air intake scoop, generally identi?ed by the
reference numeral 10, extending outwardly from the left
hand side of the aircraft fuselage 12 and adapted to pro
vide an air supply for one of the craft’s two jet engines
(not shown). This air intake scoop 10 consists of a body
member 14 through which a tube or duct passes from a
transverse air passage per so does not act to fully exhaust
contained within the fuselage 12. Such a mode of con
struction is more or less standard in the aircraft industry,
and no further discussion of this arrangement is believed
the ‘gun blast gases therethrough, and, in addition, its
necessary.
presence tends to create excessive air turbulence over
that portion of the outer surface of the air scoop located
in its immediate vicinity. Consequently, to complete the
The aircraft of the ‘drawings is armed with four re
- motely-controlled machine guns, two of which are located
within the body of each of the twin jet engine air intake
effective dissipation of these gaseous waste substances 65 scoops. The left-hand scoop 10 of FIG. 1 contains the
without reducing plane speed to any appreciable degree,
guns l8 and 20-, positioned somewhat as shown in dotted
the present invention incorporates, in each transverse
outline, with their barrels generally aligned with the longi
opening connecting a gun blast tube to the outer surface
tudinal axis of the aircraft.
‘of the air scoop, a plurality of ba?les in the form of cup
The gun mechanisms 18 and 20 are respectively pro
shaped gas de?ectors. These de?ector elements are ori 70 vided with openings 22. and 24- in the outer surface, or skin,
ented with their convex surfaces aligned in the direction
of the air intake scoop body 14 to permit passage there
of aircraft ?ight, such that the outer edge of each baffle
3
3,099,988
through of projectiles ?red by these guns. As will be
noted in FIG. 1, the generally ovoid con?guration of the
outer surface of the forward portion of the air scoop
10 necessitates a location for the projectile openings 22
and 24 which is ‘on, or in close proximity to, the periphery
6i
10 that no excessive air turbulence is created by their
presence.
It will now be appreciated that the blast gases emitted
from the muzzle 28 of gun 20, in traveling to the pro
jet engines of the aircraft. This proximate relationship
jectile opening 24 of blast tube 26, will encounter the
baf?e elements 40‘ and 38 in that order. Due to the
can only be avoided by relocating the machine guns or by
restricting thesize :of-the ori?ce 16, and neither expedient
as scoops to intercept substantially all of these blast
of the ori?ce -16 through which air passes to one of the
cup-shaped con?guration of these ba?les, they will act
is-practical in many cases due both to the over-all size of '10 gases, convey them through passage 30, and eject them
into the air stream ?owing over the outer surface skin of
the ?rearms and to the large volume of air required by
conventionaljetmotors for maximum. operating e?iciency.
When'either or both of the guns 18 and 20 ?re, blast
gases are emitted from the muzzle or muzzles thereof.
the air scoop body 14. The ‘above action is enhanced by
the suction created within passage 36 as the surface air
stream flows over the outer edges of the baffles. As a
Repeated ?ring of such guns normally causes a relatively 15 consequence of ‘this scavenging of the blast gases through
passageway 30, substantially none of these gases reach the
large amount of this gas to emerge from the projectile
projectile opening 24, and hence very little, if any, blast
openings 22 and/or 24. It will be apparent from an in
gas is drawn into the jetengine air intake ori?ce 16. The
spection of the drawing that, whenever the aircraft is in
objective of the invention is thus accomplished.
?ight, at least aportion of these blast gases will be sucked
, It is. obvious that, if desired, the baffles 38 and 40V may
into the neighboring air intake ori?ce 16 and hence con
be made up of individual sections welded together or
ducted to the jet engine operatingmechanism. As previ
otherwise ‘formed into a single unit. Furthermore, these
ously stated, experience has shown these gun blast gases
separate sections need not have curved surfaces, but in
to have a deleterious effect on certainmet-allic components
stead can consist of ?at platesvangular-ly joined to gen—
.of the engine, causing corrosion or other damage to these
parts.
erally outline the same portion of a cup-shaped or
spherical surface illustrated in the drawings. It is only
To overcome this undesirable condition, the present
necessary that these cup-shaped gas de?ectors 38 and 40
disclosure provides means for precluding the emergence of
be so con?gured and positioned as to act as scoops for
gun blast gases in any appreciable amount from the projec
the blast gases traveling forward within the blast tube 26.
tile openings 22 and 24. This arrangement is shown in en
It will also be appreciated that the number of ba?les
larged perspective in FIGS. 2 and 3, while in FIG. 4 '
employed will depend at least in part on the diameter of
there is illustrated in cross-section a conventional blast
the blast tube 26, on the amount of gas emitted by the
tube 26 which is located within the body 14 of the air
gun 20, and on the proximity iof the projectile opening
scoop and which extends longitudinally from the muzzle
24 to the air intake ori?ce 1-6. Occasionally only one
28 of gun 20‘ to the projectile opening 24. The inner end
of blast tube 26 is ?ared asshown to receive the barrel of 35 ba?ie may su?ice, and 'again more than two may ‘be neces
sary. Obviously the size and internal dimensions of the
gun 20. Since substantially identical gas de?ecting devices
transverse passage 30' will also be determined with the
according to this invention are employed for each of the
above considerations in mind.
four guns of the aircraft, only one ‘such arrangement will
Many modi?cations of and variations in the present in
be described hereinafter.
vention are possible in the light of the above teachings.
Inorder to prevent the gases emitted .into the blast tube
It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of
26 (for example) from emerging from the projectile
the appended claim the invention may be [practiced
opening 24, these gases must be removed from the blast
otherwise than as speci?cally described.
tube before they reach this point. This is brought about,
I claim:
in the embodiment illustrated, by means which includes a
The combination on an aircraft propelled by at least
transverse opening, or passage, 30‘ in the body ‘14 of air
scoop 10. ‘This opening 30 extends from the outer sur 45 one jet engine: anair intake scoop for said jet engine ex
tending generally longitudinally of said aircraft; at least
iace, or skin, of the air scoop! to communicate with the
one remotely-controlled gun enclosed within said air intake
gun glast tube 26. While the con?guration and dimen
scoop; a blast tube for said gun, said ‘blast tube extending
sions of this transverse opening are not critical, the pas
generally longitudinally of said aircraft from the muzzle
sage should be of :su?icient size so that blast gases may be
of said gun to a projectile opening in the surface of said
de?ected therethrough in the manner to be set forth below.
air scoop locatedon, or in close proximity to, the periph
As shown, however, the opening 30 ‘.(see especially
ery of the jet engine air intake ori?ce; a generally trans
‘FIGS. 2 and 4) is of generally ovid con?guration, hav
verse passage in the body of said scoop extending from
ing a wall composed of three separate sections-a top
the outer surface Olf the latter to communicate [with the
portion 32 de?ned by a sun?ace which is flared outwardly,
a central portion 34 de?ning a generally vertical sur 55 said gun blast tube, the rearward wall portion of such
transverse pass-age de?ning a surface which is generally
face, and a bottom portion 36 defined by a surface again
outwardly ?ared. These sections may be welded both ' convex in the direction of aircratt ?ight; and a pair of
to one another and to the scoop body 114, or any other
baffles lying within said transverse passage and secured
means may be employed iior securing them in position.
60 to the wall thereof’, said baf?es each being formed to de
Inasmuch as the passageway 30 is formed in the generally
?ne a surface which is also generally convex in the vdi
ovoid body 14 of the air scoop, the intersection of its
rection of aircraft 'ilight, such that a scavenging action is
wall portions, both vwith the outer scoop surface and with
brought about within said transverse passage with respect
the gun'blast tube v26, will be irregular in outline, as per
to the gases emerging from the muzzle of said gun into
haps best brought out in FIG. 2.
65 said blast tube when the former is ?red to‘ thereby pre
Associated with the transverse passage 30 in the body
cliude the emergence of such gases in an appreciable
:14 of the air scoop are two ba?les 38 and 40. These
amount
from said projectile opening into the vicinity of
ba?les roughly de?ne a portion of a spherical surface,
said jet engine air intake ori?ce.
being generally convex in the direction-of .aircraz?t ?ight.
The edges of the ba?les are shaped to conform to the sur 70
faces of the Iwalls 32, 34, and 35 of the transverse open
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
ing 30331 the points where they are to .be securely posi
tioned therein, as by welding or any other suitable meth
od. Furthermore, the outer edges of baffles 38 and 40
are soaligined with'the outer surfaceskin of ‘the air scoop 75
.UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,402,632
2,787,194
Ivanovic _____________ __ June 25, 1946
Peterson ________ -z ____ __ Apr. 2, 1957
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