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Патент USA US3099977

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Aug. 6, 1963
3,099,967
A. J. HlRsT ETAL
VEHICLE WHEEL susPENsIoNs
6 Sheets-Sheet l
Filed May 29, 1961
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VEHICLE WHEEL SUSPENSIONS
Filed May 29, 1961
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VEHICLE WHEEL SUSPENSIONS
Filed May 29, 1961
6 Sheets-Sheet 3
Aug. 6, 1963
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VEHICLE WHEEL sUsPENsIoNs
Filed May 29, 1961
6 Sheets-Sheet 4
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VEHICLE WHEEL SUSPENSIONS
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Aug. 6, 1963
A. J. HlRsT ETAL
3,099,967
VEHICLE WHEEL susPENsIoNs
Filed May 29, 1961
6 Sheets-Sheet 6
3,999,967
Patented Aug. 6, 1963
2
when coupled wit-h disc and single sided brakes, in re
ducing the frame length of the bogie and therefore the
moment of inertia of the frame.
Speciñc embodiments of the present invention will now
`be `described merely by way of example with reference t0
3,099,967
VEHICLE WHEEL SUSPENSIONS
Archie John Hirst, Leicester, England, and Glen Liver
sage, Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, assignors to
Metalastik Limited, Leicester, England, a British com
the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. l is a side elevation, part in section, of a railway
P3115’
Filed May 29, 1961, Ser. No. 113,497
Claims priority, application Great Britain inne 17, 1960
19 Claims. (Cl. 10S-224.1)
vehicle wheel suspension according to the invention,
FIG. 2 is `a plan view -of the suspension shown in FIG. 5,
10
This invention concerns vehicle wheel suspensions.
According to t-he invention there is provided `a vehicle
Wheel suspension comprising controlling means carrying
the wheel and extending on one side of the wheel axle, the
controlling means being attached to a frame :of the ve
hicle so as to permit rising and falling movement of the
wheel with respect to the frame and transverse movement
of the controlling means, said controlling means control
FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 show, diagrammatically, certain safety
arrangements which may be adopted with the contstr-uc
tion of FIGS. l and 2,
FIG. 6 is a side elevation, in part in section, loi a fur
ther railway vehicle wheel suspension according to the
invention,
FIG. 7 is a cross-section on line 7--7 in FIG. 6,
FIG. 8 is a view in the direction oi arrow 8 in FIG. 6,
with Ia part broken away to show further details of Icon
ling the position of the Wheel longitudinally of the vehicle,
struction, and
resist, in combined shear and compression in the rubber,
suspension shown in FIG. 6, and
FIG. 9 is an underneath view, in part in section, in the
and a rubber spring means acting between said controlling 20
direction of :arrow 9 in FIG. 6, and showing a part of the
means and the frame, which spring means is arranged to
FIG. l0 is a side elevation fof the wheel suspension
shown in FIGS. 6 to 9 but including a modification.
frame and transverse movements or“ the controlling means
In the following description of the various speciñc
25
with respect to the frame.
embodiments of the invention like parts are indicated by
With a suspension as just deiined the transverse forces
like reference numerals.
on the controlling means may be controlled mainly by
both rising movement of the wheel with respect to the
the rubber spring means acting partly in .shear and partly
in compression, and not by the attachment between the
The suspension shown in FIGS. l and 2 is designed for
a railway vehicle `having non-self-aligning laxle boxes.
The `axle box housing 6i? is mounted on the tree end
30
controlling means and the frame.
of »a radius arm in the form of a tension link 61 by means
According to a preferred feature `of the invention, the
of -a 'hemi-sperical joint 62 having an interlayer or rubber
rubber spring means is located adjacent the wheel Aaxle
63. The rubber pivot member at the inner end of the
on the side of the axle on which the controlling means
tension link 61 is again formed by a bemi-spherical lrubber
extends.
inter-layer
64 of »a heini-spherical joint 65 as in the previ
35
In this way t-he vertical deñection afforded to the wheel
ous example.
is greater than the spring deflection under a given wheel
Tthe link 61 is in line with the axle centre and the joint
loading.
65 so as to be in direct tension under the longitudinal
Preferably also, the controlling means is -attached to the
forces.
frame by :a rubber joint or joints which permit, by distor
Two rectangular, llat, inter-leaved, bonded rubber
tion of the rubber, the rising and @falling movement of the 40
springs 66, 66, spaced transversely of the vehicle `arranged
wheel and the transverse movement oi the controlling
in V-formation between part 28 carried from a vertically
means.
Idisposed guide 29 attached to a iframe l0 of the bogie
In the preferred `constructions the controlling means
comprises a radius arm pivoted to the frame for rising 45 and the housing 60. Thus the springs 66, 66 are set in
equivalent fashion -to a chevron spring. In the construc
and falling movement.
tion of FIGS. l «and 2 the radius arm is substantially free
'Iîhe pivot connection between the controlling means
and the frame should permit substantially free rising and
falling movement of the control means in a vertical plane
for the rising -and falling movements of the wheel.
from lateral bending and twisting movements.
The tension link 6l. may constrain the wheel to move
vertically on an arcuate path.
It is preferred that the horizontal component of the
If the conical stiiiness'oi the springs 66 is made much
of rubber springs spaced apart transversely and arranged
The arrangement of the `springs 66 is such that the link
61 is -maintained in tension under all operating conditions.
greater than tha-t of the hemi-spherical joint 62 the axle
thrust in the rub-ber spring means is suilicient to maintain
box
housing may be made to rise and fall on an `arcuate
the controlling means in tension under all Ioperating con
V4path without tipping of the axle box relative to the bogie
ditions, and accordingly the load in the controlling means
frame. In suitable `circumstances to achieve this eiiect the
trarne attachment acting always in the same direction.
55 link 61 may be set a little lower, i.e. `so as -to be oiiset from
According to a further feature of the present invention
the axle centre.
the rubber :spring means may be constituted by a pair
in V-formation.
As a safety measure, the free end of the link 61 lies
Where the latter rfeature is adopted using a radius arm 60
in close relation to a face 67 on the axle box housing
as the controlling means, the radius ann may pass be
so that if the link gets into compression it cannot move
tween the rubber springs, the springs being inclined to the
very far in relation to the axle box housing. To support
vertical as viewed in side elevation. Alternatively the
the link in these circumstances a stop (not shown) is
radius arm may be located below the springs, the springs
being inclined to the vertical as viewed in side elevation. 65 provided on the bogie `frame 10 immediately behind the
inner end 63 of the link.
The present invention is particularly applicable to a
The construction of FIGS. l and 2 may be `adapted
railway vehicle Wheel suspension, in which case the con
to
self-aligning axle boxes by omitting the heini-spherical
trolling means includes an axle box housing for the axle
joint 62, making the tension link rigid with the axle box
box of the wheel.
housing, and replacing the heini-spherical joint 65 by a
The controlling means including an axle box housing
radially-compressed rubber bush pivot, transverse swing
may be connected to a bogie frame yof the vehicle, and a
ing movement of the radius «arm being accommodated by
suspension in accordance with the invention as applied to
conical deformation of the bush. In this case a heavier
ra railway vehicle bogie offers considerable advantages,
3,099,967
-
3
link is required to take the increased bending moment in
the transverse direction. The :substitution of the rubber
At its outer end the plate 91 carries a pair of bolted
on cup-like parts 97 one on each side, these together
bush pivot is required to provide the necessary stability
[forming the housing vfor the axle box.
against the twisting moment on the link 6l due to the
offset of the springs 66 above the centre line of the link.
This twisting moment occurs of course only with self
The parts 97 are extended upwardly, and inwardly of
the `axle box towards the pivot member 82, to provide a
pair of flat abutment faces 9S for the rubber springs, the
aligning axle boxes where the axle Ibox housing is rigid
faces 9S being symmetrically arranged in V-formation
with the radius arm or tension link. Every attempt should v_ with respect to the long axis of the radius `arm and in
be lmade to maintain the tension link directly in line
clined to the vertical and horizontal directions.
with the wheel axis and the bush pivot at its inner end 10
'Ihe rubber springs, two in number, are of cylindrical
so that the link is subjected to substantial bending only
form, generally indicated at 100 and have metal inter
by the transverse loads.
The construction of FIGS. 1 and 2 may be modiñed _. Y
so that should the rubber springing fail, the axle box
wheel set cannot come ladrift from the bogie frame or
otherwise Icollapse in relation thereto. To this end the
par-t 28 may be formed as a hood 71 enclosing the springs
66 and a part of the axle box housing 60 (as shown dia
leaves and end plates bonded to the rubber. The springs
100 are spaced transversely one on each side of the
radius arm and arranged in V-formation with their lower
end plates attached one each to the abutment faces 98.
The upper end plates of the springs are attached yto abut
ment faces 99 on the part 28 which in the present exam
ple is fabricated from sheet metal parts welded together.
grammatically in FIG. 3) to support the axle box hous
springs 100 are upwardly inclined from the faces
ing directly from the frame 10 if the springing should fail. 20 98The
to the faces 9‘9 each being set with its cylindrical
Alternatively the par-t 28 may have inclined faces 72 to
axis at an angle of 45° to the vertical as viewed in side
abut with corresponding faces of wings 73 on the axle
elevation,
the angle between the cylindrical axes of the
box housing as shown diagrammatically in EFIG. 4.
springs being 140°.
Instead of bolting the -axle box housing to the spring
Instead of a steel plate 91, the radius arm may be a
abutment on the tension links 61 it may be received 25
forging formed with bosses at both ends one to receive
within and held in position by a frame 75 as shown in
the pivot member 82 vand the other to receive the axle
FIG. 5 solely under the action of the vertical load.
box.
The setting of the springs 100 is such that the rubber
vehicle having non-self-aligning axle boxes 79 but in
lis
loaded in the most convenient ratio, and the radius
which nevertheless the axle Ábox housing, «generally indi 30
arm is kept in tension under all operating conditions.
cated atV 80, is rigid with the radius »arm 81. To avoid
Since the radius arm is maintained always in tension the
excessive transverse bending stresses in the radius arm
core 85 cin the outer bush 84 of the pivot member 82 is
under the transverse loading, the pivot member 82 yat
on the unladen side of the bush 84.
The suspension shown in FIGS. 6 to 9 is -for a railway
the inner end of the radius arm is constituted rso that
Maintenance of tension in «the radius arm enables a
transverse movement of the whole radius arm may take 35
relatively
lightweight arm to be used. However the ten
place with the radius arm remaining normal or substan
tially normal to the axle. Thus in »the present example
the radius arm is arranged so as to move substantially
bodily in the transverse direction under transverse load
sion in the arm, due to the spring setting should be kept
to a minimum, consistent with »the springing character
fistics required.
With the construction described with reference to
40
FIGS. 6 to 9 the radius arm and the radius arm pivot
A pivot member 82 of many diiferent forms may be
member »are relieved of twisting due to the offset of the
used to achieve this eiîect. In -the present example the
springs
100 from the axle centre because non-self align
pivot member 82 is constituted by a rubber bush assem
ing boxes are employed. Thus torque developed by
bly which permits transverse bodily movement of the
radius arm by shearing of the rubber. A substantial radial 45 transverse loads on the axle boxes being resisted by the
springs 100 at a point above the axle box centres is
thickness of rubber is required 'for this purpose and a
taken in bending by the axles, and the same applies to
dou-ble concentric bush is therefore conveniently em
torque developed by roll movement due to the offset.
ployed, the inner bush 83 which is in radi-al precompres
'llhe construction of FIGS. 6 to ’9' may be modified in
sion having a radial thickness about one half «that of the
that
radius arm A81 is not connected to brackets l89, 90
outer bush 84, to give the required radial load capacity, 50
directly and instead the arm is coupled to the brackets
and the outer bush which is also in radial pre-compres
by a short longitudinal link 110 pivoted at its ends re
sion bein-g cored out, as at 85, on the unladen side so as
spectively to the arm 81 and the brackets for vertical
to give a low resistance to transverse bodily movement
movement. 'I‘he link pivots may incorporate rubber
of the radius arm, i.e. axial deflection of the outer bush,
bushes 111 which act in torsion with rising and falling
and also low resistance to rising and 'falling movement of 55 movement
of the link.
the radius arm, which is accommodated mainly by tor
The term “rubber” as used in this specification should
sional shear in the inner bush.
be taken to include rubber-like material.
The inner bush 83 is mounted on la central pin 86 or
We claim:
the like which is clamped in trunnion blocks S7 one on
each Iside of the pivot member `82, the trunnion blocks 60 -1. A vehicle wheel suspension comprising controlling
means carrying the wheel and extending on one side of
being carried by brackets 89, 90 depending «from .the
the wheel axle, the controlling means being attached to
bogie frame 10, one on each side of the radius arm.
a frame of the vehicle so »as to permit rising and falling
When the suspension is set -up the pin 86 maybe
movement of the wheel with respect to the frame and
clamped in the trunnion blocks in any position in which
it assembles so that lateral stressing of the radius »arm is 65 transverse movement of the controlling means, said con
`avoided in the event of dimensional errors in the bogie
trolling means controlling the position of the wheel lon
yframe.
gitudinally of the vehicle, and »a rubber spring means
The radius arm is ¿formed from a steel plate 91 having,
acting between said controlling means and the frame,
at its inner end a hole 92 receiving the pivot member S2,
which spring means 'is inclined with respect to the ver
and at its outer end a hole 93 receiving the axle box 79.
tical and transverse directions so as to resist, (in com
Intermediate these holes the plate is cut away as at 94 70 bined shear and compression in the rubber, both rising
to lighten the plate. 'Ihe plate 91 is lclamped' to the
movement of the wheel with respect to the frame and
ang.
pivot member 82 by part-circular clamping brackets 95
transverse movements of the controlling means with re
bolted to the plate and gripping on the outer met-al sleeve
spect `to the frame.
i
96 of the outer bush 84.
75
2. A vehicle wheel suspension Ias claimed in claim l,
'3,099,967
5
wherein the rubber spring means is located adjacent the
wheel axle on the side of the axle on which the control
ling means extends.
3. A vehicle wheel suspension as claimed in claim l,
wherein the controlling means is attached to the frame
by a rubber joint which permits, by distortion of the
rubber, the rising `and falling movement of the wheel
and the transverse movementof the controlling means.
4. In a railway vehicle having non-self aligning axle
1l. A railway vehicle as claimed in claim l0, wherein
one of said sleeves of rubber is cored out on the side
adjacent the axle box housing.
l2. A railway vehicle as claimed in claim 9, wherein
the rubber bush pivot is ñxed on a central pin adjustable
axially in trunnion blocks on the frame, the trunnion
blocks clamping the pin against rotation.
13. A railway vehicle as claimed in claim 9 in which
the radius arm is pivoted to a longitudinal link which is
boxes, a wheel suspension comprising a radius arm, a
ilexible joint connecting the radius arm with an axle box
pivoted to ’the frame, the pivots incorporating said rubber
bush pivots.
springs being spaced transversely of the vehicle, arranged
and rubber spring means acting between a part on the
14. A vehicle wheel suspension comprising a radius
housing of a wheel, to permit alignment of the axle box
arm carrying the wheel and extending on one side of the
of the wheel, Va pivot joint connecting the radius arm
wheel axle, the radius arm being pivoted to a yframe of
with a frame of the vehicle to permit rising and falling
the vehicle so as to permit rising and falling movement
15
movements of the wheel and transverse swing movements
of -the wheel with respect to the frame and transverse
of the radius arm, and a pair of rubber springs'acting
movement of the radius arm, the radius arm controlling
between the axle box housing and the frame, the rubber
the position of the wheel longitudinally of the vehicle,
in V-formation as viewed in plan, and each being simi
radius arm and a part on the frame, said rubber spring
larly inclined with respect to the vertical as viewed in 20 means being located adjacent the wheel axle on the side
side elevation, whereby the spr-ings resist, in combined
thereof on which the radius arm extends and being in
shear and compression in the rubber, both rising move
clined with respect to the vertical and transverse direc
ment of the wheel and transverse swinging movement of
tions to resist, in combined shear and compression in the
the radius arm, the springs being set at a suñicient incli
rubber, both rising movement of the wheel and trans
25
nation to provide a component of thrust in the direction
verse movements of the radius `arm with respect to the
of the radius arm which maintains the radius arm in ten
frame, the spring means being set at sufficient inclination
sion under all operating conditions, the radius arm pass
to provide a component of thrust in the direction of the
ing between «the rubber springs with its long axis inter
radius arm which maintains the radius arm in tension
secting the wheel axis.
under
all operating conditions.
30
5. A wheel suspension as claimed in claim 4, wherein
said ñexible joint comprises a part-spherical rubber layer.
interposed between corresponding hemi-spherical surfaces
of parts on the axle box housing and the radius arm
respectively, the rubber layer being held compressed
115. A vehicle wheel suspension comprising controlling
means carry-ing the wheel and extending on one side
of the wheel axle, .the controlling means being attached
to a frame of the vehicle so as to permit rising and
falling movement of the wheel with respect to the frame
and transverse movement of the controlling means, said
controlling means controlling the position of the wheel
between said surfaces by the tension in the radius arm.
6. A wheel suspension as claimed in claim 5,` wherein
the conical stiffness of :the rubber springs is considerably
longitudinally of the vehicle, and a pair of rubber springs
acting between said controlling means and the frame,
40 said rubber springs being spaced transversely of the ve
said pivot joint comprises a heini-spherical rubber layer
hicle, arranged in V-formation as viewed in plan, and
greater than the ilexible joint.
7. A wheel suspension as claimed in claim 4, wherein
interposed between corresponding part-spherical surfaces
each similarly inclined with respect to the vertical as
of parts on the radius arm and the frame respectively,
viewed in side elevation, whereby said springs resist, in
the rubber layer being =held compressed between said sur
combined shear and compression in the rubber, both
faces by the tension in the radius arm.
rising movement of the wheel with respect to the frame
8. lIn a railway vehicle having non-self aligning axle 45 and transverse movements of the controlling means with
boxes, a wheel suspension comprising a radius arm rigid
respect to the `frame.
with the axle box housing of a wheel and pivoted to a
‘16. A vehicle wheel suspension comprising a radius
frame of the vehicle so as to permit rising and falling
arm carrying the wheel and extending on one side of the
movements of the wheel and transverse bodily move
wheel axle, the radius arm being pivoted -to a frame of
ments of the radius arm with respect to the frame, and 50 the vehicle so as to permit rising and falling movement
a pair of rubber springs acting between the axle box
of the wheel with respect to the ‘frame and transverse
housing and the frame, the rubber springs being spaced
movement of the radius arm, the radius arm controlling
transversely of the vehicle, arranged in V-formation as
viewed in plan, and each being similarly inclined with
respect to the vertical as viewed in side elevation,
the position of the wheel longitudinally of the vehicle,
55 and a pair of rubber springs acting between parts on
the radius arm and parts on the frame, said rubber
whereby the springs resist, in combined shear and corn
pression in the rubber, both rising movement of the
springs being spaced transversely of the vehicle, arranged
in V-formation as viewed in plan and similarly inclined
wheel and transverse bodily movement of the radius arm,
to the vertical as viewed in side elevation, whereby the
the springs being set at a suñicient inclination to pro
60 springs resist, in combined shear and compression in the
vide a component of thrust in the direction of the radius
rubber, both rising movement of the wheel and transverse
arm which maintains the radius arm in tension under
movement of the radius arm with respect to the frame,
all operating conditions, the radius arm passing between
the radius arm passing between the springs with its long
the springs with *its long axis intersecting the wheel axis.
9. A railway vehicle as claimed in claim 8, wherein
the radius arm is pivoted to the frame by a rubber bush
pivot having its axis set transversely of the vehicle
whereby the pivot permits nising and falling movement
65
axis intersecting the wheel axis.
17. yIn a railway vehicle having self aligning axle
boxes, a wheel suspension comprising a radius arm rigid
with the axle box housing of a wheel and pivoted to
a frame of the vehicle so as to permit rising and falling
of the radius arm by distortion of the rubber in torsion
movements of the wheel and transverse movements of
and transverse bodily movement of the radius arm by 70 the radius arm with respect to the frame, and rubber
distortion of the rubber in axial shear.
spring means acting between the axle box housing and
10. A railway vehicle as claimed in claim 9, wherein
the frame, said rubber spring means being inclined with
the rubber bush pivot is in the ¿form of a double con
respect to the vertical and transverse directions, to resist
centric rubber bush comprising inner and outer sleeves
in
combined shear and compression in the rubber, both
75
of rubber.
3,099,967
nising movement of the wheel and transverse movements
of the radius arm with respect to the frame.
18. In a railway vehicle |having non-self aligning axle
boxes, a wheel suspension comprising a radius arm, a
ñexible joint connecting the radius arm with an axle
box housing of a wheel, to permit alignment of the axle
box of the Wheel, a pivot joint connecting the radius
arm with a frame of the vehicle to permit rising and
falling movements of the wheel and transverse swing
8
boxes, a wheel suspension comprising a radius arm rigid
with the axle box housing of a wheel and pivoted to a
frame of the vehicle so as to permit rising and falling
movements of the wheel `and transverse bodily move
ments of the radius larm With respect to the lframe, and
rubber spring means acting between the axle box housing
and the frame, said rubber spring means being inclined
with respect to the vertical and transverse directions to
resist -in combined shear and compression in the rubber,
movements of the radius arm, and rubber spring means 10 both rising movement of the Wheel and transverse move
acting between the axle box housing and the frame, said
ment of the radius arm with respect to the frame.
rubber spring'means being inclined to the vertical and
transverse directions, to resist in combined shear and
compression in the rubber, both rising movements of -the
wheel >and transverse movements of the radius arm with 15
respect to the frame.
19. In a railway vehicle having non-self aligning axle
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
.1,331,039
2,197,727
Zoelly _______________ .__ Feb. 17, 1920
Ledwinka _____________ __ Apr. 6, i1940
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