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Патент USA US3100032

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Aug. 6, 14963
Filed Oct. 12, 1960
United States Patent 0 "Ice
Patented Aug. 6, 1963
structure which encompasses the principles of the pres
ent invention;
FIG. 2 is a bottom view of FIG. 1 showing a one piece
oil pump and ‘gear meshing with a second gear which is to
Richard A. Harris, High Point, and Carroll D. Spain
hour, Greensboro, N.C., assignors to Western Electric
Company, Incorporated, a corporation of New York
Fiied Oct. 12, 1960, Ser. No. 62,294
2 Claims. ((31. 184--6)
be lubricated;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary section of a portion of a one
piece oil pump as illustrated in FIG. 1 and shows the
force components which are acting on lubricant or other
This invention relates to an apparatus for pumping
?uid and more particularly to a one piece centrifugal oil
pump for pumping a lubricant from a reservoir ‘and for
distributing the lubricant over the working surface of a
In the past, oil pumps used in high speed gear trains
have used systems such as impellers, vanes, and the like 15
in order to lift a lubricant from a reservoir and distribute
the lubricant upon the gear train. The vanes or impellers
utilized in these old systems have a tendency to agitate the
lubricating oil and create foam in the reservoir. This foam
is often drawn into the pump ‘and interferes with suitable
distribution of the lubricating oil and can result in damage
?uid which is being pumped into a reservoir cavity; and
FIG. 4 is a section view of a modi?cation of the one
piece oil pump illustrated in FIG. 1 showing oil passage
ways which are not parallel to the axis of the pump and
showing a pump having a reservoir cavity of a modi?ed
Referring to FIG. 1 there is shown a gear train utilizing
a one piece oil pump, generally designated by reference
numeral 11 which is utilized to lubricate \a spur gear 12‘.
A drive motor 14 drives a gear train 13 consisting of a
gear 15 and a gear 16 to rotate pump 11 ‘at relatively high
the ?uid, but simply utilizes centrifugal forces acting on
‘speeds. An intake opening 17 which lies in a minor sur
face of pump 11 is submerged in a lubricating fluid reser—
voir 18 ‘and ?uid is forced into cavity 19‘ to a portion of
the cavity to form a pressure reservoir 21. A pressure
head is developed in pressure reservoir 21 due to the ?uid
a rotating body of ?uid little or no foam is produced in
22 being forced along the smooth, conical Walls 23 of the
to the working parts being lubricated. Since the instant
apparatus uses no vanes, impellers, or the like for lifting
the oil reservoir by the rotating pump and, consequently,
the problem of foam is overcome. Additionally, the prior
art utilizes pumps which are composed of several moving
or connected parts. Since many of these pumps are used
pump 11.
Since there is a pressure head existing within
cavity 19, lubricating ?uid is forced through passageways
24 to discharge openings 25. The high speed rotation of
pump 11 dispenses ?uid ?owing from discharge opening
25 in a radial direction and dispensed liquid 26 is de
at high speeds, the interconnected or moving par-ts have
posited on spur gear 12, thus lubricating the surface where
a tendency to wear, thus reducing the mechanical relia
gears 12 and 27 mesh. The ?uid actually sprays from
ability of the pump. The instant invention overcomes
the openings 25 in the form of a mist.
this problem because it is a one piece unit having no in
Motor 14 rotates a gear 27 and pump 11 mounted on
terconnected parts. The fact that it is a one piece unit
hearing 46, at relatively high speeds in contact with ?uid
adds to its durabilty and reliability of use.
in reservoir 18. The ?uid immediately adjacent the in
It is an object of the present invention to provide a new
take opening 17 and ?uid which is Within the intake open
and improved oil pump.
ing 17 is set in motion by the rotation of pump 11. This
It is another object of the invention to provide a one
?uid is set in motion by the friction which exists between
piece oil pump for lubricating a gear train.
It is still a further object of this invention to provide ‘a 40 the conical wall 23 and the body of ?uid 18. Since the
pump '11 is rotating, the ?uid immediately adjacent the
one piece oil pump forming an integral part of a gear in
intake is rotated in a circular path. This circular rota
a gear train for lubricating the gears of the gear train.
tion creates centrifugal forces which act upon the ?uid
It is still a further object of this invention to provide a
and tends to force the ?uid in a radial outward direction
one piece oil pump utilizing a centrifugal force acting on
the lubricant for lifting the lubricant from a reservoir and 45 from pump axis 28 in FIG. 1. These radial forces which
act on the rotating ?uid are illustrated by force vector
distributing it over a surface to be lubricated.
29 of FIG. 3. Force vector 29 can be resolved into two
It is still a further object of the present invention
vector components 31 and 32. Vector component 31 is
to provide a new and improved oil pump utilizing cen
normal to wall 23 and tends to hold liquid 22 against
trifugal forces acting on a moving body of liquid to
wall 23 while pump 11 is rotating. The second and
create a pressurized reservoir of liquid in a cavity within
most important vector component 32 :of vector 29' is ‘a
the pump. The pressure head developed forces the liquid
force which is parallel to wall 23 and which is directed
over a surface of working parts to be lubricated.
With these and other objects in view, the present in
upwardly along wall 23. Vector component 32 represents
the force which lifts the rotating ?uid into cavity 19 and
vention contemplates the use of a gear having a pump‘ as
55 forces the ?uid into pressure reservoir 21 where conical
an integral part thereof. The pump has a main body with ,
wall 23 intersects wall 33 which forms a major enclosing
an extension enclosing a frustu-m-like cavity with an intake
surface on the cavity '19‘ of body 34.
opening. The intake ‘opening is submerged in a reservoir
It should be particularly noted that conical wall 23
of ?uid and the entire pump assembly, including the pump
contains no vanes or irregularities for conveying ?uid 22
and gear are rotated at relatively high speeds. Fluid is
drawn into the cavity of the pump Where the ?uid is en— 60 upwardly to reservoir 21. The ?uid is lifted entirely as
a result of the afore-described centrifugal forces acting on
trapped to create a pressure head. The developed pres
the ?uid. The ‘absence of vanes reduces agitation of
sure then forces the ?uid upwardly through passageways
the ?uid in reservoir 18 and effectively prevents the for
in the body of the pump to a discharge opening. Since
mation of foam. Force vector component 32 is of con
the gear and discharge openings are rotating at relatively
high speeds, the discharged ?uid is dispensed radially and 65 siderable magnitude and forces ?uid 22 upwardly along
lubricates a gear which is meshing with the pump gear.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be
come apparent by reference to the following detailed de
scription when considered in conjunction with the laccom
panying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a view of a gear train utilizing a one piece oil
pump, which pump is ‘shown in section and illustrates the
wall 23 with enough force that a pressure head is created
in reservoir 21 within the cavity 19. Passageways 24 in
body 34 connect pressure reservoir 21 with discharge
openings 25. The pressure head created within pressure
70 reservoir 21 forces the ?uid in pressure reservoir 21 up
wardly through passageways 24 to discharge opening
Since pump 111 and gear 27 are rotating at relatively
high speeds, ?uid 26 dispensed from discharge openings
25 is dispensed radially due to the action of centrifugal
forces. The ?uid 26 is actually sprayed from discharge
opening 25 over the surface 35 of spur gear 12. The
sprayed ?uid- or lubricant is of adequate quantity to
properly lubricate the meshed working surfaces of gears
12 and 27 as determined by the speed of rotation of the
pump and ‘by the size of the passageways 24. Excess
lubricant drains vfrom the lubricated surfaces of gears 12
ing a means for altering the ?uid ?ow from passageways
37. The ?uid discharged from passageways 43‘ strikes
lip 47 and forms a thin ?lm of lubricant which ?ows
from lip 47 onto surface 48 and lubricates the meshing
gear as illustrated in FIG. 1.
‘It is to be understood that the above-described arrange
ment of apparatus and components and construction of
elemental parts are simply illustrative of the applica
tion of the principles of the invention, and many other
and 27 and returns to the ?uid reservoir 18 to be recir 10 modi?cations may be made without departing from the
culated through the system.
Due to the rotation of pump 11 a small amount of ?uid
What is claimed is:
tends to cling to an outer surface 44 of pump 11. A
1. In a gear train a ?rst gear, ‘a second gear for driv
de?ector 45 is provided on pump 11 to return this ex
ing said ?rst gear, said second gear having a ?uid pump
traneous ?uid to reservoir 18. De?ector 45 also will 15 formed on and depending from» said second gear for
prevent splash ?uid from being deposited about pump 11.
lubricating said ?rst and second gears, and means for
Satisfactory operation of oil pump 11 will continue
rotatively driving said second gear and pump, said pump
having a body with a cavity with inclined smooth un
merged within ?uid reservoir 18. Experience with pump
obstructed walls terminating in an opening in a ?uid
11 has proven that the surface 36 of reservoir 18 can be 20 reservoir ‘at one end, said body forming a vwall ‘at the
varied from intake opening '17 to a point on outer surface
other end of said cavity for entrapping lubricating ?uid
44 which very nearly coincides with de?ector 45 and the
forced into said cavity through said opening by centrif
pump Will sustain satisfactory lubricant ?ow. However,
ugal forces imparted to the ?uid by rotation of said
deep submersion of intake opening 17 is not necessary
pump in said reservoir of lubricating ?uid, said body
for satisfactory operation of pump 11 and consequently 25 having ‘a passageway of su?iciently small diameter for
pump 11 is very versatile under actual operating condi
precluding the ?uid entrapped in said cavity from freely
tions. Experiments have shown once satisfactory oil ?ow
?owing ‘out the passageway to cent-rifugally pressurize
has commenced in pump :11, the intake opening 17 of
the entrapped ?uid, said passageway interconnecting a
as long as intake opening 17 is in contact with or sub
the oil pump can actually be lifted as much as 1A of an
discharge opening and said cavity for conducting said
inch above surface 36 of ?uid reservoir 18 and the oil 30 pressurized entrapped ?uid from said cavity to said dis
pump will continue to draw lubricant from reservoir 18
charge opening Where rotation of the gear imparts cen
into cavity 19 for continued lubrication. .An explanation
trifugal forces to the ?uid to radially dispense the ?uid
for this phenomenon is that a partial vacuum is probably
to lubricate said ?rst and second gears.
created within cavity 19, this vacuum being of sufficient
2. In a ‘gear train a ?rst gear, a second gear for driv
magnitude to maintain a column of ?uid between surface 35 ing said ?rst gear, said second gear having a ?uid pump
36 and intake opening 17, thus maintaining ?uid ?ow.
formed on and depending from said second gear for
Even though surface agitation on reservoir 18 may
pumping lubricating ?uid to said ?rst gear, ‘a body por
occasionally break the physical contact between ?uid
tion of said pump extending from a side of said second
surface 36 and the intake opening 17,‘the one piece pump
gear and having a frusto-conical cavity terminating in
11 will continue to discharge adequate quantities of ?uid 40 an intake opening at one end, said body forming an en
for lubrication purposes since ?uid 22 which exists on
closing surface at the other end of said cavity, means
walls 23 of the cavity is of adequate quantity to replace
for rotatively driving said second gear and pump to ti1n—
the ?uid discharged from pressure reservoir 21. Fluid
part circular motion to ?uid in contact with said intake
22 also maintains the pressure head of pressure reservoir
opening to force ?uid by centrifugal force upwardly along
21 during the intervals when agitation of the surface of 45 smooth unobstructed conical walls of the cavity to en
reservoir interrupts the ?uid ?ow along the walls 23.
trap the ?uid between said walls and said enclosing sur
Referring now to FlG. 4 there is illustrated an alter—
face of said body, said body having passageways of
nate embodiment of the preferred embodiment shown in
sufficiently small diameter for precluding the entrapped
FIG. 1. Passageways 37 of FIG. 4 are drilled through
?uid from freely ?owing out the passageways to cen
the body 34 of pump 38 and at an angle with respect to 50 trifugally pressurize the entrapped ?uid, said passage
central axis 28. A pressure reservoir is formed at the
Ways interconnecting discharge openings and said cavity
juncture between walls 23 and 39 as was created in the
for conducting said pressurized ?uid from said cavity to
embodiment shown in FIG. 1. The pressure head de
said discharge openings where the ?uid is radially dis
veloped in cavity 41 forces ?uid through passageways 37.
pensed‘ to lubricate said ?rst gear, ‘and means extending
An additional force, however, exists to aid the transfer
from an outer surface of said body for directing extra
of ?uid from pressure reservoir 42 to discharge opening
neous ?uid back into the ?uid reservoir.
43 through passageways 37. This added force is centrif~
ugal force acting on the ?uid within passageways 37.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Since passageways 37 present a physical surface similar
to wall 23 as illustrated in FIG. 3, the centrifugal forces 60
Hait _________________ .._ Jan. 5, 1937
acting upon that ?uid have force vector components
Lea _________________ __ Mar. 7, 1939
which are similar to the force component vectors 32 and
31. A force vector corresponding to that of vector com
ponent 32 aids in forcing ?uid in passageways 37 in the
upwardly direction, thus, reducing the pressure head re 65
Miess _______________ __ Apr. 29, 1947
Butler _______________ __ Feb. 26, 1957
Norris ______________ __ Mar. 11, 1958
Great Britain ____ ________ Nov. 25, 1926
quired to move ?uid from reservoir 42 to discharge open
ing 43.
Lip 47 is placed on pump 38' in FIG, -4 for illustrat
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