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Патент USA US3100085

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Aug. 6, 1963
R. A, FlEcHTER
3,100,080
RAILWAY RAIL JOINT
Filed May 27, 1957
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Patented Aug'. 6, i063
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state, to assemble, or reassemble, the parts in their desired
reiation including normal pressures, tensions and the like,
and to cure the resin by the application of heat for a sulit
able period of time.
'A ñlm of such a bonding agent is represented in the
3,100,080
RAILWAY RAIL JUNI
Rene A. Fiechter, Douglaston, NX., assigner, by mesne
assignments, to American Railroad Curvelining Corpo
ration, a corporation of New York
drawings (the thickness being exaggerated) at 9" and 10,
between the fish plates 3, ¿i and the contiguous parts of
the rails, at 11 in the clearance between the shank of the
Filed May 27, 1957, Ser. No. 661,921
11 Claims. (Cl. 23S-_El)
This invention relates to a railway rail joint, referring
particularly to such a joint in which the rail ends are inte
grally but non-‘homogeneously connected in such a man
bolt 5 and the 'holes through which it passes, and at 12
between the .abutting ends of »the rails. In actual practice
it is preferred to have the metal parts as close together
ner that the rails are securely held against longitudinal
as possible, i.e., practically “capillary closeness”----about
movement relative to each other.
0.1 mm. lf this result cannot be achieved with respect
to the rail-end bond at 12, the space can be filled with
which cannot accidentally work itself loose or become 15 one or more resin coated shims of appropriate shape and
accidentally loosened under any conditions whatever, apart
thickness, including a wedge-shaped one to ensure tight
from the application of some violent force.
iilling of the gap.
ln a track in which the rails are separably joined to
The bonding material presently preferred is the ethoxy
gether by splice bars in a rigid or “frozen” manner, there
line resin known as “Araldite” Type I (the Ciba brand
is comparatively little pounding and wear on the rail ends, 20 of a reaction product of epiohlorohydrin and p,p’-isoprowhere pounding and maximum wear usually occurs, and
pylidene la‘isphenol). This material is solid at room tem
An object of the invention is to provide a rail joint
this is more especially tme `the closer together the rail
perature, begins to soften at 50°-60° C. (‘l22°~l40° F.)
and flows freely 4at 13O1°-1i40° C. (266°-284° F.). For
convenience in handling and applying this material it is
ends are disposed.
As compared with a track »in which the rails are welded
together at their ends, it is advantageous especially from
the standpoint of permitting quick and easy removal and
replacement of individual rails, to separably connect the
rails by means of splice bars. Accordingly, the present
preferably formulated with a suitable polymer so as to be
semi-liquid at the temperature of application. It contains
terminal epoxy groups and is soluble in the usual ketone
solvents.
invention has more particularly in view to provide, on
When heated for some «time at temperatures above 120°
the one hand, a track wherein the rails are separably con 30 C. (248° F.) curing «begins and the resin adheres ñrmly
nected for individual removal and replacement, and
to the surface with which it is in contact; no volatile sub
wherein the rails are rigidly connected in abutting or
stances lare given off and the volume undergoes practically
relatively closed end to end relationship against the pos
no change. The surface of the work piece must be
sibility of endwise movement relative to each other; and,
thoroughly cleaned and may (Ibut need not) be roughened.
on the other hand, to provide joints embodying novel fea 35 The resin may be applied in rod or powder form to clean
tures of construction for separably connecting the rails
metal surfaces which have been heated to 130°-150° C.
and eifectively holding them rigidly alined and against
(266 °-3 02° R); or preferably in semi-liquid form to un
relative longitudinal movement.
heated surfaces, and when the resin has «stuck to the sur
With the foregoing and other purposes in View, the rail
faces »as a fairly uniform iil‘m «the parts are brought together
joint (or the like) includes the provision of a synthetic 40 and held ñrmly until fthe curing has been completed. The
resin bonding agent interposed between two metallic parts
resin described above can be cured over a wide range
(e.g., the rails and the iish plates, if any) which res‘in
of temperatures in inverse relation to the curing time,
can be, and is, molecularly engaged with the surfaces to
»as shown in the table below. At temperatures of ‘190°
be connected so strongly as to obtain the desired results.
C, (374° F.) and below, it is practically impossible to
A similar bonding agent may also be provided between 45 destroy the bonding agent by exceeding the recommended
a metallic part and a part composed of some other mate
(minimum) time, but «at temperatures of 200° C. (392°
rial (e.g., the tie plates and the ties).
F.) and above, the maximum time limits must be care
A practical embodiment of the invention is represented
fully observed.
in the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 represents a side elevation of a rail joint together 50
with an adjacent tie and tie plate on which the rail is
Curing temp. al: joint
Minimum time
110° C.-230° F _______________ __
48 hrs ___________ _.
Maximum time
secured,
FIG. 2 represents a transverse vertical section on the
line II-II of FIG. l, on an enlarged scale, and
FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 represent, in somewhat diagrammatic 55
cross-section, modiñcations in which no iish plates are
120° C.-248° F...
used, the bonding agent being retained in effective posi
tion by the use of a two piece (FIG. 3), one piece (FIG.
4) or three piece (FIG. 5) metal sleeve.
IReferring to the drawings, a rail joint is shown as com
prising the adjacent ends of two steel rails, 2, a pair of
iish plates 3, 4 (also sometimes known as side plates,
splice plates or joint bars) and bolts 5. The rails are
60
In actual practice the heating of the joint can be
intended to he supported in the customary manner upon
eifeoted in various ways, as by means of a portable gas
wooden ties 6 to which they are secured by means of 65 or electric heater designed to apply heat locally to the
spikes 7, with or without the interposition of tie plates 8.
area in which the joint is Ebeing formed, whether it be a
In order to eifect the bonding of rail ends according
to the present invention, it is desirable to clean and
roughen the metal surfaces to be bonded (as by sand
rail-end joint or a tie plate anchoring connection. rI‘he
heat and time selected will 'depend on various factors,
but a relatively quick cure is obviously desirable in loca
blasting), to apply to one or both of said surfaces a coat- 70 tions where the track being worked on cannot be kept
ing of an epoxy resin (ethoxyline class) in a semi-liquid
out of service for a long period of time, while a slower
3,100,080
__
3
4
cure (for, a Ifew hours) at lower temperatures may be
one shim interposed between the butt end surfaces and
used Whenever possible.
bonded thereto.
As :an example of the holding power of a bonding agent
such las that described above, it has lbeen found that the
bonding of «the ends of 132 lb. rails, using 6-h0le 4ñsh plates, «
exhibits Ia shear strength of over 400,000 lbs.
In addition to the rigid attachment of 'adjacent rail ends
5. A railroad nai-1 joint comprising rail end portions
and lish plates substantially rigidly bonded together by
to the fish plates and «to each other, it is frequently `very .
important to fix fthe tie plates 8 immovably on their re
spective ties 6. For this pur-pose »a bonding agent of the
same-type can be used, Ias shown at 13, With the proviso
thatnhe body of resin here may be substantially thicker
and may even constitute a sort of pad uniting the tie
plate tothe tie very iirmly but with a measurable ‘amount
of resiliency. Such <a resin pad may, for the sake of 15
economy and/or resiliency contain a suitable organic or
the interposition throughout at least a major proportion
of the ñshing surfaces between said end poutions and
plates of a thermo-setting synthetic resin bonding agent.
16i. A joint according to claim 5 which includes bolts so
disposed as to hold 4the fish plates in close proximity to
the rail end portions, pants of the sunfaces of `the bolts
»being bonded to the rail end portions and to the ñsh
plates.
7. A railroad' rail joint comprising rail end portions
yand a metallic sleeve element having an inner surface of .
extended larea complementary to at least a substantial
proportion of the lateral surfaces of said rail end portions,
inorganic tìller (such las `ground cork).
said complementary surfaces of the sleeve element and I
of the'rai-l end portions being substantially rigidly bonded
While epoxyy type resins «have recently been used for
metal bonding in certain other industries, the possibility
together by the interpositionthroughout at lleast a major
ofV using such 'bonding agents under the extremely heavy 20 proportion of said complementary surfaces of a thermo
duty requirements of railroad track joints has not pre
setting synthetic resin bonding agent.
viously been suggested and the success of this develop
8. A joint according to claim 7 in which the rail end
portions have butt end 'surfaces bonded together by the
ment vis of very great importance.
Ibonding agent as well as being «bonded to said metallic
The strength of the adhesive bond is such that, in
some instances, the ñsh plates can be entirely dispensed
With and replaced by relatively thin metal sleeves encas
ing the rail ends (except for the head) and bonded there
sleeve element.
9. A joint :according to claim 8 in which the connec
«tion between the butt ends of the rails includes at least
one shim interposed between the ‘butt end surfaces and
-to .as described above. In FIG. 3 the sleeve is shown as
comprising-two unequal parts 114 and 15, the part 14
bonded thereto.
10.- A joint according «to claim 1 in which the bonding
íitting closely against one side of the rail and the part 30
Iagent consists predominantly of a reaction product of l
15 iittingand covering the other side and the bottom,
the parts having matching ñanges 14' and "15’ where they , cpiohlorohydrin and p,p’-isopropylidene bisphenol.
ll. A bolted frozen insulated rail joint comprising, in
are preferably bond-ed to each other.
The one piece sleeve 16- of FIG. 4 can most conveniently
combination, a pair of rail ends, having bolt holes, a pair
be applied Wherethe adjacent mail ends are so located 35 of joint bars ‘having bolt holes, a settable bonding com~ ,
pound iilling the space between the rail ends to form an
«that the sleeve can be slid «all the way onto one end
end post, land a setta‘ble bonding compound i-n the spiace
while the otherend is brought into position, the sleeve
between the related load bearing faces iof the rails and
then being moved out to enclose said latter end.
joint bars, 4bio'lts connecting the bars to the rails, said
The «threepiece sleeve of FIG. 5 includes side parts
17, 18 having flanges 17', 18' ‘and Ia bottom part 19 which 40 bonding compound joining the rail ends and bars and
bypassing the strain Ion the bolts and end post directly
is Wide enough to have its vedges match the ilanges, to
from one rail to the other. ,
which it may be bonded.
In each instance the Ábonding material is applied to the
cleanedrail surfaces, the sleeve part or parts are posi
References Cited in the iile of this patent
tioned with clean inner surfaces facing the rail, land the L15
entire' sleeve is tirmly pressed against the rail while #the
UNITED STATES PATENTS
assembly is heated to ensure curing of the .bond-ing mate
78,422
, Buzby ________________ __ June 2, 1868
rial. , It will «beunderstood that the nail end surfaces
are _bonded `as. shown at 12 in FIG. 1, and the íinal result
is a strongly “frozen” joint which cannot be accidentally 50
loosened. Because of the greater surface area involved,
the sleeves need not be »as long -as normal iish plates in
order rto give ian equally strong bond.
It will be `understood that various changes maybe
made in the form, construction, arrangement land materials
of fthe joint structure and in -the steps of thewmethod’
without departing from the spirit and scope of «the in
vention.
What I claim is:
1. A railroad rail joint comprisingrail end portions 60
and at least one `additional metallic element'having a sur
ñace complementary to vatleast a substantial proportion ’
of the lateral surfaces of said rail end portions, said end
portions and said element :being substantially rigidly
bonded «together bythe interposition throughout at least 65
190,863
477,672
lbbotson _____________ _.. May l5, 1877
Moxham ____________ __ lune 28, 1892
' 823,180
Leech _______________ __ June l2, 19016
1,266,597
1,659,976
Jansen et al ___________ __ May 21, 1918
Aroblbs ______________ __ Feb. 21, 19128
1,757,973
Mead _______________ __ Miay 13, 1930
2,104,157
2,130,106 f
Forcella ______________ __ Ian. 4, 1938
Schermerhorn ________ __ Sept. 13, 1938
2,512,996
Bixler _______________ __ lune 27, 1950 ’
2,542,405
2,575,558
Fink ________________ __ Feb. 20, 1951
Newey ______________ __ NOV. 20, 19511
Larson et al ___________ __ Aug. 25, 1953
2,650,185
2,670,136
Moses ______________ __ Feb. 23, 1954
2,679,468
2,682,515
2,690,879
Pitman ______________ __ May 25, 1954
Naps ________________ __ .lune 29, 1954
Snyder ________________ __ Oct. 5, 1954
2,707,694
Standri'n-g _____________ __ May 3, 1955
FOREIGN PATENTS
a major proportion of said complementary surfaces of a
thermo-setting-synthetic resin bonding agent.
’2..A joint according tov claim 1 in which the bonding
agent is of approximately capillary thickness.
3. A joint according to claim 1 in which the rail end 70
portions have butt end surfaces bonded »together by the
bonding’ agent as ‘well as being bonded -to said metallic
element.4. A> joint according to yclaim 3 in Iwhich the connec
tionëbetween the butt ends of the rails includes at least
133,819
630,663
698,665
726,310
Australia ____________ __ Aug. `l0,
Great Britain __________ __ Oct. 18,
Great Britain ______ __»____ Oct. 211,
Great Britain __________ __ Mar. 16,
'
1949
1949
1953
1955
OTHER REFERENCES
“Afraldite” Moss, CJ. British Plastics, pp. 521-527, No
vember 1948. (Copy in US. Dept. of Commerce, Patent
Oiiìce, Scientiñc Library and in Div. 67).
'
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